• Title/Summary/Keyword: Gene Expression

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Role of Ghrelin in the Control of Reproductive Endocrine Function (포유류 생식 내분비 기능 조절에서 Ghrelin의 역할)

  • Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2009
  • Numerous factors can affect the activities of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) hormonal axis, resulting in alteration of reproductive capacity or status such as onset of puberty and menopause. Soon after the finding of leptin, a multifunctional hormone secreted from adipocytes, a close relationship between reproduction and body energy balance have been manifested. Ghrelin, another multifunctional hormone from gastrointestinal tract, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), and is thought to be a counterpart of leptin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. As expected, ghrelin can also modulate the reproductive capacity through the modulation of activities of HPG axis. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the discovery, gene structures, tissue distribution and roles of ghrelin and GHSRs in mammalian reproduction in particular modulation of reproductive hormone secretion in HPG axis. Like POMC gene expression in pituitary gland, preproghrelin gene can generate a complex repertoire of transcripts which further undergo alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications. Concerning the roles of preproghrelin gene products in the control of body physiology except energy homeostasis, limited knowledge is available so far. Several lines of evidence, however, show the interplay of ghrelin between metabolism and reproduction. In rat and human, the distribution of ghrelin receptor GHSRs (GHSR1a and GHSR1b) has been confirmed not only in the hypothalamus and pituitary which were originally postulated as target of ghrelin but also in the testis and ovary. Expression of the preproghrelin gene in the brain and gonads was also verified, suggesting the local role (s) of ghrelin in HPG axis. Ghrelin might play a negative modulator in the secretions of hypothalamic GnRH, pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroids though the action on pituitary is still questionable. Recent studies suggest the involvement of ghrelin in regulation of puberty onset and possibly of menopause entry. It is now evident that ghrelin is a crucial hormomal component in 'brain-gut' axis, and is a strong candidate links between metabolism and reproduction. Opposite to that for leptin, ghrelin signaling is likely representing the 'hunger' state of body energy balance and is necessary to avoid the energy investment into reproduction which has not a top priority in maintaining homeostasis. Further researches are needed to gain a deep insight into the more precise action mechanism and role of ghrelin in reproduction, and to guarantee the successful biomedical applications.

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EFFECTS OF $INTERFERON-\gamma$ ON COLLAGEN AND FIBRONECTIN SYNTHESIS IN PRIMARY CULTURED PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT CELLS ($Interferon-\gamma$가 치주인대 세포의 Collagen 및 Fibronectin의 합성과 Alkaline Phosphatase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Gwang-Seok;Sung, Jae-Hyun;Choi, Je-Yong;Ryou, Hyun-Mo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.229-248
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    • 1993
  • [ $Interferon-\gamma$ ] has been suggested as a cytokine of connective tissue stabilizer. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that this cytokine inhibited bone remodeling activities of the bone derived cells. In order to illuminate the effects of this cytokine in orthodontic force induced bone remodeling, it was administered to primary cultured periodontal ligament cells which have been known to have some osteoblast like characteristics. $Interferon-\gamma$ slightly decreased $[^3H]thymidine$ incorporation rate without a significant change in the total cellular DNA content up to 1000 U/ml, which meant these doses were not cytotoxic to the cell. Total protein synthesis was not influenced by various concentration of interferon-y whether it was determined by the $[^3H]proline$ incorporation rate or by the Lowry smethod. The effect of $interferon-\gamma$ on the individual protein was, however, differential, ie, it increased $[^3H]proline$ incorporation into the noncollagenous protein marginally, while it decreased $[^3H]proline$ incorporation into the collagen, so that it caused dose-dependent suppression of the relative collagen synthesis. On the contrary, the fibronectin synthesis determined by the ELISA was increased by 1000 U/ml of $interferon-\gamma$. The differential effects of the interferon-y on the collagen and fibronectin synthesis exhibited not only their protein level but also the steady state mRNA level. $Interferon-\gamma$ decreased steady state level of ${\alpha}1(I)$ procollagen mRNA significantly, while showing no significant changes in the fibronectin mRNA level. In addition to this, it was also found that indomethacin did not affect on the $interferon-\gamma$ induced collagen decrease in this cell, which meant prostaglandins were not involed in the process of $interferon-\gamma$ induced collagen decrease. So it can be concluded that the incubation of periodontal ligament cells with 1000 U/ml of $interferon-\gamma$ for 24 hr showed differential effects on the type I collagen and fibronectin gene expression. The decrease in relative collagen synthesis in the protein level was related with decrease in the steady state level of mRNA, while the increase in the fibronectin synthesis in the protein level was not correlated with the mRNA level.

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Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Therapy Delivered by Retroviral or Adenoviral Vector in Mouse Model of Lewis Lung Carcinoma (Lewis 폐암 마우스 모델에서 Retroviral Vector나 Adenoviral Vector로 이입된 Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase 유전자치료)

  • Kwon, Hee-Chung;Jeong, Jae-Min;Kim, Jung-Hyeon;Ham, Yong-Ho;Seo, Ji-Sook;Lee, Ki-Ho;Kim, Chang-Min;Lee, Han-Soo;Lee, Choon-Taek
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.298-309
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    • 2000
  • Background : The antitumor effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and ganciclovir (GCV) strategies for cancer gene therapy have a the following advantages : 1) a direct cytotoxicity to HSV-tk modified cancer cells by GCV 2) a cell death by the local transfer of toxic metabolites from the HSV-tk modified cells to nearby unmodified tumor cells (bystander effect), and 3) in vivo bystander effect such as antitumor-immunity. Retroviral and adenoviral sequences can silence transgene expression in cells and mice. In this study, we investigated the above described advantages of HSV-tk/GCV strategy in Lewis lung cell and mouse lung cancer model using retroviral vector and adenoviral vector. Also, we observed whether the expression of a silenced gene can be reactivated by treating cells with butyrate. Methods : Retrovirus-HSV-tk and adenovirus-HSV-tk vectors were used for the transduction of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. The change of HSV-tk expression by butyrate was measured by Western blol The antitumor activities containing bystander effect were observed in vivo (by MTT assay) and in vivo tumor models of various combinations of LLC and LLC-tk. Results : 1. Butyrate induced the enhancement of HSV-tk expression from adenovirally transduced cells but not from retrovirally transduced cells. 2. Both retrovirus-HSV-tk and adenovirus-HSV-tk vectors with GCV treatment were effective for killing of tumor cell in vitro and suppression of LLC tumorigenicity. Bystander effect was responsible for killing of mixture of LLC-tk and LLC in vitro and in vivo-tumorigenicity model. Conclusion : Butyrate could augment adenovirus-mediated HSV -tk gene expression. Cancer gene therapy with HSV-tk suicide gene by retroviral and adenoviral vector seems to be an effective approach for lung cancer therapy.

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Identification of Matrix Mineralization-Related Genes in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Using cDNA Microarray (cDNA microarray에 의한 치주인대세포의 광물화 결절형성에 관여하는 유전자들의 분석)

  • Shin, Jae-Hee;Park, Jin-Woo;Yeo, Shin-Il;Noh, Woo-Chang;Kim, Moon-Kyu;Kim, Jung-Chul;Suh, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.37 no.sup2
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    • pp.447-463
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    • 2007
  • Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells have been known as multipotential cells, and as playing an important rolesin periodontal regeneration. The PDL cells are composed of heterogeneous cell populations which have the capacity to differentiate into either cementoblasts or osteoblasts, depending on needs and conditions. Therefore, PDL cells have the capacity to produce mineralized nodules in vitro in mineralization medium which include ascorbic acid, ${\beta}$-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. In spite of these well-known osteoblast like properties of PDL cells, very little is known about the molecules involved in the formation of the mineralized nodules in the PDL cells. In the present study, we analysed gene-expression profiles during the mineralization process of cultured PDL cells by means of a cDNA microarray consisting of 3063 genes. Nodules of mineralized matrix were strongly stained with alizarin red S on the PDL cells cultured in the media with mineralization supplements. Among 3,063 genes analyzed, 35 were up-regulated more than two-fold at one or more time points in cells that developed matrix mineralization nodules, and 38 were down-regulated to less than half their normal level of expression. In accord with the morphological change we observed, several genes related to calcium-related or mineral metabolism were induced in PDL cells during osteogenesis, such as IGF-II and IGFBP-2. Proteogycan 1, fibulin-5, keratin 5, ,${\beta}$-actin, ${\alpha}$-smooth muscle actin and capping protein, and cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins were up-regulated during mineralization. Several genes encoding proteins related to apoptosis weredifferentially expressed in PDL cells cultured in the medium containing mineralization supplements. Dkk-I and Nip3, which are apoptosis-inducing agents, were up-regulated, and Btf and TAXlBP1, which have an anti-apoptosis activity, were down-regulated during mineralization. Also periostin and S100 calciumbinding protein A4 were down-regulated during mineralization.

Antioxidative Activities of the Codonopsis lanceolata Extract in vitro and in vivo (더덕(Codonopsis lanceolata) 추출물의 in vitro 및 in vivo 항산화 효과)

  • Kim, Soo-Hyun;Chung, Mi-Ja;Jang, Hae-Dong;Ham, Seung-Shi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 2010
  • In vitro activities of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL) 70% ethanol extract and its fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water) were examined by total polyphenol content, reducing power, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-$\beta$-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The ethyl acetate fraction from CL ethanol extract (CLEA) showed the highest total polyphenol content (22.7 mg/g) among five fractions, and also exhibited an excellent reducing power (0.42~1.27 at $250\sim1,000\;{\mu}g/mL$). CLEA at $100\sim400\;{\mu}g/mL$ concentrations had 27.7~70.3% of ABTS radical scavenging activity and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (81.6% at $400\;{\mu}g/mL$). CLEA had dominantly higher $ORAC_{{ROO}{\cdot}}$activity compared to other fractions. CLEA and butanol fraction had significantly higher $ORAC_{{OH}{\cdot}}$ activities than 70% ethanol extract, hexane, chloroform and water fractions. The CLEA exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in CL 70% ethanol extract and its fractions. Thus, effect of CLEA treatment on antioxidant gene expression under the oxidative stress conditions by a high fat diet in animal model was studied by microarray and RT-PCR methods. The 31 antioxidant genes were expressed but the genes were not up-regulated at least a two-fold by CLEA treatment. We concluded that CLEA does not have an indirect antioxidant effect but a direct antioxidant effect by up-regulation of antioxidant genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

Development of Lotus Root Bugak with Plasma Lipid Reduction Capacity by Addition of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or Green Tea as a Coloring Agent (백년초 및 녹차 가루 첨가 연근 부각의 지질저하 기능성)

  • Kim, Mijeong;Hong, Sun Hee;Chung, Lana;Choe, Eunok;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to develop functional lotus root bugak with plasma lipid reduction capacity by controlling the color of batter used for bugak preparation. Lotus root, nearly colorless, was selected to observe color effects. Gardeniae fructus (GF), Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OF), and green tea (GT), which are colored yellow, red, and green, respectively, were used as coloring agents. Fermented glutinous rice was prepared naturally during winter season by placing glutinous rice and water (1:2, w/w) together in a crock pot for 7 days. Coloring materials (10%, w/w) were blended with glue made from fermented glutinous rice flour to prepare the batter. Cooked lotus root was then mixed with a 1.1-fold amount of batter (w/w) and dried at room temperature. Lotus root bugak (LRB) is pan-fried with un-roasted sesame oil, which is traditionally used as frying oil in Korea. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout ($LDLr^{-/-}$) mice (n=36) were fed an atherogenic diet (AD) containing various types of LRB (10 g%) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-C concentrations decreased significantly in mice fed LRB prepared with OF batter (OFB) and GT batter (GTB) (P<0.05). Protein expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in the OFB and GTB groups were suppressed compared with the LRB group (P<0.05). In accordance with the results on FAS and HMGCR expression, sterol regulatory element binding protein-I and II (SREBP-I and II), which are responsible for the regulation of FAS and HMGCR gene expression, respectively, were down-regulated compared to the LRB group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the plasma lipid reduction activities of OFB and GTB could be mediated through down-regulation of FAS and HMGCR mRNA expression via suppression of regulatory molecules, SREBP-I and II, in $LDLr^{-/-}$ mice.

Expression of Jun and p53 Genes from the Brain of Rats Irradiated with $^{60}Co{\gamma}$-ray (감마선 조사에 의한 뇌조직의 Jun 및 p53유전자 발현)

  • Kim Yong Seok;Woo Chong Kyu;Lee Yong Sung;Koh Jai Kyung;Chun Ha Chung;Lee Myung Za
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.265-279
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    • 1996
  • Damage produced by radiation elicits a complex response in mammalian cells, including growth rate changes and the induction of a variety of genes associated with growth control and apoptosis. At doses of 10,000 cGy or greater, the exposed individual was killed in a matter of minutes to a couple of days, with symptoms consistent with pathology of the central nervous system(CNS) including degenerative changes. The nature of the damage in irradiated cells underlies the unique hazards of ionizing radiation. Radiation injury to CNS is a rare event in clinical medicine, but it is catastrophic for the patient in whom it occurs. The incidence of cerebral necrosis has been reported as high as 16% for doses greater than 6,000 cGy. In this study, the effect of radiation on brain tissue was studied in vivo. Jun and p53 genes in the rat brain were induced by whole body irradiation of rat with 600Co in doses between 1 Gy and 100 Gy and analyzed for expression of jun and p53 genes at the postirradiation time up to 6 hours. Northern analyses were done using 1.8 Kb & 0.8 Kb-pGEM-2-JUN/Eco RI/Pst I fragments, 2.0 Kb-php53B/Bam HI fragment and ,1.1 Kb-pBluescript SK--ACTIN/Eco RI fragment as the digoxigenin or [${\alpha}^{32}P$] dCTPlabeled probes for Jun, p53 and ${\beta}$-actin genes, respectively. Jun gene seemed to be expressed near the threshold levels in 1 hour after irradiation of $^{60}$Co in dose less than 1 Gy and was expressed in maximum at 1 hour after irradiation of $^{60}$Co in dose of 30 Gy. Jun was expressed increasingly with time until 5 or 6 hours after irradiation of $^{60}$Co in doses of 1 Gy and 10 Gy. After irradiation of $^{60}$Co in dose between 20 Gr and 100 Gy, the expression of Jun was however increased to peak in 2 hours and decreased thereafter. p53 gene in this study also seemed to be expressed near the threshold levels in 1 hour after irradiation of $^{60}$Co in dose less than 1 Gy and was expressed in maximum at 6 hours after irradiation of $^{60}$Co in dose of 1 Gy, p53 was expressed increasingly with time until 5 or 6 hours after irradiation of $^{60}$Co in dose between 1 Gy and 40 Gy. After irradiation of $^{60}$Co in doses of 50 Gy and 100 Gy, the expression of p53 was however increased to peak in 2 hours and decreased thereafter. The expression of Jun and p53 genes was not correlative in the brain tissue from rats. It seemed to be very important for the establishment of the optimum conditions for the animal studies relevant to the responses of genes inducible on DNA damage to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. But there are many limitations to the animal studies such as the ununiform patterns of gene expression from the tissue because of its complex compositions. It is necessary to overcome the limitations for development of in situ Northern analysis.

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Cloning of a Glutathione S-Transferase Decreasing During Differentiation of HL60 Cell Line (HL6O 세포주의 분화 시 감소 특성을 보이는 Glutathione S-Transferase의 클로닝)

  • Kim Jae Chul;Park In Kyu;Lee Kyu Bo;Sohn Sang Kyun;Kim Moo Kyu;Kim Jung Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : By sequencing the Erpressed Sequence Tags of human 걸ermal papilla CDNA library, we identified a clone named K872 of which the expression decreased during differentiation of HL6O cell line. Materials and Methods : K872 plasmid DNA was isolated according to QIA plasmid extraction kit (Qiagen GmbH, Germany). The nucleotide sequencing was performed by Sanger's method with K872 plasmid DNA. The most updated GenBank EMBL necleic acid banks were searched through the internet by using BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tools) program. Nothern bots were performed using RNA isolated from various human tissues and cancer cell lines. The gene expression of the fusion protein was achieved by His-Patch Thiofusicn expression system and the protein product was identified on SDS-PAGE. Results : K872 clone is 1006 nucleotides long, and has a coding region of 675 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding region of 280 nucleotides. The presumed open reading frame starting at the 5' terminus of K872 encodes 226 amino acids, including the initiation methionine residue. The amino acid sequence deduced from the open reading frame of K872 shares $70\%$, identity with that of rat glutathione 5-transferase kappa 1 (rGSTKl). The transcripts were expressed in a variety of human tissues and cancer cells. The levels of transcript were relatively high in those tissues such as heart, skeletal muscle, and peripheral blood leukocyte. It is noteworthy that K872 was found to be abundantly expressed in coloreetal cancer and melanoma cell lines. Conclusion : Homology search result suggests that K872 clone is the human homolog of the rGSTK1 which is known to be involved in the resistance of cytotoxic therapy. We propose that meticulous functional analysis should be followed to confirm that.

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Effect of Moutan Cortex Radicis on gene expression profile of differentiated PC12 rat cells oxidative-stressed with hydrogen peroxide (모단피의 PC12 cell 산화억제 효과 및 neuronal 유전자 발현 profile 분석에 대한 연구)

  • Kim Hyun Hee;Rho Sam Woong;Na Youn Gin;Bae Hyun Su;Shin Min Kyu;Kim Chung Suk;Hong Moo Chang
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.529-541
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    • 2003
  • Yukmijihwang-tang has been widely used as an and-aging herbal medicine for hundred years in Asian countries. Numerous studies show that Yukmijihwangtang has anti-oxidative effect both in vivo and in vitro. It has been reported that Moutan Cortex Radicis extract (MCR) was the most effective herb in Yukmijihwang-tang on undifferentiated PC12 cells upon oxidative-stressed with hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this study is to; 1) evaluate the recovery of neuronal damage by assessing the anti-oxidant effect of MCR on PC12 cells differentiated with nerve growth factor (NGF), 2) identify candidate genes responsible for anti-oxidative effect on differentiated PC12 cells by oligonucleotide chip microarray. PC12 cells, which were differentiated by treating with NGF, were treated without or with hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of various concentration of MCR. Cell survival was determined by using MTS assay. Measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using the H2DCFDA assay The viability of cells treated with MCR was significantly recovered from stressed PC12 cell. In addition, wide rage of concentrations of MCR shows dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ROS production in oxidative-stressed cells. Total RNAs of cells without treatment(Control group), only treated with H₂O₂ (stressed group) and treated with both H₂O₂ and of MCR (MCR group) were isolated, and cDNAs was synthesized using oligoT7(dT) primer. The fragmented cRNAs, synthesized from cDNAs, were applied to Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Neurobiology U34 Array. mRNA of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta subunit(CaMKII), neuron glucose transporter (GLUT3) and myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(MOG) were downregulated in Stressed group comparing to Control group. P2X2-5 receptor (P2X2R-5), P2X2-4 receptor (P2X2R-4), c-fos, 25 kDa synaptosomal attachment protein(SNAP-25a) and GLUT3 were downregulated, whereas A2 adenosine receptor (A2AR), cathechol-O-methyltransferase(COMT), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), EST223333, heme oxygenase (HO), VGF, UI-R-CO-ja-a-07-0-Ul.s1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were upregulated in MCA group comparing to Control group. Expression of Putative potassium channel subunit protein (ACK4), P2X2A-5, P2X2A-4, Interferon-gamma inducing factor isoform alpha precursor (IL-18α), EST199031, P2XR, P2X2 purinoceptor isoform e (P2X2R-e), Precursor interleukin 18 (IL-18) were downregulated, whereas MOO, EST223333, GLUT-1, MIF, Neuronatin alpha, UI-R-C0-ja-a-07-0-Ul.s1, A2. adenosine receptor, COMT, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), HO, VGF, A rat novel protein which is expressed with nerve injury (E12625) were upregulated in MCR group comparing to Stressed group. The results suggest that decreased viability and AOS production of PC12 cell by H₂O₂ may be, at lease, mediated by impaired glucose transporter expression. It is implicated that the MCR treatment protect PC12 cell from oxidative stress via following mechanisms; improving glucose transport into the cell, enhancing expression of anti-oxidative genes and protecting from dopamine cytotoxicity by increment of COMT and MIF expression. The list of differentially expressed genes may implicate further insight on the action and mechanism behind the anti-oxidative effects of herbal extract Moutan Cortex Radicis.

Characterization of PR-10 gene derived from highly resistant '93-3-98' pear inoculated with scab (Venturia nashicola) (배 검은별무늬병(Venturia nashicola) 고도 저항성 '93-3-98' 유래 PR-10 유전자의 특성)

  • Chun, Jae An;Kim, Se Hee;Cho, Kang Hee;Kim, Dae Hyun;Choi, In Myong;Shin, Il Sheob
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2015
  • A PyrcpPR-10 gene with differentially expressed was isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization assay between '93-3-98' (highly resistant against scab caused by Venturia nashicola) and 'Sweat Skin'(highly susceptible) and analyzed the expression pattern according to organs and cultivars. The full length of PyrcpPR-10 was cloned as 743bp with 480bp's ORP, and was determined to encode a protein of 159 amino acid residues. On analyzing PyrcpPR-10 gene sequence compared with resistant and susceptible cultivars, 'Hwangsilri' (resistant), 'Gamcheonbae' (moderately resistant), 'Wonhwang' (moderately susceptible), 'Niitaka' (highly susceptible), and 'Sweat Skin' (highly susceptible) had identical gene sequence but 'Bartlett' (highly resistant) showed partly different sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 64 ~ 98% homology and had the GXGGXG motif to known amino acid of other plants PR-10 by the BLAST X analysis. Among several organs or tissues, petal was showed highest expression level of PyrcpPR-10 gene followed by leaf, floral axis, bud, and bark. The expression level of PyrcpPR-10 gene was dramatically increased at 24 hr after inoculation in all cultivars and also up-regulated in accordance with resistant degree of cultivars. While resistant cultivars ('Bartlett', '93-3-98', and 'Hwangsilri') induced relatively high expression level of PyrcpPR-10 gene, susceptible cultivars ('Niitaka', and 'Sweat Skin') showed low expression level. PyrcpPR-10 gene is assumed that it is directly connected with defense mechanisms to pear scab.