• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gaussian mixture model

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Skin Region Detection Using Histogram Approximation Based Mean Shift Algorithm (Mean Shift 알고리즘 기반의 히스토그램 근사화를 이용한 피부 영역 검출)

  • Byun, Ki-Won;Joo, Jae-Heum;Nam, Ki-Gon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2011
  • At existing skin detection methods using skin color information defined based on the prior knowldege, threshold value to be used at the stage of dividing the backround and the skin region was decided on a subjective point of view through experiments. Also, threshold value was selected in a passive manner according to their background and illumination environments in these existing methods. These existing methods displayed a drawback in that their performance was fully influenced by the threshold value estimated through repetitive experiments. To overcome the drawback of existing methods, this paper propose a skin region detection method using a histogram approximation based on the mean shift algorithm. The proposed method is to divide the background region and the skin region by using the mean shift method at the histogram of the skin-map of the input image generated by the comparison of the similarity with the standard skin color at the CbCr color space and actively finding the maximum value converged by brightness level. Since the histogram has a form of discontinuous function accumulated according to the brightness value of the pixel, it gets approximated as a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) using the Bezier Curve method. Thus, the proposed method detects the skin region by using the mean shift method and actively finding the maximum value which eventually becomes the dividing point, not by using the manually selected threshold value unlike other existing methods. This method detects the skin region high performance effectively through experiments.

RPCA-GMM for Speaker Identification (화자식별을 위한 강인한 주성분 분석 가우시안 혼합 모델)

  • 이윤정;서창우;강상기;이기용
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.519-527
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    • 2003
  • Speech is much influenced by the existence of outliers which are introduced by such an unexpected happenings as additive background noise, change of speaker's utterance pattern and voice detection errors. These kinds of outliers may result in severe degradation of speaker recognition performance. In this paper, we proposed the GMM based on robust principal component analysis (RPCA-GMM) using M-estimation to solve the problems of both ouliers and high dimensionality of training feature vectors in speaker identification. Firstly, a new feature vector with reduced dimension is obtained by robust PCA obtained from M-estimation. The robust PCA transforms the original dimensional feature vector onto the reduced dimensional linear subspace that is spanned by the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of feature vector. Secondly, the GMM with diagonal covariance matrix is obtained from these transformed feature vectors. We peformed speaker identification experiments to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. We compared the proposed method (RPCA-GMM) with transformed feature vectors to the PCA and the conventional GMM with diagonal matrix. Whenever the portion of outliers increases by every 2%, the proposed method maintains almost same speaker identification rate with 0.03% of little degradation, while the conventional GMM and the PCA shows much degradation of that by 0.65% and 0.55%, respectively This means that our method is more robust to the existence of outlier.

Algorithms for Indexing and Integrating MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors (MPEG-7 시각 정보 기술자의 인덱싱 및 결합 알고리즘)

  • Song, Chi-Ill;Nang, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2007
  • This paper proposes a new indexing mechanism for MPEG-7 visual descriptors, especially Dominant Color and Contour Shape descriptors, that guarantees an efficient similarity search for the multimedia database whose visual meta-data are represented with MPEG-7. Since the similarity metric used in the Dominant Color descriptor is based on Gaussian mixture model, the descriptor itself could be transform into a color histogram in which the distribution of the color values follows the Gauss distribution. Then, the transformed Dominant Color descriptor (i.e., the color histogram) is indexed in the proposed indexing mechanism. For the indexing of Contour Shape descriptor, we have used a two-pass algorithm. That is, in the first pass, since the similarity of two shapes could be roughly measured with the global parameters such as eccentricity and circularity used in Contour shape descriptor, the dissimilar image objects could be excluded with these global parameters first. Then, the similarities between the query and remaining image objects are measured with the peak parameters of Contour Shape descriptor. This two-pass approach helps to reduce the computational resources to measure the similarity of image objects using Contour Shape descriptor. This paper also proposes two integration schemes of visual descriptors for an efficient retrieval of multimedia database. The one is to use the weight of descriptor as a yardstick to determine the number of selected similar image objects with respect to that descriptor, and the other is to use the weight as the degree of importance of the descriptor in the global similarity measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed indexing and integration schemes produce a remarkable speed-up comparing to the exact similarity search, although there are some losses in the accuracy because of the approximated computation in indexing. The proposed schemes could be used to build a multimedia database represented in MPEG-7 that guarantees an efficient retrieval.

Extensions of X-means with Efficient Learning the Number of Clusters (X-means 확장을 통한 효율적인 집단 개수의 결정)

  • Heo, Gyeong-Yong;Woo, Young-Woon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.772-780
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    • 2008
  • K-means is one of the simplest unsupervised learning algorithms that solve the clustering problem. However K-means suffers the basic shortcoming: the number of clusters k has to be known in advance. In this paper, we propose extensions of X-means, which can estimate the number of clusters using Bayesian information criterion(BIC). We introduce two different versions of algorithm: modified X-means(MX-means) and generalized X-means(GX-means), which employ one full covariance matrix for one cluster and so can estimate the number of clusters efficiently without severe over-fitting which X-means suffers due to its spherical cluster assumption. The algorithms start with one cluster and try to split a cluster iteratively to maximize the BIC score. The former uses K-means algorithm to find a set of optimal clusters with current k, which makes it simple and fast. However it generates wrongly estimated centers when the clusters are overlapped. The latter uses EM algorithm to estimate the parameters and generates more stable clusters even when the clusters are overlapped. Experiments with synthetic data show that the purposed methods can provide a robust estimate of the number of clusters and cluster parameters compared to other existing top-down algorithms.

Segmentation Method of Overlapped nuclei in FISH Image (FISH 세포영상에서의 군집세포 분할 기법)

  • Jeong, Mi-Ra;Ko, Byoung-Chul;Nam, Jae-Yeal
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.16B no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2009
  • This paper presents a new algorithm to the segmentation of the FISH images. First, for segmentation of the cell nuclei from background, a threshold is estimated by using the gaussian mixture model and maximizing the likelihood function of gray value of cell images. After nuclei segmentation, overlapped nuclei and isolated nuclei need to be classified for exact nuclei analysis. For nuclei classification, this paper extracted the morphological features of the nuclei such as compactness, smoothness and moments from training data. Three probability density functions are generated from these features and they are applied to the proposed Bayesian networks as evidences. After nuclei classification, segmenting of overlapped nuclei into isolated nuclei is necessary. This paper first performs intensity gradient transform and watershed algorithm to segment overlapped nuclei. Then proposed stepwise merging strategy is applied to merge several fragments in major nucleus. The experimental results using FISH images show that our system can indeed improve segmentation performance compared to previous researches, since we performed nuclei classification before separating overlapped nuclei.

A Method of Detecting the Aggressive Driving of Elderly Driver (노인 운전자의 공격적인 운전 상태 검출 기법)

  • Koh, Dong-Woo;Kang, Hang-Bong
    • KIPS Transactions on Software and Data Engineering
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    • v.6 no.11
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    • pp.537-542
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    • 2017
  • Aggressive driving is a major cause of car accidents. Previous studies have mainly analyzed young driver's aggressive driving tendency, yet they were only done through pure clustering or classification technique of machine learning. However, since elderly people have different driving habits due to their fragile physical conditions, it is necessary to develop a new method such as enhancing the characteristics of driving data to properly analyze aggressive driving of elderly drivers. In this study, acceleration data collected from a smartphone of a driving vehicle is analyzed by a newly proposed ECA(Enhanced Clustering method for Acceleration data) technique, coupled with a conventional clustering technique (K-means Clustering, Expectation-maximization algorithm). ECA selects high-intensity data among the data of the cluster group detected through K-means and EM in all of the subjects' data and models the characteristic data through the scaled value. Using this method, the aggressive driving data of all youth and elderly experiment participants were collected, unlike the pure clustering method. We further found that the K-means clustering has higher detection efficiency than EM method. Also, the results of K-means clustering demonstrate that a young driver has a driving strength 1.29 times higher than that of an elderly driver. In conclusion, the proposed method of our research is able to detect aggressive driving maneuvers from data of the elderly having low operating intensity. The proposed method is able to construct a customized safe driving system for the elderly driver. In the future, it will be possible to detect abnormal driving conditions and to use the collected data for early warning to drivers.

Analysis of Trading Performance on Intelligent Trading System for Directional Trading (방향성매매를 위한 지능형 매매시스템의 투자성과분석)

  • Choi, Heung-Sik;Kim, Sun-Woong;Park, Sung-Cheol
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.187-201
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    • 2011
  • KOSPI200 index is the Korean stock price index consisting of actively traded 200 stocks in the Korean stock market. Its base value of 100 was set on January 3, 1990. The Korea Exchange (KRX) developed derivatives markets on the KOSPI200 index. KOSPI200 index futures market, introduced in 1996, has become one of the most actively traded indexes markets in the world. Traders can make profit by entering a long position on the KOSPI200 index futures contract if the KOSPI200 index will rise in the future. Likewise, they can make profit by entering a short position if the KOSPI200 index will decline in the future. Basically, KOSPI200 index futures trading is a short-term zero-sum game and therefore most futures traders are using technical indicators. Advanced traders make stable profits by using system trading technique, also known as algorithm trading. Algorithm trading uses computer programs for receiving real-time stock market data, analyzing stock price movements with various technical indicators and automatically entering trading orders such as timing, price or quantity of the order without any human intervention. Recent studies have shown the usefulness of artificial intelligent systems in forecasting stock prices or investment risk. KOSPI200 index data is numerical time-series data which is a sequence of data points measured at successive uniform time intervals such as minute, day, week or month. KOSPI200 index futures traders use technical analysis to find out some patterns on the time-series chart. Although there are many technical indicators, their results indicate the market states among bull, bear and flat. Most strategies based on technical analysis are divided into trend following strategy and non-trend following strategy. Both strategies decide the market states based on the patterns of the KOSPI200 index time-series data. This goes well with Markov model (MM). Everybody knows that the next price is upper or lower than the last price or similar to the last price, and knows that the next price is influenced by the last price. However, nobody knows the exact status of the next price whether it goes up or down or flat. So, hidden Markov model (HMM) is better fitted than MM. HMM is divided into discrete HMM (DHMM) and continuous HMM (CHMM). The only difference between DHMM and CHMM is in their representation of state probabilities. DHMM uses discrete probability density function and CHMM uses continuous probability density function such as Gaussian Mixture Model. KOSPI200 index values are real number and these follow a continuous probability density function, so CHMM is proper than DHMM for the KOSPI200 index. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligent trading system based on CHMM for the KOSPI200 index futures system traders. Traders have experienced on technical trading for the KOSPI200 index futures market ever since the introduction of the KOSPI200 index futures market. They have applied many strategies to make profit in trading the KOSPI200 index futures. Some strategies are based on technical indicators such as moving averages or stochastics, and others are based on candlestick patterns such as three outside up, three outside down, harami or doji star. We show a trading system of moving average cross strategy based on CHMM, and we compare it to a traditional algorithmic trading system. We set the parameter values of moving averages at common values used by market practitioners. Empirical results are presented to compare the simulation performance with the traditional algorithmic trading system using long-term daily KOSPI200 index data of more than 20 years. Our suggested trading system shows higher trading performance than naive system trading.