• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gastrointestinal pH

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Drug Release from the Enzyme-Degradable and pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Composed of Glycidyl Methacrylate Dextran and Poly{acrylic acid)

  • Kim In-Sook;Oh In-Joon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.983-987
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    • 2005
  • Hydrogels composed of glycidyl methacrylate dextran (GMD) and poly(acrylic acid, PM) were prepared by UV irradiation method for colon-specific drug delivery. GMD was synthesized by coupling of glycidyl methacrylate to dextran in the presence of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine. GMD was photo-polymerized by ammonium peroxydisulfate as initiating system in phosphate­buffered solution (0.1 M, pH 7.4). And then, acrylic acid monomer was added and subsequently heat-polymerized by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratio (about 20) at $37^{\circ}C$, and showed a pH-dependent swelling behavior. In addition, the swelling ratio of the hydrogel was remarkably enhanced to about 45 times in the presence of dextranase at pH 7.4. The swelling-deswelling behavior proceeded reversibly for the GMD/PM hydrogels between pH 2 and pH 7.4. Release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from the GMD/PAA hydrogels was evaluated in simulated gastrointestinal pH fluids in the absence or presence of dextranase. We concluded that the hydrogels prepared could be used as a dual-sensitive drug carrier for sequential release in gastrointestinal tract.

Outcome of Intestinal Metaplasia in Gastric Biopsy of Patients with Dyspepsia in Guilan Province, North Iran

  • Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz;Joukar, Farahnaz;Soati, Fatemeh;Mansour-Ghanaei, Alireza;Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3549-3554
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    • 2013
  • Background: It is generally accepted that gastric carcinomas are preceded by a sequential multistage process that includes chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy, usually with intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. This series of changes in gastric carcinogenesis is often initiated by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. The aim of the present study was determination of gastric histopathologic changes in IM patients after at least one year in Guilan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This case-series study was conducted in Guilan Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center (GLDRC) during 2010 to 2011. Gastric biopsy was performed for all 71 known cases of IM and precanceric lesions including gastric atrophy, IM, dysplasia and H pylori infection were determined after at least one year. Results: Of the total of 71 patients with established IM who were enrolled, 50 had complete-type IM and 21 had incomplete-type IM. Fifty two people had H pylori infection. H pylori eradication was achieved in 39 patients (75%). Secondary pathology findings of patients with IM were complete metaplasia (39.4%), incomplete metaplasia (32.4%), dysplasia (23.9%) and other precanceric lesions (4.2%). Dysplasia (20%vs 33%) occurred in patients who had complete and incomplete IM at baseline respectively (p>0.05). Age, gender, family history of gastric cancer(GC); smoking habits and NSAIDs use were not associated with gastric premalignant lesions in initial and secondary pathologies (p>0.05). The difference became statistically significant between H pylori infection in patients with more than 3 years diagnostic intervals (p<0.05). Statistical difference between eradicators and non-eradicators was not significant. Conclusions: We found that incomplete IM increased the risk of subsequent dysplasia in this study.

Effect of Lignin and Hemicellulose on the Mutagenicity of IQ (Lignin과 Hemicellulose의 IQ에 의한 돌연변이 억제에 관한 연구)

  • 성미경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 1997
  • Different concentrations of lignin and hemicellulose were preincubated with 0.01$\mu\textrm{g}$ of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline(IQ) at simulated gastrointestinal pH condition s. The Ames Salmonella assay using Salmonella typhimurim TA98 was performed to detect any changes in the mutagenicity of IQ in the presence of lignin or hemicellulose. IQ revealed very weak or no mutagenicity when it was preincubated at pH 2.1. However, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of IQ mutagenicity in tile presence of lignin or hemicellulose at pH 5.4 and 6.6. The antimutagenic activities of fibers were not different from each other. Also, at lower concentrations of fibers, pH 5.4 was more effective in suppressing IQ mutagenicity, while 300$\mu\textrm{g}$ of lignin or hemicellulose significantly reduced the mutagenicity of IQ regardless of pH conditions. These results suggest that at gastrointestinal pH conditions, both soluble and insoluble fibers inhibit mutagenicity of IQ by adsorption. Therefore, a possible mechanism for Protective effect of fibers against cancer is due to their adsorption to mutagens in the gastrointestinal tract, and pH seems to be an important factor in the regulation of interactions between the fiber and mutagens.

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Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets

  • Kaewtapee, C.;Krutthai, N.;Bunchasak, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1166-1172
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid (DL-MHA) on growth performance and gastrointestinal conditions of piglets. One hundred and eighty crossbred barrow piglets (Large White${\times}$Landrace, body weight: $12.48{\pm}0.33kg$) were divided into three groups with ten replications of six piglets each. Piglets received DL-MHA in diet at a concentration of 0 (control group), 0.15%, or 0.24%. The results indicated that increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) of sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (SID SAA:Lys) ratio by supplementation of DL-MHA tended to increase (quadratic; p<0.10) weight gain and ADG, and showed slightly greater (linear; p<0.10) gain:feed ratio. The pH in the diet and cecum linearly decreased (p<0.01), whereas pH in colon had a quadratic response (p<0.01) with increasing supplementation of DL-MHA. By greater supplementation of DL-MHA, the population of Lactobacillus spp. in rectum was likely to increase (quadratic; p<0.10), but Escherichia coli population in the diet was reduced (quadratic; p<0.05). Acetic acid concentration and total short-chain fatty acids in cecum linearly increased (p<0.05), whereas valeric acid in cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels. Moreover, the villous height of the jejunum quadratically increased (p<0.01) as the supplementation of DL-MHA was increased. It is concluded that the addition of DL-MHA in diet improved the growth performance and the morphology of gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

Link between Serum Pepsinogen Concentrations and Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Findings

  • Lee, Sang Pyo;Lee, Sun-Young;Kim, Jeong Hwan;Sung, In-Kyung;Park, Hyung Seok;Shim, Chan Sup
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.796-802
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    • 2017
  • The serum pepsinogen (PG) assay findings are correlated with the status of Helicobacter pylori infection, but there are controversies on the link with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopic findings. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of a serum PG assay for correlating with endoscopic findings in H. pylori-seroprevalent adult population. Korean adults who visited for a health check-up were included consecutively. Subjects after gastrectomy or H. pylori eradication were excluded. After completing the serum PG assay and anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer on the same day of UGI endoscopy, subjects with equivocal serology test finding or gastric neoplasm were excluded. Of the 4,830 included subjects, 3,116 (64.5%) were seropositive for H. pylori. Seropositive finding was related to high serum PG I (P < 0.001) and PG II (P < 0.001) concentrations, low PG I/II ratio (P < 0.001), old age (P < 0.001), and male gender (P = 0.006). After adjusting age and gender, the serum PG I and II concentrations were positively correlated with the presence of nodular gastritis (NG) (all P = 0.003). The serum PG I was positively correlated with gastric ulcer (P = 0.003), and it was correlated with duodenal ulcer in seropositive subjects (P = 0.008). The PG I/II ratio was positively correlated with erosive esophagitis, while it was inversely related to chronic atrophic gastritis and metaplastic gastritis (all P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the serum PG assay finding correlates well with the UGI endoscopic finding. A higher serum PG concentration in subjects with NG and peptic ulcer disease suggests that endoscopic findings reflect gastric secreting ability.

Characteristics of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Involvement in Korean Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Multicenter Study

  • Park, Ji Hyoung;Nam, Hye Na;Lee, Ji-Hyuk;Hong, Jeana;Yi, Dae Yong;Ryoo, Eell;Jeon, In Sang;Tchah, Hann
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features of the upper GIT were identified according to the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Results: Among the 52 patients, upper GIT involvement was noted in 50.0% (26/52). The mean age at CD diagnosis was $14.1{\pm}2.1$ years. Gastric ulcer was the most common lesion (19.2%) found on upper GIT endoscopy, followed by duodenal ulcers (15.4%). Chronic inflammation was the most common histopathologic feature (75.0%), followed by gastric erosion (17.3%). Granuloma was found in 9.6% of patients. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 5.8% of patients. Endoscopic and histologic findings were not significantly different, but the mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate ($60.7{\pm}27.1$ vs. $43.0{\pm}27.6mm/h$, p=0.037) and C-reactive protein ($16.5{\pm}28.2$ vs. $6.62{\pm}13.4mg/dL$, p=0.014) were significantly different between patients with and without upper gastrointestinal CD symptoms. Conclusion: Upper GIT involvement was relatively common in pediatric patients with CD irrespective of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and H. pylori infection was relatively uncommon. The results of this study should aid the establishment of regional guidelines for upper GIT examination.

The Effects of Fiber Source on Organ Weight, Digesta pH, Specific Activities of Digestive Enzymes and Bacterial Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets

  • Ma, Yongxi;Li, Defa;Qiao, S.Y.;Huang, C.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1482-1488
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    • 2002
  • The aim of this study was to explore the effects of fiber sources on gut development and bacterial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Eighteen crossbred (Duroc${\times}$Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire) barrows were fed a basal diet based on corn plus soybean meal or similar diets in which a portion of the corn and soybean was replaced by 5% wheat bran or 5% sugar beet pulp. The results indicate that pigs fed diets containing 5% wheat bran or 5% sugar beet pulp had lower liver weights than control pigs (p<0.01). The relative weight of the pancreas in pigs fed diets containing 5% sugar beet pulp was greater than that of control pigs or pigs fed diets containing 5% wheat bran (p<0.05). The pH of the ileal digesta of pigs fed the diet containing 5% wheat bran was higher than that of control pigs or pigs fed the diet containing 5% sugar beet pulp (p<0.05). The lipase activity in the distal jejunum, proximal, and distal ileum of pigs fed the control diet was higher than that of pigs fed the diets containing 5% wheat bran or 5% sugar beet pulp (p<0.05). The concentration of volatile fatty acids anterior to the caecum was greater for the pigs fed the diet containing 5% sugar beet pulp, while the concentration of volatile fatty acids posterior to the ileum was greater for the pigs fed the diet containing 5% wheat bran. This means that sugar beet pulp increased the bacterial fermentation precaecum, while wheat bran increased the bacterial fermentation post-ileum. The concentration of bacterial nitrogen and bacterial protein/total protein in ileal digesta of pigs fed the control diet was higher (p<0.05) than that of pigs fed the diets contained either fiber source. Bacterial protein/total protein in the feces of pigs fed the diet containing 5% sugar beet pulp was higher than that of pigs fed the control diet. This means that inclusion of 5% wheat bran or sugar beet pulp in diets influenced the development of the digestive tract of piglet. The mechanism by which dietary fiber reduced specific activity of lipase needs further consideration. Dietary fiber influenced the bacterial activity in the digestive tract of piglets, sugar beet pulp increased the fermentation in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and while wheat bran increased the fermentation in the lower gastrointestinal tract.

Does treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Reduce Gastric Precancerous Lesions?

  • Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz;Joukar, Farahnaz;Mojtahedi, Kourosh;Sokhanvar, Homayoon;Askari, Kourosh;Shafaeizadeh, Ahmad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1571-1574
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    • 2015
  • Background: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) decreases the prevalence of gastric cancer, and may inhibit gastric precancerous lesions progression into gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of treatment on subsequent gastric precancerous lesion development. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 27 patients who had low grade dysplasia at the time of enrollment, in addition to dysplasia atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia observed in all patients. All were prescribed quadruple therapy to treat H. Pylori infection for 10 days. Patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy at enrollment and then at follow up two years later. Biopsy samples included five biopsies from the antrum of lesser curvature, antrum of greater curvature, angularis, body of stomach and fundus. Results of these biopsies were compared before and after treatment. Results: Overall, the successful eradication rate after two years was 15/27 (55.6%). After antibiotic therapy, the number of patients with low grade dysplasia decreased significantly (p=0.03), also with reduction of the atrophic lesions (p=0.01), but not metaplasia. Conclusions: Treatment of H. pylori likely is an effective therapy in preventing the development of subsequent gastric premalignant lesions.

Effects of Feeding Increasing Proportions of Corn Grain on Concentration of Lipopolysaccharide in the Rumen Fluid and the Subsequent Alterations in Immune Responses in Goats

  • Huo, Wenjie;Zhu, Weiyun;Mao, Shengyong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1437-1445
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding increasing proportions of corn grain on concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rumen fluid and the subsequent alterations in immune responses as reflected by plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in goats. Nine goats were assigned to three diets (0%, 25%, and 50% corn grain) in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square experimental design. The results showed that as the proportion of dietary corn increased, the ruminal pH decreased (p<0.001), and the concentrations of propionate (p<0.001), butyrate (p<0.001), lactic acid (p = 0.013) and total volatile fatty acid (p = 0.031) elevated and the ruminal LPS level increased (p<0.001). As the proportion of dietary corn increased, the concentration of SAA increased (p = 0.013). LPS was detectable in the blood of individual goats fed 25% and 50% corn. A real-time PCR analysis showed that the copy number of phylum Bacteroidetes (p<0.001) was reduced ($4.61{\times}10^9$ copies/mL to $1.48{\times}10^9$ copies/mL) by the increasing dietary corn, and a correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between the number of Bacteroidetes and rumen LPS levels. Collectively, these results indicated that feeding goats high proportions (50%) of corn grain decreased the ruminal pH, increased LPS in the rumen fluid and tended to stimulate an inflammatory response.

Formulation of a Novel Polymeric Tablet for the Controlled Release of Tinidazole (티니다졸의 제어방출을 위한 새로운 합성고분자성 정제의 조성)

  • Yoon, Dong-Jin;Shin, Young-Hee;Kim, Dae-Duk;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.349-353
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    • 1999
  • A novel polymeric tablet of tinidazole (TD) was formulated to treat Helicobacter pylori and Giardia lambria more efficiently with reduced hepatotoxicity by controlling the release of TD after oral administration. TD tablets containing various concentrations of either xanthan gum (XG, viscosity enhancer) and/or polycarbophil (PC, mucoadhesive) were prepared by the wet granulation method. In vitro release of TD into pH 2.0 and pH 5.0 buffer solutions was observed at 37°C by using an USP dissolution tester and an UV (313 nm) spectrophotometer. In vivo absorption of TD tablets was investigated in rabbits by measuring the blood concentration of TD after oral administration using a HPLC. Compared to a commercial TD tablet, in vitro release of TD in both pH 2.0 and pH 5.0 buffer solutions significantly decreased as the concentration: of XG or PC in the tablet increased up to 30%. However, when XG and PC was added in combination, TD was completely released in a pH 5.0 buffer solution within 8 hours, whereas the release of TD in pH 2.0 buffer solution significantly decreased. TD in a commercial tablet was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in rabbits. After oral administration of the polymeric tablets that contain both XG and PC, plasma concentration of TD dramatically decreased. Since the oral absorption of TD significantly decreased by the addition of XG and PC in the tablets while TD completely released in a pH 5.0 buffer solution, it was speculated that more TD was retained in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, it was possible to control the release of TD by changing the content of XG and/or PC in the tablet, thereby manipulating the release rate and the gastrointestinal retention of TD after oral administration in rabbits.

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