• Title, Summary, Keyword: Garlic Stalk

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Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed

  • Lee, Y.H.;Kim, Y.I.;Oh, Y.K.;Ahmadi, F.;Kwak, W.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.59 no.10
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    • pp.22.1-22.7
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    • 2017
  • Background: Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. Methods: In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers ($360{\pm}15kg$ body weight) and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass) or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk). Results: The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis) in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%), which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%). Conclusion: These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets

Effect of Garlic Stalk Silage on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (마늘대 사일리지 급여가 한우거세우의 성장 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu, G.M.;Lee, H.J.;Park, J.S.;Cho, H.W.;Ahn, B.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1018
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding of garlic stalk silage on performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Feeding trial was conducted with 27 heads of Hanwoo steers and these animals were divided into two groups of control(rice straw) and garlic stalk silage. Animals consuming rice straw were fed concentrates and rice straw for 22 months from the 5 months of age and animals consuming garlic stalk silage were fed concentrates, rice straw and garlic stalk silage for 22 months from the 5 months of age. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage were fed 1.34 and 1.47, 1.69 and 1.74, 1.65 and 1.66% concentrates to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as roughage sources were fed 1.37 and 1.38, 0.65 and 0.63, 0.43 and 0.43% roughages to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Also, animals fed garlic stalk silage were offered 0.22 and 0.33% garlic stalk silage to body weight for the fattening and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources did not differ in average daily gain during the whole feeding periods. Animals of control group consumed less concentrates and roughage than those fed garlic stalk silage during the whole feeding periods. However, feed efficiency was not significantly different between both treatments. Beef yield including backfat thickness, eye muscle area and carcass weight was slightly lower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw even though there were no differences between both treatments. However, beef quality including beef color, fat color, texture, maturity and marbling score was slightly higher in the garlic stalk silage-fed animals than in the animals fed rice straw although there were not statistically different between both treatments. Animals consuming garlic stalk silage was significantly(p<0.05) lower in shear value than those fed rice straw. Amino acid composition including essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid was not different between animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage. Eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained slightly higher oleic acid, less linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and more linolenic acid than that of animals fed rice straw only as a roughage sources. So eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained more mono-unsaturated fatty acid than that of animals fed rice straw and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 ratio was narrower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Economic income was higher by 20% in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Therefore, It may be concluded that feeding of garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources to steers during the fattening period seems to improve meat quality, fatty acid composition and economic income.

Co-ensiling garlic stalk with citrus pulp improves the fermentation quality and feed-nutritional value

  • Lee, Youn Hee;Ahmadi, Farhad;Kim, Young Il;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kwak, Wan Sup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.436-445
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Ensiling is a simple and effective method for long-term preservation; however, less information exists about the ensilability characteristics of garlic stalk (GS). Therefore, the objectives were to examine the ensiling feasibility of GS. Methods: The GS was ensiled alone or inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum KU5 in the presence or absence of 5% molasses and ensiled for 7, 14, and 28 d. As an alternative storage method, GS was co-ensiled with wet citrus pulp (CP) at different proportions (GS:CP: 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60). Analysis was made on physicochemical, fermentative, and nutritional parameters. Results: The GS was found to be a biomass which is difficult to ensile. A combination of microbial inoculant and molasses was successful in the improvement of the silage fermentation quality of GS. Co-ensiling of GS with wet CP at the mixing ratio of 50:50 provided the most desirable silage fermentation parameters, including the substantial lactic acid formation, low final pH, minor effluent loss, and the more favorable organoleptic properties. Conclusion: Co-ensiling GS with CP appears to be a simple and viable method of conservation, enabling the more efficient utilization of these by-product resources over a prolonged period.

Preservative Effect of Garlic Stalk or Pork Cooked in Soy Sauce by the Addition of Botanical Antimicrobial Agent-Citrus and Red Ginseng Mixture (식물성 천연 항균복합소재 처리에 의한 마늘종 및 돈육장조림의 저장 효과)

  • 정준호;조성환
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2004
  • The mixture of botanical antimicrobial agent-citurs product and ginseng extract mixture(BAACG) was applied to garlic stalk or pork cooked in soysauce to extend their selflife. BAACG showed a remarkable antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of food-borne infection microorganisms and thermal and pH stability. In comparison with scanning electron microscopic photos of microbial cells not-treated and treated with BAACG the physiological cytomembrane function of BAACG-treated microorganisms was destroyed and the dead cell numbers was increased. The quality of garlic stalk or pork cooked in soysauce was controlled by the addition of BAACG in their raw materials. BAACG-treated garlic stalk or pork cookeries showed considerably to decrease the numbers of total cell count and expressed no odor and no sticky state appeared in the control. BAACG was expected to be a preservative agent which could be applied to raw or processed food stuffs in the view of food safety.

Effects of Amendments on Ginseng Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani Population Changes of the Microorganisms in Soil (토양(土壤)개량(改良)이 Fusarium solani 에 의한 인삼근부병과(人蔘根腐病)과 미생물(微生物) 변동(變動)에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Son, Suh-Gyu;Shin, Hyun-Sung;Lee, Min-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 1985
  • Eighteen plant residues were added to soil and the amended soil was inoculated with chlamydospores (5,000 cells/g soil) of Fusarium solani causing root rot of ginseng in soil to test the effects of amendment using pea (Pisium sativa L.) as an index plant. Distributional conditions of microogranisms in soil were compared with each other before and after dealing with soil amendment by plant debries. Infection rate by index plant's infectivity showed a higher degree in the treatment of wheat crushed than in control group, and followed by stalk of sweet potato, chinese cabbage, ginseng leaves and soybean pod. On the other hand, the de­creasing order of infection rate was root of garlic, welsh onion, cabbage leaf and stalk, green onion stalk, wheat straw and barley straw. In comparison with control group, the propagules of fungi increased in the treatment of ginseng leaves, soybean ground, wheat crushed, maize stalk, and chinese cabbage, but decreased in the root of garlic, cabbage, and barley straw. Population of total bacteria increased in the treatment of soybean ground, chinese cabbage, radish stalk, welsh onion, and wheat crushed, but decreased in barley straw, tobaco root, ginseng stalk, and wheat straw. The numbers of actinomycetes increased only in the treatment of soybean ground in a comparison with control and also decreased in the garlic stalk and tobaco root. The propagules of Fusarium spp increased in the treatment of chinese cabbage, welsh onion, radish stalk, wheat crushed, and sweet potato stalk, wheat crushed, and sweet potato stalk, but decreased in the treat­ment of wheat straw, ginseng leaves, and cabbage than control.

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Effect of Planting Density on Yield and Growth Characteristics of Elephant Garlic (재식거리가 코끼리마늘(Allium ampeloprasum L.)의 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn, Cheol Ku;Kim, Ki Hyun;Ahn, Ki Su;Jaeng, Jae Hyun;Park, Young Uk;Kwon, Young Hee;Lee, Sang Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.541-545
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the effect of planting density on growth and yield of elephant garlic. Three planting densities of 20 × 20, 20 × 15, and 20 × 10 ㎝ were tested with the furrow width fixed at 120 ㎝ for the evaluation of elephant galic growth and yield. The average date of emergence was middle and late November, requiring about 30 days for the all emergence. For the flowering, 221 days after sowing were required in all the treatments. Plant height and leaf growth were not significantly different according to the planting density. Flower stalk was shorter when planting density was narrow. The L/D ratio was decreased to form oval shape when planting density was narrow. The yield of elephant garlic was 1,811 ㎏ /10a in planting density 20 × 20 ㎝, 2,375 ㎏/10a in 20 × 15 ㎝, and 2,838 ㎏/10a in 20 × 10 ㎝ plot. The marketable garlic ratio was highest as 1,593 ㎏/10a in planting density of 20 × 15 ㎝.

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Solvent Extracts from Different Parts of Hagocho (Prunella vulgaris) (하고초 부위별 용매추출물의 항균 및 항산화 활성)

  • Seo, Jong-Kwon;Kang, Min-Jung;Shin, Jung-Hye;Lee, Soo-Jung;Jeong, Hey-Gwang;Sung, Nak-Ju;Chung, Young-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.10
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    • pp.1425-1432
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    • 2010
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of water, ethanol and methanol extracts from root, stem and flower stalk of Hagocho (Prunella vulgaris). The solvent extract yields from root were higher than those from stem and flower stalk, and water extract showed the highest extraction yield against ethanol and methanol extracts. The contents of total phenolic and flavonoid in ethanol extract were significantly higher in stem extract compared with those of root and flower stalk. In the case of water and methanol extracts, however, the contents were the highest in flower stalk. The electron donating ability and reducing power in all test groups were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, and antioxidant activities were the highest in methanol extract. In extracts from different parts of Hagocho, the antioxidant activity was the highest in flower stalk followed by stem and root. ABTS radical scavenging ability of water and methanol extracts was above 50% at $100\;{\mu}g/mL$ concentration. Antibacterial activities did not show significant differences depending on parts of Hagocho. However, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract was higher than those of other extracts.

Production of Mother Bulbs with High Quality Using Bulbils of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (마늘의 주아(珠芽)를 이용(利用)한 우양종구생산(優良種球生産))

  • Seo, Yeong-Bea;Kim, Dae-Kew;Sohn, Jae-Keun
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.17
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to determine the promising method for the production of mother bulbs using garlic bulbs at the experimental field of Ange high school, Eusung in Korea from 1996 to 1998. The bulbs and bulbils were taken from a local cultivar 'Eusung' garlic. The growth of bulbil and yield potential were compared with different harvesting times and cultivation methods of bulbil. The harvesting time of bulbils which were capable of producing the mother bulbs was ranged from 15 days to 30 days after the emergence of flower stalks. The best results based on the yield and number of bulbs were obtained from the bulbils sampled at the just before garlic harvesting, 30 days after flower-stalk emergence. The mulching with transparent polyethylene(PE) film in bulbil cultivation was more effective for the plant growth and bulb formation than that with black PE film. The PE mulching from 30 days after seeding of bulbils to 30 days (late-April) before bulb harvesting was the moot effective for the increase of bulb yield. In the cultivation of garlic bulbils, application of lime (150 kg/10a) and compost (3,000 kg/10a) without any chemical fertilizers produced more bulbs in comparison with the standard level of fertilizer (N - $P_2O_5$ - $K_2O$ - compost - lime = 24.8 - 8.0 - 19.2 - 3,000 - 150 kg/10a). It was determined that the involucre seeding and assemble seeding of bulbils was effective and labour-saving methods for the production of mother bulbs from garlic bulbils. Input of labour force for the involucre seeding was decreased up to 61% as compared with the conventional drill seeding of bulbils. Mean yield from the cultivation of bulbil-derived single cloves was remarkably increased up to 95% in comparison with that of the common cloves. The larger size of single clove produced more yields, and the optimum planting density of single clove was $20{\times}10cm$. The cloves differentiated directly from bulbil showed to have higher yield potential than that from common cloves.

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Historical Study of Beef Cooking -V. $\{ulcorner}Roasted Skewered{\lrcorner}$- (우육(牛肉) 조리법(調理法)의 역사적(歷史的) 고찰(考察) -V. $\{ulcorner}$산적(算炙, 散炙)${\lrcorner}$-)

  • Kim, Tae-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.301-310
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study is to survey various recips of the roasted skewered beef (Sanjuk) with twenty three classical cookbooks written before 1943 in Korea. The recipes of the roasted skewered beef are found thirty times in the records, which can be classified into six groups such as the palm-type skewered beef (Sulhamyukjuk), little finger-type skewered beef, mixed skewered beef, juice skewered beef, little finger-type skewered internal organs, and wide-cut skewered internal organs. The palm-type skewered beef and the mixed skewered beef most frequently appeared in the records. The 'Sulhamyukjuk' in the 17th century were inherited while changing its name to 'Sanjuk' in the late 18th century, which is the origin of 'Bulkoki'. There were two types of the roasted skewered beef, the palm-type and the little finger-type; and the palm type preceded the little finger-type. They were used with no change until the 19th century. Actually the roasted skewered beef existed even in the 16th century, but were put down in the early 17th century. In the cooking of 'Sulhamyukjuk' the process of dipping shortly into cold water in the midst of roast seems to absolutely disappeared. Some recipes of the roasted skewered beef were lost, but most have been inherited in the similar way with simplification including little use of internal organs. The main ingredients consisted of parts of cattle such as fresh meat, intestines, heart, liver, omasum, tripe, head, sweet bread, and lung with various vegetables and mushroom. And the main seasonings were mixtures of oil, soy sauce, sesame seed powder, scallion stalk, pepper, sesame seed oil, and salt. And sometimes wine, vinegar, ginger, garlic, and sugar were added.

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Historical Study of Beef Cooking -VI. ${\ulcorner}Roasted Beef{\lrcorner}$- (우육(牛肉) 조리법(調理法)의 역사적(歷史的) 고찰(考察) -IV. "구이"-)

  • Kim, Tae-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this paper is to survey various recipes of the roasted beef with twenty three classical cookboods written before 1943. The roasted beefis found total 32 times in the literature which can be classified into seven groups such as the roasted rib, roasted foot, roasted tail, roasted heart, roasted gall, roasted kidney and roasted fresh meat. The most frequent one is the roasted rib appearing eight times and the next is the roasted sliced beef with seasoning appearing seven. This proves that the those recipes have been the most favorite ones to Korean people for a long time. The roasted rib has been found since the middle of the 17th century, but the process of roasting ribs again with seasoning after three successions of dipping shortly into cold water in the midst of roast wasz disappeared. The roasted sliced beef with seasoning originated since the late 18th century, and the roasted beef with salt since the early 19th century which has been inherited as the roasted raw upper part of roasted beef recipes have been continued until today in the similar manner. Generally the roasted meat with bones and the roasted internal organs started in 1766 earlier than the roasted fresh meat by a century. The main ingredients were rib, foot, tail, heart, gall, kidney, fresh meat and knee bone, and the seasonings were mixtures of scallion stalk, garlic, pepper, oil, soy sauce and sesame seed powder. And peculiarly salted shrimp, pear juice, ginger were added to seasonings and pine nut powder was used as decorating ingredient.

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