• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gammarus

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One New Species of Freshwater Gammarus(Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae)from South Korea (한국 담수산 Gammarus속 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae)의 1신종)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sook;Seo, In-Soon
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • no.nspc3
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 1992
  • Seven geographical variation types of G.sobaegensis in South Korea were reported by Kim and Lee(1977) and Lee and Kim (1980). After extensive reexamination, we considered type 4, one of the variation types collectd from various localities of Kyongsangbuk-do Pongwha-gun, as a new species This new species is named as Gammarus longisaeta and fully described and illustrated. Adding this new species, total 9 species of freshwater Gammarus are Known to Korea.

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Two New Species of Freshwater Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae) from South Korea (한국 담수산 Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda , Gammaridae)의 2 신종)

  • 이경숙;서인순
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.219-230
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    • 1990
  • Lee and Kim(1980) reported seven geogrphical variation types of G. sobaegensis from South Korea. Extensively reexamining the speciemsns of variation type 2 , type 3 and type 7 collected at various localities, the authors found that three of them were not variation types but distinct new species , and named G.kyonggiensis and G. wangganensis , These two new species are fully described with illustrations and their distribution is also given.

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Systematics Study of Amphipoda (Crustaces) in Korea: VI. Gammarus hoonsooi, a New Species of Freshwater Gammarid (Gammaridae) from the South Korea

  • Lee, Kyung-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 1986
  • A new species of freshwater gammarid amphipod was found from Unsan, Andong-gun, Kyongsangbuk-do in Korea. Description is given under the name of Gammarus hoonsooi. This species differs from all other species of the genus in having small endopod and several long setae tufts on the anterior margin of the segment 4 of pereopod 3.

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Leaf Litter Processing and Patterns of Shredder Distribution in Headwater Steams in Southeastern Korea (한국 남동지역 상류 하천에서의 낙엽 분해기작과 shredder 분포 유형)

  • Kim Hyun-woo;Gea-Jae Joo;Jong-hoon Choi
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.529-541
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    • 1996
  • During the period of December 1992 (winter-spring) and from February 1995 (winter-spring), the leaf processing rates of oak (Quercus serrata) and tulip (Liriodendron tulipifera) tree was investigated in the headwater streams in southeastern part of Korea in conjunction with the distribution pattern of macroinvertebrate fauna. Using two types of bags ($10\times30cm$ with 5 g of dry leaves; open bag with holes, closed bag without holes), decomposition rates of oak and tulip tree by shredder and/or microbiota at a reatively undisturbed 2nd-order stream were compared, Regardless of leaf type, leaves in the open bage decomposed slightly faster than those in the closed bags. In the 1992 experiment, osk leaves decomposed much slower than tulip leaves (after 138 degree days, osk : closed, 0.006% loss/day ; open, 0.008 ; tulip: closed, 0.021 ; open, 0.023; n=2). The of the first experiment using oak leaves in 1995 were similar to those of the first experiment (after 151 degree days, oak: closed, 0.005% loss / day; open, 0.006; n=6). Over 50% of invertebrates from 122 leaf pack samples collected from 12 streams during the winter period of 1994 were identified as shredders (shredder, 56.2; collector, 32.7; scraper, 8.65; predator, 2.45%). Among shredders, Gammarus sp. and Tipula sp. were dominant species in terms of number and biomass (8.2 ind./g, 1.0 ind./g AFDW of leaves). Among many physico-chemical parameters, the width of stream channel was found to be the most influential factor in the distribution of Gammarus and Tipula (Gammarus: r=-0.34, P<0.001;Tipula:r=0.40, P<0.001). Considering the fact that oak is one the dominant riparian vegetation in the southeastern part of korea, the patterns of oak processing and shredder distribution shown in theis study may well represent some of the important characteristics of headwater steams in southeastern Korea.

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Survivorships of Gammarus sobaegensis (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) in Different Medium and Temperature Conditions (보통옆새우 (Gammarus sobaegensis : 옆새우과, 단각목)의 서로 다른 배양액 및 온도에 대한 생존율)

  • Hwang, Jeong-Mi;Lee, Sung-Jin;Cho, Ki-Jong;Kim, Yong-Gyun;Bae, Yeon-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.413-417
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    • 2006
  • Gammarus sobaegensis, a common amphipod crustacean in Korean mountain streams, was experimented in the laboratory in terms of two environmental factors, medium and temperature conditions, which are essential in laboratory rearing. Individuals of G. sobaegensis were collected from a small spring outlet beside Gapyeong stream in Gyeonggi-do, Korea, in December 2003. Survivorships of G. sobaegensis were evaluated from the effect on rearing media (distilled water: DW, tap water: TW, chironomid rearing medium: CM, and stream water: SW) and temperatures (10, 15, 20, and $25^{\circ}C$). As a result, G. sobaegensis was higher in survivorships at TW followed by SW, CM, and DW and at $10^{\circ}C$ followed by 15, 20 and $25^{\circ}C$.

Finding of a new freshwater gammarid (Gammarus gageoensis) from South Korea

  • Kim, Min-Seop;Lee, Kyung-Sook;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 2010
  • Gammarus gageoensis n. sp., a new species of freshwater gammarid, was collected from Gageodo Island, South Korea. This new species is characterized in terms of its morphology by the flagellum of antenna 2 with calceoli, the pereopods 3 and 4 with numerous long curled setae on the posterior margins, the terminal article of the outer ramus in uropod 3, which is longer than the adjacent spines, and the presence of both rami with long simple setae. The morphological characters of the new species that are different to related species are presented in the text. This paper also compares the new species to related species by the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene. The sequence difference, consisting of a 39-44% difference relative to closely related species, is also large enough to designate this gammarid as a different species from other freshwater gammarid species. This is the first finding of a new species of Korean freshwater gammarid since 1992. Including this new species, a total of 10 species are known to Korea.

Leaf Litter Breakdown of Quercus mongolica and Calpinus cordata In a Headwater Stream (소하천의 신갈나무와 까치박달 낙엽의 분쇄)

  • Chung, Keun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2001
  • Leaf Litter processing rate of Quercus mongolica was compared with that of Carpinus cordata in a first-order stream draining Mt. Jumbong in Inje-Gun, Kangwon Province. Daily processing rate (-k . day$^{-1}$ ) of Q. mongolica leaf litter in mesh bags was 0.00503, about one-third of that of C. cordata leaf litter. Forty five macroinvertebrate taxa were collected from litter bags; 39 taxi from C. cordate and 38 taxa from Q. mongolica litter bags. Nemoura tau, a precopteran shredder, was the most abundant taxon in both leaf species, and the second was the non-predatory chironomids. In terms of biomass, Gammarus, an amphipodan shredder, was the largest. and followed by Cincticostella castanea, an ephemeropteran gatherers. The biomass of most insect taxa decreased during April to June, while that of non-insect taxa greatly increased during the same time period. Gammarus was the most important shredder talon to the leaf litter breakdown in the experimental stream and appeared to prefer C. cordata to Q. nongolica leaf litter. N. tau, in spite of its abundance, seemed to have a limited effect on the leaf litter processing . Since other shredders were minor compared with these two taxa, leaf litter processing in this stream appeared to largely depend on the feeding ecology of Gammarus.

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Ecotoxicological Characteristics of Gammarus sobaegensis Ueno by Acute and Chronic pH Depression on Artificial Static Waters (pH 저하가 소백옆새우(Gammarus sobaegensis Ueno)에 미치는 급, 만성 생태독성학적 특성 -1. 정체성 조건-)

  • Park, Jung-Ho;Cho, Dong-Hyun;Jung, Geun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.377-385
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the ecotoxicological response on Gammarus sobaegensis Ueno with acid stress. Mean value of $LT_{50}$ (lethal time 50%) under pH 3 condition as acute ecotoxicity test was observed to be 0.271 ($\pm$0.146) day. And 0.812 ($\pm$0.377) day under pH 4, respectively. Mean value of $LT_{50}$ under pH 3 and 5 were 6.313 ($\pm$0.828), and 9.475 ($\pm$4.881) day, respectively. Variance in chronic ecotoxicity test pH (F ratio: 11.240, P< 0.0005) and times (F ratio: 2.916, P< 0.0005) as single factor were revealed to be the major factor for determining LT$_{50}$ with acid depression. The variation of secondary gill surface with acid stress to be certain that wrinkle phenomenon. Being weak tolerance of G. sobaegensis against the acid stress, it shows the possibility to be examined as an aquatic toxicity test organism.

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Qualitative Analysis for Metabolites of Pharmaceuticals Formed in Daphnia magna and Gammarus pulex Using Liquid Chromatogram-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) (LC-HRMS를 이용한 Daphnia magna 및 Gammarus pulex 생체내 의약품 대사체 정성분석)

  • Jeon, Junho
    • Journal of The Korea Society For Environmental Analysis
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.243-251
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    • 2018
  • Pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents have been recognized as emerging pollutants threatening freshwater organisms. To extend understanding for bioaccumulation and toxicity in those organisms, information on biotransformation products (or metabolites) and their metabolic pathway are crucial. The aim of the present study is to identify and elucidate metabolites of pharmaceuticals formed in exposed organisms using suspect and nontarget screening approach using LC-HRMS. As the target pharmaceuticals, carbamazepine, ketoprofen, metoprolol, propranolol, and verapamil were selected whereas Daphnia magna and Gammarus pulex were used as test organisms. After 24h exposure, metabolites formed in the organisms were identified using LC-HRMS. The structures of metabolites were elucidated via analysis of MS/MS fragment pattern and the comparison with fragment database. As the results, a total of 10 metabolites were identified for 5 parent compounds (C253/C356 for carbamazepine, K211 for ketoprofen, M256 for metoprolol, P218/P276/P306 for propranolol, V196/V291/V441 for verapamil). Among them, the presence of C253 and V291 was confirmed using standard materials. Most of the identified metabolites were formed through oxidative reactions such as hydroxylation, N-demethylation, and dealkylation. Cysteine conjugation (phase II reaction) metabolite (C356) for carbamazepine was found in daphnia. The metabolic pathway of verapamil showed similar metabolic pathways and metabolic pathways for both species. Although the toxicological information on the identified metabolites could not be confirmed, the molecular structure information of the proposed metabolites can be used for future evaluation and prediction of toxicity.

Ecotoxicological Study of Gammarus sobaegensis by pH Depression in Artificial Channels - Drift behavior - (인공수로에서 산성화 영향에 따른 소백옆새우(Gammarus sobaegensis)의 생태독성학적 연구 - 표류행동을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Jung-Ho;Cho, Dong-Hyun;Jung, Geun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to examine the drift of Gammarus sobaegensis by acid stress as pH depression in Oweol creek from April 1996 to October 1996. The behavioral drifting was revealed to the characteristics of G. sobaegensis that is tend to increase as acid stress. And, tolerance level of G. sobaegensis to pH depression was different among the size classes. Individuals belong to small to medium size classes were weak in lower pH. Pattern of response in G. sobaegensis has a lower tolerance to acid stress at below pH 4.0 than above pH 5.0 in the artificial channel and show the possibility as an effective aquatic ecotoxicity test organism. The result of analysis of variance, water temperature (F-ratio : 66.596, p< 0.0005) and the size classes (F-ratio : 71.386, p< 0.0005) except pH level (F-ratio : 353.415, p<0.0005) were showed to the major factor for drift behavior by acid depression. [Gammarus, pH, Drift, Acid stress, Ecotoxicity test].

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