• Title, Summary, Keyword: Galvanic corrosion

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A Study on Analysis Method of Underwater Electric Field Signature due to Ship's Corrosion and Corrosion Protection System (선체 부식 및 부식 방지장치에 의한 수중 전기장 신호 해석 방안 연구)

  • Chung, Hyun-Ju;Yang, Chang-Seob;Jeon, Jae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2008
  • The galvanic corrosion of a vessel, or systems fitted to minimize the ship's corrosion such as ICCP (Impressed Current Cathodic Protection) system and sacrificial anodes, can lead to significant electrical current flow in the sea. The presence of vessel's current sources associated with corrosion will give rise to detectable electric field surrounding the vessel and can put it at risk from mine threats. For this reason, it is necessary to design corrosion protection systems so that they don't only prevent a hull corrosion but also minimize the electric field signature. In this paper, we describe theoretical backgrounds of underwater electric field signature due to corrosion and corrosion protection system on naval vessels and analysis results of the electric field according to the ship's hull and it's propeller coating damage and ICCP anode displacement.

An Electrochemical Study on the Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment about Corrosion Resistance Property of SS400 Steel for Ship`s Materials (선박재료용 SS400강의 내식성에 대한 용접후 열처리효과에 관한 전기화학적 연구 (II))

  • 김성종;김진경;문경만
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.58-68
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    • 2000
  • When SS400 steel was welded with low hydrogen type and ilmennite type welding, the effect of post-weld heat treatment(PWHT) was investigated with parameters such as micro vickers hardness, corrosion potential, polarization behaviors, galvanic current, Al anode generating current and Al anode weight loss etc. Hardness of each parts(HAZ, BM, WM) by PWHT in case of low hydrogen type and ilmennite type welding was lower than that of each parts by As-welded However hardness of WM area in case of low hydrogen type and ilmennite type welding was the highest among those three parts regardless of PWHT, Whereas in case of ilmennite type welding, WM area was the highest potential among these three parts on galvanic potential series with As-welded while BM area was the highest potential among these three parts by PWHT on the contrary. And in case of low hydrogen type welding, galvanic corrosion and micro cell corrosion of welding parts was decreased with PWHT. However, It was increased with PWHT in case of ilmennite type welding. Moreover Al anode generating current and anode weight loss in case of low hydrogen type was decreased by PWHT compared to As-wedled but, which was increased than that of As-welded in case of ilmennite type welding. Therefore, it is suggested that Corrosion resistance property in case of low hydrogen type welding is increased by PWHT. However its property was devreased with PWHT in case of ilmennite type welding.

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Monitoring corrosion of reinforced concrete beams in a chloride containing environment under different loading levels

  • Wei, Aifang;Wang, Ying;Tan, Mike Y.J.
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.253-267
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    • 2015
  • Corrosion has significant adverse effects on the durability of reinforced concrete (RC) structures, especially those exposed to a marine environment and subjected to mechanical stress, such as bridges, jetties, piers and wharfs. Previous studies have been carried out to investigate the corrosion behaviour of steel rebar in various concrete structures, however, few studies have focused on the corrosion monitoring of RC structures that are subjected to both mechanical stress and environmental effects. This paper presents an exploratory study on the development of corrosion monitoring and detection techniques for RC structures under the combined effects of external loadings and corrosive media. Four RC beams were tested in 3% NaCl solutions under different levels of point loads. Corrosion processes occurring on steel bars under different loads and under alternative wetting - drying cycle conditions were monitored. Electrochemical and microscopic methods were utilised to measure corrosion potentials of steel bars; to monitor galvanic currents flowing between different steel bars in each beam; and to observe corrosion patterns, respectively. The results indicated that steel corrosion in RC beams was affected by local stress. The point load caused the increase of galvanic currents, corrosion rates and corrosion areas. Pitting corrosion was found to be the main form of corrosion on the surface of the steel bars for most of the beams, probably due to the local concentration of chloride ions. In addition, visual observation of the samples confirmed that the localities of corrosion were related to the locations of steel bars in beams. It was also demonstrated that electrochemical devices are useful for the detection of RC beam corrosion.

Effect of Sn Addition on Corrosion Behavior of Mg-4%Zn Casting Alloy (Mg-4%Zn 주조 합금의 부식 거동에 미치는 Sn 첨가의 영향)

  • Han, Jin-Gu;Jun, Joong-Hwan
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2017
  • In the present study, effects of an addition of Sn on the microstructure and corrosion behavior were investigated in Mg-4%Zn-(0-3)%Sn casting alloys. With an increase in the Sn content, the ${\alpha}-(Mg)$ dendritic cell size was reduced, whereas the total amount of precipitates increased due to the formation of the $Mg_2Sn$ phase. It was found in immersion and electrochemical corrosion tests that the addition of Sn has a detrimental effect on the corrosion resistance of the Mg-4%Zn alloy. Microstructural examinations of the corrosion product and the corroded surface indicated that an accelerated micro-galvanic effect by the $Mg_2Sn-phase$ particles and a less protective corrosion product on the surface were responsible for the increased corrosion rate at a higher Sn content.

A study of corrosion of welded bridge steel SWS400 in the acid-rain environment (산성비 분위기에서 교량용 강재 SWS400의 용접부 부식에 관한 연구)

  • 정원석;김정구;이병훈
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.124-133
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    • 1997
  • Corrosion behavior of welded SWS400 steel used for bridges was studied in a range of the acid-rain environment using immersion, potentiodynamic polartization, polarization resistance, and galvanic corrosion tests. The SWS400 steel exhibited active corrosion behavior in the range of acid-rain environment, i.e. no passivation. As the results of immersion corrosion test, Tafel extrapolation method, and polarization resistance measurement, the average corrosion rats of the steels were 0.31-0.72 mm/year in the pH of 4-5, and 0.17 mm/yera in the pH 6, respectively. The steel showed a resistance to corrosion in the pH 6. The observed active behavior of SWS400 steel in chloride-containing environment indicated that the chloride ions exerts a detrimental influence on the formation of passive films. Galvanic corrosion was observed between the weld and the base metals because the weld is anodic to the base metal.

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A STUDY OF INTERFACE AND CORROSION BEHAVIOR BETWEEN IMPLANT ABUTMENT AND CASTING GOLD ALLOY (임플랜트 지대주와 주조 금합금과의 접합 및 부식에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Mee-Kyoung;Ma, Jang-Seon;Chung, Chae-Heon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.672-686
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the casting problem and corrosion behavior in two types of HL Hexed abutments of the Steri-Oss system ; gold/plastic coping and gold coping. The anodic Polarization behavior, the galvanic corrosion between abutments and Type III gold alloys, before and after casting were analyzed, and the crevice corrosion of casting samples was analyzed with the CPPT test and the SEM. The results are as follows : 1. Anodic polarization behavior of samples ; Before casting, gold/plastic coping and gold coping was shown to have a similar corrosion pat-terns. Type III casting gold alloy was shown to have a lower corrosion potential and passivation film. Corrosion potential of the case of gold/plastic coping after casting was higher than that of gold coping, but the region of passivation film for gold/plastic coping was smaller than that of gold coping. 2. Galvanic corrosion behavior of samples ; Contact current density between casting gold alloys and gold/plastic before casting was higher than that between gold coping and casting gold alloy Galvanic corrosion of samples after casting was shown to have similar contact current density 3. Crevice corrosion behavior of samples ; Crevice corrosion resistance of casting sample using gold coping was lower than that of cast-ing sample using gold/plastic coping, and a severe corrosion pattern was observed at the abutment-casting gold alloy interface by the SEM.

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AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF THE VARIOUS IMPLANT METALS (수종 임플랜트 금속의 내식성에 관한 전기화학적 연구)

  • Jeon Jin-Young;Kim Yung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.423-446
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    • 1993
  • Titanium and its alloys are finding increasing use in medical devices and dental implants. The strong selling point of titanium is its resistance to the highly corrosive body fluids in which an implant must survive. This corrosion resistance is due to a tenacious passive oxide or film which exists on the metal's surface and renders it passive. Potentiodynamic polarization measurement is one of the most commonly used electro-chemical methods that have been applied to measure corrosion rates. And the potentiodynamic polarization test supplies detailed information such as open circuit, rupture, and passivation potential. Furthermore, it indicates the passive range and sensitivity to pitting corrosion. This study was designed to compare the corrosion resistance of the commonly used dental implant materials such as CP Ti, Ti-6A1-4V, Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. And the effects of galvanic couples between titanium and the dental alloys were assessed for their useful-ness-as. materials for superstructure. The working electrode is the specimen , the reference electrode is a saturated calomel electrode (SCE), and the counter electrode is made of carbon. In $N_2-saturated$ 0.9% NaCl solutions, the potential scanning was performed starting from -800mV (SCE) and the scan rate was 1 mV/sec. At least three different polarization measurements were carried out for each material on separate specimen. The galvanic corrosion measurements were conducted in the zero-shunt ammeter with an implant supraconstruction surface ratio of 1:1. The contact current density was recorded over a 24-hour period. The results were as follows : 1. In potential-time curve, all specimens became increasingly more noble after immersion in the test solution and reached between -70mV and 50mV (SCE) respectively after 12 hours. 2. The Ti and Ti alloy in the saline solution were most resistant to corrosion. They showed the typical passive behavior which was exhibited over the entire experimental range. Therefore no breakdown potentials were observed. 3. Comparing the rupture potentials, Ti and Ti alloy had the high(:st value (because their break-down potentials were not observed in this study potential range ) followed by Co-Cr-Mo alloy and stainless steel (316L). So , the corrosion resistance of titanium was cecellent, Co-Cr-Mo alloy slightly inferior and stainless steel (316L) much less. 4. The contact current density sinks faster than any other galvanic couple in the case of Ti/gold alloy. 5. Ag-Pd alloy coupled with Ti yielded high current density in the early stage. Furthermore, Ti became anodic. 6. Ti/Ni-Cr alloy showed a relatively high galvanic current and a tendency to increase.

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Evaluation of effect of galvanic corrosion between nickel-chromium metal and titanium on ion release and cell toxicity

  • Lee, Jung-Jin;Song, Kwang-Yeob;Ahn, Seung-Geun;Choi, Jung-Yun;Seo, Jae-Min;Park, Ju-Mi
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cell toxicity due to ion release caused by galvanic corrosion as a result of contact between base metal and titanium. MATERIALS AND METHODS. It was hypothesized that Nickel (Ni)-Chromium (Cr) alloys with different compositions possess different corrosion resistances when contacted with titanium abutment, and therefore in this study, specimens ($10{\times}10{\times}1.5mm$) were fabricated using commercial pure titanium and 3 different types of Ni-Cr alloys (T3, Tilite, Bella bond plus) commonly used for metal ceramic restorations. The specimens were divided into 6 groups according to the composition of Ni-Cr alloy and contact with titanium. The experimental groups were in direct contact with titanium and the control groups were not. After the samples were immersed in the culture medium - Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium[DMEM] for 48 hours, the released metal ions were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test (P<.05). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cells were used for cell toxicity evaluation. The cell toxicity of specimens was measured by the 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results of MTT assay were statistically analyzed by the two-way ANOVA test (P<.05). Post-hoc multiple comparisons were conducted using Tukey's tests. RESULTS. The amount of metal ions released by galvanic corrosion due to contact between the base metal alloy and titanium was increased in all of the specimens. In the cytotoxicity test, the two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect of the alloy type and galvanic corrosion for cytotoxicity (P<.001). The relative cell growth rate (RGR) was decreased further on the groups in contact with titanium (P<.05). CONCLUSION. The release of metal ions was increased by galvanic corrosion due to contact between base metal and titanium, and it can cause adverse effects on the tissue around the implant by inducing cytotoxicity.

An Experimental Study on the Corrosion Monitoring of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete by the Accelerated Corrosion Test (부식촉진시험에 의한 콘크리트 내의 철근의 부식 모니터링에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 배수호;정영수;김진영
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2001
  • The corrosion monitoring methods of reinforcing steel in concrete are the various methods such as half cell potential method, galvanic current method, resistivity method, polarization resistance method, AC impedance method and etc. In this study, the corrosion monitoring methods of reinforcing steel in concrete were investigated for the test specimens using corrosion inhibitors, zinc-mortar, zinc-plate, respectively. For this purpose, the accelerated corrosion tests for reinforcing steel were conducted according to the periodic cycles(140 days) of wetting($65^{\circ}C$, 90% R.H.) and drying period(15$^{\circ}C$ , 65% R.H.) for the test specimens. As a result, it can be concluded from the test that half cell potential and galvanic current method as monitoring techniques for corrosion were found to be relatively reliable and easily usable method in the field.

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A Study on Corrosion Failure of a Weathering Steel Weldment with Various Applied Potentials in Acid-chloride Solution (산-염소이온 분위기의 인자전위에 따른 내후성강 용접부의 부식파괴에 관한 연구)

  • 최윤석;김정구;김종집;이병훈
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2000
  • The stress corrosion cracking(SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement cracking(HEC) characteristics of a weathering steel weldment were investigated in aerated acid-chloride solution. The electrochemical properties of weldment were investigated by polarization test and galvanic corrosion test. Weathering steel did not show passive behavior in the acid-chloride solution. Galvanic corrosion between the weld metal and the base metal was not observed because the base metal was anodic to the weld metal. The slow-strain-rate tests(SSRT0 were conducted at a constant strain rate o 7.87×{TEX}$10^{-7}${/TEX}/s at corrosion potential, and at potentiostatically controlled anodic and cathodic potentials. The weldment of weathering steel was susceptible to both anodic dissolution SCC and hydrogen evolution HEC.

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