• Title, Summary, Keyword: Galvanic corrosion

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Effects of Mg on corrosion resistance of Al galvanically coupled to Fe (Fe와 galvanic couple된 알루미늄의 내식성에 미치는 마그네슘의 영향)

  • Hyun, Youngmin;Kim, Heesan
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.40-49
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    • 2013
  • Effects of magnesium and pH on corrosion of aluminum galvanically coupled to iron have studied by using potentio- dynamic and static tests for polarization curves, Mott-Schottky test for analysis of semiconductor property, and GD-AES and XPS for film analysis. Pitting potential was sensitive to magnesium as an alloying element but not to pH, while passive current was sensitive to pH but not to magnesium. It was explained with, instead of point defect model (PDM), surface charge model describing that the ingression of chloride depends on the state of surface charge and passive film at film/solution interface is affected by pH. In addition, galvanic current of aluminum electrically coupled to iron was not affected by magnesium in pH 8.4, 0.2M citrate solution but was increased by magnesium at the solution of pH 9.1. The galvanic current at pH 9.1 increased with time at the initial stage and after the exposure of about 200 minute, decreased and stabilized. The behavior of the galvanic current was related with the concentration of magnesium at the surface. It agreed with the depletion of magnesium at the oxide surface by using glow discharge atomic emission spectroscopy (GD-AES). In addition, pitting potential of pure aluminum was reduced in neutral pH solution where chloride ion maybe are competitively adsorbed on pure aluminum. It was confirmed by the exponential decrease of pitting potential with log of [$Cl^-$] around 0.025 M of [$Cl^-$] and linear decrease of the pitting potential. From the above results, unlike magnesium, alloying elements with higher electron negativity, lowering isoelectric point (ISE), are recommended to be added to improve pitting corrosion resistance of aluminum and its alloys in neutral solutions as well as their galvanic corrosion resistance in weakly basic solutions.

Influence of Microstructure on Corrosion Property of Mg-Al-Zn Alloy

  • Lee, Jeong Ja;Na, Seung Chan;Yang, Won Seog;Jang, Si Sung;Yoo, Hwang Ryong;Hwang, Woon Suk
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.218-221
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    • 2006
  • Influence of microstructure on the corrosion property of Mg-Al-Zn alloy was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization experiments, galvanic coupling experiments, and scanning electron microscopy in sodium chloride solutions. Pitting was the most common form of attack in chloride solution, and filiform corrosion was also occurred in AZ91D-T4 alloy. On the contrary, filiform attack in the bulk matrix was predominant corrosion form in AZ91D-T6 alloy, and the number and size of pit were decreased than those of AZ91D-T4 alloy. Galvanic coupling effect between $Mg_{17}Al_{12}$ and matrix was existed, but the propagation of galvanic corrosion was localized only near the $Mg_{17}Al_{12}$ phase in AZ91D-6T alloy. The corrosion resistance of Mg-Al matrix increased with decreasing Al content in the matrix. And, it could be regarded that Al content in the matrix is decreased by precipitation of $Mg_{17}Al_{12}$ during the aging treatment and it decreases the anodic reaction rate of the matrix and galvanic effect in AZ91D-T6 alloy. It could be considered that the composition and microstructure of surface protective layer would be varied by precipitation of $Mg_{17}Al_{12}$ and subsequent decreasing of Al content in the matrix. And it would contribute the corrosion resistance of AZ91D-T6 aging alloy.

Cathodic Protection of Onshore Buried Pipelines Considering Economic Feasibility and Maintenance

  • Choi, Byoung-Yeol;Lee, Sang-Gil;Kim, Jin-Kwang;Oh, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of Advanced Research in Ocean Engineering
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.158-168
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    • 2016
  • During the installation of crude oil or gas pipelines, which pass through onshore buried pipelines or onshore pipeline from subsea pipeline to onshore plant, countermeasures need to be implemented so as to ensure a sufficient design life by protecting the steel pipes against corrosion. This can be achieved through impressed current cathodic protection method for onshore pipelines and through galvanic sacrificial anode corrosion protection method for offshore pipelines. In particular, in the case of impressed current cathodic protection, isolation joint flanges should be used. However, this makes maintenance control difficult with its installation having a negative impact on price. Therefore, in this study, the most suitable methodology for onshore pipeline protection between galvanic sacrificial anode corrosion protection and impressed current cathodic protection method will be introduced. In oil and gas transportation facilities, the media can be carried to the end users via onshore buried and/or offshore pipeline. It is imperative for the field operators, pipeline engineers, and designers to be corrosion conscious as the pipelines would undergo material degradations due to corrosion. The mitigation can be achieved with the introduction of an impressed current cathodic protection method for onshore buried pipelines and a galvanic sacrificial anode corrosion protection method for offshore pipelines. In the case of impressed current cathodic protection, isolation joint flanges should be used to discontinuity. However, this makes maintenance control to be difficult when its installation has a negative impact on the price. In this study, the most suitable corrosion protection technique between galvanic sacrificial anode corrosion protection and impressed current cathodic protection is introduced for (economic life of) onshore buried pipeline.

A Study on the Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Characteristics of Galvanically Coupled Dissimilar Metals. (이종금속 연결에 따른 침부식(FAC) 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Gu
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.269-272
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    • 2000
  • The flow accelerated galvanic corrosion characteristics of a carbon steel coupled to stainless steel were investigated in deaerated alkaline-chloride solutions as a function of flow velocities(0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s), pH(8, 9, and 10) and temperature(25, 50 and $75^{\circ}C$). The electrochemical properties of specimens were investigated by potentiodynamic test and galvanic corrosion test using RCE(Rotating Cylinder Electrode). Carbon steel did not show passive behavior in the alkaline-chloride solution. The galvanic current density increases with increasing flow velocity and temperature, but decreased with increasing pH. Flow velocity had a small effect on the galvanic current density at $25^{\circ}C$, whereas the flow velocity increased galvanic current density significantly at $50^{\circ}C$ and $75^{\circ}C$. This might be due to the increased solubility of magnetite at the higher temperature.

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Study on the Characteristics of Crevice Corrosion Prevention of SS 400 in Marine Environment (해양환경 중에서 SS400강재의 간극부식방지 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 임우조;정기철;구영필;윤병두
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Marine Engineers Conference
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2001
  • This paper was studied on the characteristics of crevice corrosion prevention of SS 400 in marine environment. In NaCl solution, polarization behavior under the crevice corrosion was investigated. And Weight loss rate of SS 400 applied cathodic protection and non cathodic protection was measured according to the NaCl concentration. The main results obtained are as follows : The weight loss rate of Al-alloy galvanic anode was increased as the concentration of NaCl solution increased by 3.5% but the concentration increased over 3.5%, that of Al-alloy galvanic anode become decreased. The protective potential of SS 400 used Al-alloy galvanic anode becomes more cathodic polarization with increasing concentration of NaCl solution. Effects of oxygen on the weight loss rate of Al-alloy sacrificial anode for cathodic protection as the concentration of 3.5% NaCl solution become sensitive than that of 0% NaCl solution.

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A STUDY ON THE GALVANIC CORROSION OF TITANIUM USING THE IMMERSION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD (침적법과 전기화학법을 이용한 티타늄의 갈바닉 부식에 관한 연구)

  • Kay, Kee-Sung;Chung, Chae-Heon;Kang, Dong-Wan;Kim, Byeong-Ok;Hwang, Ho-Gil;Ko, Yeong-Mu
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.584-609
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of the galvanic corrosion behaviour of the titanium in contact with gold alloy, silva-palladium alloy, and nickel-chromium alloy using the immersion and electrochemical method. And the effects of galvallit couples between titanium and the dental alloys were assessed for their usefulness as materials for superstructure. The immersion method was performed by measuring the amount of metal elementsreleased by Inductivey coupled plasma emission spectroscopy(ICPES) The specimen of fifteen titanium plates, the five gold alloy, five silver-palladium, five nickel-chromium plates, and twenty acrylic resin plates ware fabricated, and also the specimen of sixty titanium plugs, the thirty gold alloy, thirty silver-palladium, and nickelc-hromium plugs were made. Thereafter, each plug of gold alloy, silver-palladium, and nickel-chromium inserted into the the titanium and acrylic resin plate, and also titanium plug inserted into the acrylic resin plate. The combination specimens uf galvanic couples immersed in 70m1 artificial saliva solution, and also specimens of four type alloy(that is, titanium, gold, silver-palladium and nickel-chromium alloy) plugs were immersed solely in 70m1 artificial sativa solution. The amount of metal elements released was observed during 21 weeks in the interval of each seven week. The electrochemical method was performed using computer-controlled potentiosta(Autostat 251. Sycopel Sicentific Ltd., U.K). The wax patterns(diameter 11.0mm, thickness,in 1.5mm) of four dental casting alloys were casted by centrifugal method and embedded in self-curing acrylic resin to be about $1.0cm^2$ of exposed surface area. Embedded specimens were polished with silicone carbide paper to #2,000, and ultrasonically cleaned. The working electrode is the specimen of four dental casting alloys, the reference electrode is a saturated calmel electrode(SCE) and the ounter electrode is made of platinum plate. In the artificial saliva solution, the potential scanning was carried out starting from-700mV(SCE) TO +1,000mV(SCE) and the scan rate was 75mV/min. Each polarization curve of alloy was recorded automatically on a logrithmic graphic paper by XY recorder. From the polarization curves of each galvanic couple, corrosion potential and corrosion rates, that is, corrosion density were compared and order of corrosion tendency was determined. From the experiments, the following results were obtained : 1. In the case of immersing titanium, gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy, and nickel-chromium alloysolely in the artificial saliva solution(group 1, 2, 3, and 4), the total amount of metal elements released was that group 4 was greater about 2, 3 times than group 3, and about 7.8 times than group 2. In the case of group 1, the amount of titanium released was not found after 8 week(p<0.001). 2. In the case of galvanic couples of titanium in contact with alloy(group 5, 6), the total amount of metal elements released of group 5 and 6 was less than that of group 7, 8, 9, and 10(p<0.05). 3. In the case of galvanic couples of titanium in contact with silver-palladium alloy(group 7, 8), the total amount of metal elements released of group 7 was greater about twice than that of group 5, and that of group 8 was about 14 times than that of group 6(p<0.05). 4. In the case of galvanic couples of titanium in contact with nickel-chromium alloy(group 9, 10), the total amount of metal elements released of group 9 and 10 was greater about 1.8-3.2 times than that of group 7 and 8, and was greater about 4.3~25 times than that of group 5 and 6(p<0.05). 5. In the effect of galvanic corrosion according to the difference of the area ratio of cathode and anode, the total amount of metal elements released was that group 5 was greater about 4 times than group 6, group 8 was greater about twice than group 7, and group 10 was greater about 1.5 times than group 9(p<0.05). 6. In the effect of galvanic corrosion according to the elasped time during 21 week in the interval of each 7 week, the amount of metal elements released was decreased markedly in the case of galvanic couples of the titanium in contact with gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy but the total amount of nickel and beryllium released was not decreased markedly in the case of galvanic couples of the titanium in contact with nickel-chromium alloy(p<0.05). 7. In the case of galvanic couples of titanium in contact with gold alloy, galvanic current was lower than any other galvanic couple. 8. In the case of galvanic couples of titanium in contact with nickel-chromium alloy, galvanic current was highest among other galvanic couples.

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Effects of NaCl Concentration and Solution Temperature on the Galvanic Corrosion Between CFRP and A516Gr.55 Carbon Steel

  • Hur, Seung Young;Kim, Ki Tae;Kim, Young Sik
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 2019
  • CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) is composed of carbon fiber and plastic resin, and is approximately 20 - 50% lighter than metallic materials. CFRP has a low density, higher specific stiffness, specific strength, and high corrosion resistance. Because of these excellent properties, which meet various regulation conditions needed in the industrial fields, CFRP has been widely used in many industries including aviation and ship building. However, CFRP reveals water absorption in water immersion or high humidity environments, and water absorption occurs in an epoxy not carbon fiber, and can be facilitated by higher temperature. Since these properties can induce volume expansion inside CFRP and change the internal stress state and degrade the chemical bond between the fiber and the matrix, the mechanical properties including bond strength may be lowered. This study focused on the effects of NaCl concentration (0.01 - 1% NaCl) and solution temperature ($30-75^{\circ}C$) on the galvanic corrosion between CFRP and A516Gr.55 carbon steel. When NaCl concentration increases 10 times, corrosion rate of a specimen was not affected, but that of galvanic coupled carbon steel increased by 46.9% average. However, when solution temperature increases $10^{\circ}C$, average corrosion rate increased approximately 22%, regardless of single or galvanic coupled specimen.

Crevice Corrosion Study of Materials for Propulsion Applications in the Marine Environment

  • Deflorian, F.;Rossi, S.;Fedel, M.;Zanella, C.;Ambrosi, D.;Hlede, E.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.288-295
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    • 2015
  • The present work addresses crevice and galvanic corrosion processes occurring at the cylinder head gasket/cylinder head interface and cylinder head gasket/cylinder liner interface of four-stroke medium-speed diesel engines for marine applications. The contact between these systems and the marine environment can promote formation of demanding corrosion conditions, therefore influencing the lifetime of the engine components. The electrochemical behavior of various metals and alloys used as head gasket materials (both ferrous alloys and copper alloys) was investigated. The efficacy of corrosion inhibitors was determined by comparing electrochemical behavior with and without inhibitors. In particular, crevice corrosion has been investigated by electrochemical tests using an experimental set-up developed starting from the requirements of the ASTM G-192-08, with adaptation of the test to the conditions peculiar to this application. In addition to the crevice corrosion resistance, the possible problems of galvanic coupling, as well as corrosive reactivity, were evaluated using electrochemical tests, such as potentiodynamic measurements. It was possible to quantify, in several cases, the corrosion resistance of the various coupled materials, and in particular the resistance to crevice corrosion, providing a basis for the selection of materials for this specific application.

Study on the Prevention of Crevice Corrosion for a Stainless Steel Heat Exchanger (스테인리스강 열교환기의 틈부식 방지에 관한 연구)

  • LIM, U-Joh;YUN, Byoung-Du
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 2005
  • This paper is a study on the prevention of crevice corrosion for a stainless steel heat exchanger in various pH solutions and with Cl ion concentrations. The electrochemical polarization test and crevice corrosion test of STS 304 for a heat exchanger were carried out. The crevice corrosion aspect, a passive behavior, crevice corrosion behavior, and corrosion protection characteristics of STS 304 using Al-alloy and Mg-alloy galvanic anode were considered. The main results are as follows: 1. The crevice corrosion of STS 304 occurs in the crevice and this corrosion increases pitting according to depth direction. On the other hand, the exterior crevice becomes passive. 2. With changing from a neutral to acid environment and increasing Cl ion concentration, the pitting potential of STS 304 lowers, and thus the crevice corrosion of STS 304 is sensitive. 3. The cathodic protection potential of STS 304 in the crevice is cathodically polarized by increasing Cl ion concentration. Therefore, an Al-alloy galvanic anode is more suitable than a Mg-alloy galvanic anode to protect the crevice corrosion of STS 304.

A Study on Electrochemical Characteristics Aluminum Multi Matrix Compound (Al-MMC) of Neutron Absorber Material

  • Lee, Jung Hwan;Lee, Yunju;Yoo, Seung Chang;Kim, Seunghyun;Kim, Ji Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.179-180
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    • 2018
  • Al - MMC, used as a neutron absorber, shows pitting corrosion and/or galvanic corrosion in 3.5wt.% NaCl solution. If pitting corrosion penetrates the core, neutron absorption performance could be affected. Galvanic corrosion was observed between Al 5052 and Al 1070, and pitting corrosion was observed around $B_4C$.

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