• Title, Summary, Keyword: GR/A

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THE USE OF MIFEPRISTONE (RU486) IN THE TREATMENT OF PSYCHOTIC MAJOR DEPRESSION

  • Her, Song
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.25-44
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    • 2007
  • The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an intracellular protein that is widely distributed throughout hippocampal and neocortical brain tissue. Mifepristone (RU486) is a potent GR antagonist that has also been shown to exhibit partial agonist-like effects. The precise location of the GR domain involved in the agonist-like activity of RU486 is unknown. Here, we examine this aspect of GR signaling by comparing human GR (hGR) construct with a Guyanese squirrel monkey GR (gsmGR) construct in which nuclear translocation and transactivation are known to be impaired. Using an objective translocation scoring method, we found that both hGR and gsmGR are translocated by RU486, and that nuclear translocation of hGR is significantly increased compared to gsmGR at 10 nM, 100 nM and 1000 nM RU486 in transiently transfected COS1 cells. While addition of RU486 to the cells transfected with hGR results in a 16-fold dose-dependent increase in transactivation compared to non-treated cells, no significant change in transactivation is observed with gsmGR at doses up to 100 nM RU486. Further experiments using six GR chimeras indicate that replacement of the hGR carboxyl-terminus of tau-1 transactivation domain (C-AF1, amino acids 132-428) with that from gsmGR diminishes hGR transactivation by RU486. These results demonstrate that RU486-induced transactivation of GR is determined in part by amino acids in the C-AF1 domain.

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Galla Rhois on Growth Performance and Diarrhea Incidence in Postweaning Piglets (이유자돈에 있어서 성장증체 및 설사발생에 미치는 오배자의 급여 효과)

  • Cha, Chun-Nam;Yu, Eun-Ah;Park, Eun-Kee;Kim, Suk;Lee, Hu-Jang
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2013
  • A study investigated the effects of Galla Rhois (GR) on growth performance and diarrhea incidence of postweaning piglets. One hundred 28-day-old piglets were randomly assigned into five experimental groups, which were a basal diet alone (NC), chlortetracycline 0.3 g/kg feed (PC) and supplemented with GR 1.0 g/kg feed (GR 1), GR 2.0 g/kg feed (GR 2), and GR 4.0 g/kg feed (GR 3). After 28 days of administration, final body weight (BW) and feed conversion ratio of PC, GR 2 and GR 3 was significantly different compared to those of NC (p < 0.05). Additionally, the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of PC and all groups treated with GR was significantly different compared to those of NC (p < 0.05). Especially, final BW, ADG, ADFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of GR 2 and GR 3 were not significant different compared to those of PC. In fecal scores and duration of diarrhea, PC and all groups treated with GR were significantly different compared to NC (p < 0.05). In hematogolical and serum biochemical analysis, there were no significant differences in any of the hematogolical and serum biochemical parameters examined in either NC or all groups treated with GR. The results of this study indicated that GR could be a potential candidate as feed additives for the improvement of growth performance and incidence of diarrhea in piglets.

Studies on the Relation between the Weight of Rhizoma-bulb and the Growth of Fritillaria ussuriensis Max. (패모린경의 무게와 생육과의 관계)

  • Jong-Sun Park
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.141-144
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    • 1978
  • To obtain information on the status of vegetative and reproductive growth of Fritillariae rhizoma-bulb were sown in 5 levels-weight (1. 5 gram, 3gram. .5gram, 7gram, and 9gram). Results observed were as follows; A clear plus correlations were shown between the germination status, plant height and other agronomic characteristics and the weight of rhizoma-bulb. As the weight of rhizoma-bulb was increasing, also the number of flower and yields were increased.

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Deciphering the Genes for Taste Receptors for Fructose in Drosophila

  • Uchizono, Shun;Itoh, Taichi Q.;Kim, Haein;Hamada, Naoki;Kwon, Jae Young;Tanimura, Teiichi
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.10
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    • pp.731-736
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    • 2017
  • Taste sensitivity to sugars plays an essential role in the initiation of feeding behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified several gustatory receptor (Gr) genes required for sensing sweet compounds. However, it is as yet undetermined how these GRs function as taste receptors tuned to a wide range of sugars. Among sugars, fructose has been suggested to be detected by a distinct receptor from other sugars. While GR43A has been reported to sense fructose in the brain, it is not expressed in labellar gustatory receptor neurons that show taste response to fructose. In contrast, the Gr64a-Gr64f gene cluster was recently shown to be associated with fructose sensitivity. Here we sought to decipher the genes required for fructose response among Gr64a-Gr64f genes. Unexpectedly, the qPCR analyses for these genes show that labellar expression levels of Gr64d and Gr64e are higher in fructose low-sensitivity flies than in high-sensitivity flies. Moreover, gustatory nerve responses to fructose in labellar sensilla are higher in Gr64d and Gr64f mutant lines than in mutant flies of the other Gr64a-Gr64f genes. These data suggest the possibility that deletion of GR64D or GR64F may indirectly induce enhanced fructose sensitivity in the labellum. Finally, we conclude that response to fructose cannot be explained by a single one of the Gr64a-Gr64f genes.

Electron Microscopic Study on the Mast Cells of the Vertebrates(Mammals) Stomach (척추동물(脊椎動物)(포유류(哺乳類))위(胃)의 비만세포(肥滿細胞)에 관한 전자현미경적 연구)

  • Kang Ho-Suck;Kim Chang-Whan
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 1981
  • An electron microscopical observation was carried out to compare the general shape of the mast cells and structures of granules inside the cells in the stomach of 5 species in 3 orders of Mammals. In convenience, the granules in the cytoplasm were abbreviated as follows: 1) Homogeneous granule, GR1 2) Particulate granule, GR2 a. Dark dense particulate granule, GR2-1 b. Less dense particulate granule, GR2-2 3) Reticular granule, GR5 a. Dark dense reticular granule, GR5-1 b. Light dense reticular granule, GR5-2 In Mammalia including goat, dog, cat, and hamster, most of cytoplasmic organelle were Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, and most of the cytoplasmic granules were highly densed GR1and GR2. However GR5-1 and GR5-2 appeared in guinea pig while one side sunken or crescent-like types occured in both dog and guinea pig. All mast cells were oval or spindle with cytoplasmic processes around the cell. There was also found vacuoles and vesicles in these cells. These results demonstrated that there was a morphological difference between species of vertebrate in the mast cells and their cytoplasmic granules. It was also suggested that a variety of structures of granules were closely related with the composition (histamine, heparin, serotonin, hyaluronic acid etc.) and mature of the granules.

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Glutathione Reductase from Oryza sativa Increases Acquired Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in a Genetically Modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

  • Kim, Il-Sup;Kim, Young-Saeng;Yoon, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1557-1567
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    • 2012
  • Glutathione reductase (GR, E.C. 1.6.4.2) is an important enzyme that reduces glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to a sulfydryl form (GSH) in the presence of an NADPH-dependent system. This is a critical antioxidant mechanism. Owing to the significance of GR, this enzyme has been examined in a number of animals, plants, and microbes. We performed a study to evaluate the molecular properties of GR (OsGR) from rice (Oryza sativa). To determine whether heterologous expression of OsGR can reduce the deleterious effects of unfavorable abiotic conditions, we constructed a transgenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the GR gene cloned into the yeast expression vector p426GPD. OsGR expression was confirmed by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (semiquantitative RT-PCR) assay, Western-blotting, and a test for enzyme activity. OsGR expression increased the ability of the yeast cells to adapt and recover from $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative stress and various stimuli including heat shock and exposure to menadione, heavy metals (iron, zinc, copper, and cadmium), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethanol, and sulfuric acid. However, augmented OsGR expression did not affect the yeast fermentation capacity owing to reduction of OsGR by multiple factors produced during the fermentation process. These results suggest that ectopic OsGR expression conferred acquired tolerance by improving cellular homeostasis and resistance against different stresses in the genetically modified yeast strain, but did not affect fermentation ability.

Protective effects of Gastrodia rhizoma and steamed & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma with anti-oxidant efficacy and suppression of NFκB signaling pathway on LPS-induced liver injury (LPS로 유발한 간손상 마우스에서 항산화 및 항염증 효능을 통한 천마와 증숙 발효 천마의 간보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Jin;Kwon, O Jun;Lee, Ah Reum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Seo, Young-Bae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2016
  • This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Gastrodiae rhizoma and steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in the mice model. Sample was selected to GR0F0 (not processed gastrodia rhizome) and GR6F4 (fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae before steamed and dried 6 times) based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups - Normal group, vehicle group (LPS treated), GR0F0 group (fed GR0F0 before LPS treated) and GR6F4 group (fed GR6F4 before LPS treated) with 6 mice in each group. GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group were fed each extract 200 mg/kg/day during 8 days. LPS 20 mg/kg injected to the experimental groups as abdominal injection. We measured aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino-transferase in serum. GR0F0 and GR6F4 showed a significant decrease compared to the vehicle group. As a result of measuring the ROS, GR6F4 group showed a significant reduction in both the serum and liver tissues compared to the vehicle group. GR0F0 group showed a significant reduction only in the liver tissues. Activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and Inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group. But tumor necrosis factor alpha only showed a significant reduction in GR6F4 group. GR0F0 and GR6F4 groups against liver damage in mice with LPS. That showed significant effects on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory action. The effects of GR6F4 group showed superior results compared to GR0F0 group. Therefore, Steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodia rhizoma was might have a protective effect on liver injury.

The Elementary School Teachers' Conceptions and Utilization on the General Remarks in the Science Teacher's Guide (초등교사들의 과학 교사용 지도서 총론에 대한 인식과 활용 실태)

  • Jang, Myoung-Duk;Joung, Yong-Jae;Kim, Han-Je
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.535-552
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school teachers' conceptions on the general remarks (GR) in the new science teacher's guide, the teachers' conceptions on inservice training program of the GR, and their opinions of improvement on the GR. Also, the teachers' utilization of the GR was examined. The participants were 152 elementary school teachers who were teaching grade 3~6. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The results of this study are as follows; First, at least 13.2~17.1% of the teachers did not have specific conception of the purpose of the GR, and more than 90% of the teachers expressed that the GR is necessary in the teachers' guide. Second, about 60% of the teachers responded that the training program on the GR is necessary, and when the program is open, their most favorite agency and speaker were a provincial education office and a textbook developer(or author), respectively. Their most favorite time and period of the training program were the vacation and 15~30 hours, respectively. Third, the mean values on the frequency of use were lower than 3 point of the five-point Likert scale at both the GR for grade 3~4 and the GR for grade 5~6, and the teachers' main use of the GR was the planning a science lesson for an open class. Fourth, the teachers suggested various opinions and there was difference between the opinions about the GR for grade 3~4 and the opinions about the GR for grade 5~6.

Antithrombotic Effect of Galla Rhois (오배자의 항혈전 효과)

  • Song, Gyu-Yong;Park, Byung-Jun;Kim, Sung-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.120-123
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    • 2002
  • The possibility of Galla Rhois(GR) water extract as an antithrombotic agent was investigated. The effect of GR on platelet aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma(PRP) induced by collagen and ADP in vitro and coagulation parameters in a pathological model induced by endotoxin and hydrocortisone acetate(HA) in vivo were examined. In platelet aggregation assay, GR extract significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP in a dose-dependent manner. GR extract significantly increased the number of platelet and shortened prothrombin time(PT) and activated thromboplastin time(APTT) as compared with the control in pathological model induced by endotoxin and HA. Also, GR extract significantly increased fibrinogen level as compared with the control in a pathological model induced HA. These results suggest that GR may be a promising antithrombotic agent.

PHUND (Portable Head Up Navigation Display) for a Motor vehicle

  • Shin, Sung-Chul;Hahn, Sang-Hoon;Chi, Yong-Seok;Ahn, Tae-Jeong;Choi, Ho-Young;Park, Tae-Soo;Kim, Sung-Tae
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.421-424
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    • 2007
  • We have succeeded in designing a PHUND (portable head up navigation display), which has a compact system with a MD panel and full color display device using RGB LED sources. The PHUND has been developed as an alternative to conventional built-in type HUD system targeting the high volume aftermarket with an affordable price.

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