• Title/Summary/Keyword: GPR

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Study to Improve the Accuracy of Non-Metallic Pipeline Exploration using GPR Permittivity Constant Correction and Image Data Pattern Analysis (GPR 유전률 상수 보정과 영상자료 패턴분석을 통한 비금속 관로 탐사 정확도 확보 방안)

  • Kim, Tae Hoon;Shin, Han Sup;Kim, Wondae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.109-118
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    • 2022
  • GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), developed as a technology for geotechnical investigations such as sinkhole exploration, was used limitedly as a method to resolve undetectable lines in underground facility exploration. To improve the accuracy of underground facility data, the government made it possible to explore underground facilities using a non-metallic pipeline probe from July 2022. However, GPR has a problem in that the exploration rate is lowered in the soil with high moisture content, such as soft soil, such as clay layer, and there is a lot of variation in long-term accuracy. In this study, as a way to improve the accuracy of exploration considering the characteristics of GPR and the environment of underground facilities, we propose a GPR exploration method for underground facilities using permittivity constant correction and pattern analysis of GPR image data. Through this study, the accuracy of underground facility exploration and high reproducibility were derived as a result of field verification applying GPR frequency band and heterogeneous GPR.

KiSS1, KiSS2, GPR54 mRNA Expression of the Blacktip Grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (홍바리 Epinephelus fasciatus의 KiSS1, KiSS2, GPR54 mRNA 발현양상)

  • Kang, Hyeong-Cheol;Lee, Chi-Hoon;Song, Young-Bo;Baek, Hea-Ja;Kim, Hyung-Bae;Lee, Young-Don
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2012
  • Kisspeptin has been reported to facilitate sexual maturation and ovulation by directly stimulating GnRH neurons via its receptor, GPR54. The KiSS-GPR54 system is playing an important role in the reproduction of several mammalian species. However, little is known about their function in fish. The aim of this study is to understand the physiological function and evolutionary conservation of KiSS-GPR54 system in teleost fish blacktip grouper, Epinephelus fasciatus. In the present study, we have partial cloned KiSS1, KiSS2 GPR54 mRNAs from a brain samples. Tissue distribution analysis using RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS1, KiSS2, GPR54 transcripts were expressed in different tissue. The KiSS-GPR54 system in gonadal of immature and mature stage were analyzed using qRT-PCR. The partial sequence of KiSS1, KiSS2, GPR54 were 232 bp, 304 bp, 613 bp long, respectively. KiSS1, KiSS2, GPR54 mRNAs are shown common expression in the brain. The amount of KiSS1, KiSS2 mRNAs expression were significantly higher in mature stage than immature stage. However GPR54 mRNA expression was higher in immature stage. These results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that KiSS-GPR54 system plays an important role in the regulation of reproductive function in the blacktip grouper.

GPR78 promotes lung cancer cell migration and metastasis by activation of Gαq-Rho GTPase pathway

  • Dong, Dan-Dan;Zhou, Hui;Li, Gao
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2016
  • GPR78 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is predominantly expressed in human brain tissues. Currently, the function of GPR78 is unknown. This study revealed that GPR78 was expressed in lung cancer cells and functioned as a novel regulator of lung cancer cell migration and metastasis. We found that knockdown of GPR78 in lung cancer cells suppressed cell migration. Moreover, GPR78 modulated the formation of actin stress fibers in A549 cells, in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, GPR78 regulated cell motility through the activation of $G{\alpha}q$-RhoA/Rac1 pathway. We further demonstrated that in vivo, the knockdown of GPR78 inhibited lung cancer cell metastasis. These findings suggest that GPR78 is a novel regulator for lung cancer metastasis and may serve as a potential drug target against metastatic human lung cancer.

A Study on the Selection of GPR Type Suitable for Road Cavity Detection (도로동공 탐지에 적합한 GPR 타입 선정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yeon Tae;Choi, Ji Young;Kim, Ki Deok;Park, Hee Mun
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to evaluate different types of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) testing for characterizing the road cavity detection. The impulse and step-frequency-type GPR tests were conducted on a full-scale testbed with an artificial void installation. After analyzing the response signals of GPR tests for detecting the road cavity, the characteristics of each GPR response was evaluated for a suitable selection of GPR tests. METHODS : Two different types of GPR tests were performed to estimate the limitation and accuracy for detecting the cavities underneath the asphalt pavement. The GPR signal responses were obtained from the testbed with different cavity sizes and depths. The detection limitation was identified by a signal penetration depth at a given cavity for impulse and step-frequency-type GPR testing. The unique signal characteristics was also observed at cavity sections. RESULTS : The impulse-type GPR detected the 500-mm length of cavity at a depth of 1.0 m, and the step-frequency-type GPR detected the cavity up to 1.5 m. This indicates that the detection capacity of the step-frequency type is better than the impulse type. The step-frequency GPR testing also can reflect the howling phenomena that can more accurately determine the cavity. CONCLUSIONS :It is found from this study that the step-frequency GPR testing is more suitable for the road cavity detection of asphalt pavement. The use of step-frequency GPR testing shows a distinct image at the cavity occurrences.

Study on the Lipolytic Function of GPR43 and Its Reduced Expression by DHA

  • Sun, Chao;Hou, Zengmiao;Wang, Li
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 2009
  • G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) is a newly-discovered short-chain free fatty acid receptor and its functions remain to be defined. The objective of this study was to investigate the function of GPR43 on lipolysis. We successfully cloned the GPR43 gene from the pig (EU122439), and measured the level of GPR43 mRNA in different tissues and primary pig adipocytes. The expression level of GPR43 mRNA was higher in adipose tissue and increased gradually with adipocyte differentiation. Then we examined GPR43 mRNA level in different types, growth-stages and various regions of adipose tissue of pigs. The results showed that the expression level of GPR43 mRNA was significantly higher in adipose tissue of obese pigs than in lean pigs, and the expression level also gradually increased as age increased. We further found that the abundance of GPR43 mRNA level increased more in subcutaneous fat than visceral fat. Thereafter, we studied the correlation between GPR43 and lipid metabolism-related genes in adipose tissue and primary pig adipocytes. GPR43 gene had significant negative correlation with hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL, r = -0.881, p<0.01) and triacylglycerol hydrolase gene (TGH, r = -0.848, p<0.01) in adipose tissue, and had positive correlation with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$ gene ($PPAR_{\gamma}$, r = 0.809, p<0.01) and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL, r = 0.847, p<0.01) in adipocytes. In addition, we fed different concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to mice, and analyzed expression level changes of GPR43, HSL and TGH in adipose. The results showed that DHA down-regulated GPR43 and up-regulated HSL and TGH mRNA levels; GPR43 also had significant negative correlation with HSL (low: r = -0.762, p<0.01; high: r = -0.838, p<0.01) and TGH (low: r = -0.736, p<0.01; high: r = -0.586, p<0.01). Our results suggested that GPR43 is a potential factor which regulates lipolysis in adipose tissue, and DHA as a receptor of GPR43 might promote lipolysis through down-regulating the expression of GPR43 mRNA.

GPR-SEPARATION AXIOMS

  • Ilango, Gnanambal;Balachandran, Krishnan;Marudhachalam, Rayappan
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.507-512
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    • 2011
  • In this paper gpr-open sets are used to define some weak separation axioms and we study some of their basic properties. The implications of these axioms among themselves are also verified.

Advances in Imaging of Subsurface Archaeology using GPR

  • Dean, Goodman;Yasushi, Nishimur;Kent, Schneider;Salvadore, Piro;Hiromichi, Hongo;Noriaki, Higashi
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2004
  • Examples of GPR survey results at a variety of archaeological sites are presented. Several new analyses which include static corrections for the tilt of the GPR antenna are shown for imaging of burial mounds with significant topography. Example archaeological site plans developed from GPR remote sensing of Roman and Japanese sites are given. The first completely automated GPR survey, using only Global Positioning Satellite navigation to create 3D data volumes, is employed for a site in Louisiana to detect lost graves of the Choctaw Indian Tribe.

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Case Studies of Safety Diagnosis by GPR (GPR에 의한 안전진단 사례)

  • 한자경;최광철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • 1999.12a
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 1999
  • Ground penetrating radar(GPR) uses radio waves to detect buried objects in any non-metallic material. Initially it was used to detect structures in ice. GPR has evolved to include the penetration of soils, rocks and man-made structures. GPR uses a sensitive detector to record weak radio waves reflected from objects embedded in the material under investigation. In this study, the GPR is applied to outside plant telecommunication facilities such as cable tunnels, manholes and underground conduits and model experiments to obtain radar characteristics. The thickness and soundness of tunnel lining can be evaluated, and the location of rebars and steel ribs can also be found effectively. The location of underground conduits as well as manholes can be found and the results of GPR give good coincidence with design drawings. In order to investigate the tunnel lining, the GPR mounted vehicle is developed and it is proved that the vehicle can save time and manpower.

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Pretreatment with GPR88 Agonist Attenuates Postischemic Brain Injury in a Stroke Mouse Model (GPR88 효현제의 전처리에 의한 뇌졸중후 뇌손상 감소효과 연구)

  • Lee, Seo-Yeon;Park, Jung Hwa;Kim, Min Jae;Choi, Byung Tae;Shin, Hwa Kyoung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.939-946
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    • 2020
  • Stroke is one of the leading causes of neurological disability worldwide and stroke patients exhibit a range of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric impairments. GPR88 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons; its deletion results in poor motor coordination and motor learning. There are currently no studies on the involvement of GPR88 in stroke or in post-stroke brain function recovery. In this study, we found a decrease in GPR88 protein and mRNA expression levels in an ischemic mouse model using Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. In addition, we observed that, among the three types of cells derived from the brain (brain microvascular endothelial cells, BV2 microglial cells, and HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells), the expression of GPR88 was highest in HT22 neuronal cells, and that GPR88 expression was downregulated in HT22 cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Moreover, pretreatment with RTI- 13951-33 (10 mg/kg), a brain-penetrant GPR88 agonist, ameliorated brain injury following ischemia, as evidenced by improvements in infarct volume, vestibular-motor function, and neurological score. Collectively, our results suggest that GPR88 could be a potential drug target for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including ischemic stroke.