• Title, Summary, Keyword: GLUT

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GLUT Phosphorylation May be Required to GLUT Translocation Mechanism

  • Hah, Jong-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 2000
  • In this work, GLUTs phosphorylations by a downstream effector of PI3-kinase, $PKC-{\zeta},$ were studied, and GLUT4 phosphorylation was compared with GLUT2 phosphorylation in relation to the translocation mechanism. Prior to phosphorylation experiment, $PKC-{\zeta}$ kinase activity was determined as $20.76{\pm}4.09$ pmoles Pi/min/25 ng enzymes. GLUT4 was phosphorylated by $PKC-{\zeta}$ and the phosphorylation was increased on the vesicles immunoadsorpted from LDM and on GLUT4 immunoprecipitated from GLUT4- contianing vesicles of adipocytes treated with insulin. However, GLUT2 in hepatocytes was neither phosphorylated by $PKC-{\zeta}$ nor changed in response to insulin treatment. It was confirmed by measuring the subcellular distribution of GLUT2 based on GLUT2 immunoblot density among the four membrane fractions before and after insulin treatment. Total GLUT2 distributions at PM, LYSO, HDM and LDM were $37.7{\pm}12.0%,\;42.4{\pm}12.1%,\;19.2{\pm}5.0%\;and\;0.7{\pm}1.2%$ in the absence of insulin. Total GLUT2 distribution in the presence of insulin was almost same as that in the absence of insulin. Present data with previous findings suggest that GLUT4 translocation may be attributed to GLUT4 phosphorylation by $PKC-{\zeta}$ but GLUT2 does not translocate because GLUT2 is not phosphorylated by the kinase. Therefore, GLUT phosphorylation may be required in GLUT translocation mechanism.

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Comparative Effects of $PKB-{\alpha}$ and $PKC-{\zeta}$ on the Phosphorylation of GLUT4-Containing Vesicles in Rat Adipocytes

  • Hah, Jong-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.487-496
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    • 2000
  • Insulin stimulates glucose transport in muscle and fat cells by promoting the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT4) to the cell surface. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) has been implicated in this process. However, the involvement of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt and $PKC-{\zeta}$, those are known as the downstream target of PI3-kinase in regulation of GLUT4 translocation, is not known yet. An interesting possibility is that these protein kinases phosphorylate GLUT4 directly in this process. In the present study, $PKB-{\alpha}$ and $PKC-{\zeta}$ were added exogenously to GLUT4-containing vesicles purified from low density microsome (LDM) of the rat adipocytes by immunoadsorption and immunoprecipitation for direct phosphorylation of GLUT4. Interestingly GLUT4 was phosphorylated by $PKC-{\zeta}$ and its phosphorylation was increased in insulin stimulated state but GLUT4 was not phosphorylated by $PKB-{\alpha}.$ However, the GST-fusion proteins, GLUT4 C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (GLUT4C) and the entire major GLUT4 cytoplasmic domain corresponding to N-terminus, central loop and C-terminus in tandem (GLUT4NLC) were phosphorylated by both $PKB-{\alpha}$ and $PKC-{\zeta}.$ The immunoblots of $PKC-{\zeta}$ and $PKB-{\alpha}$ antibodies with GLUT4-containing vesicles preparation showed that $PKC-{\zeta}$ was co-localized with the vesicles but not $PKB-{\alpha}.$ From the above results, it is clear that $PKC-{\zeta}$ interacts with GLUT4-containing vesicles and it phosphorylates GLUT4 protein directly but $PKB-{\alpha}$ does not interact with GLUT4, suggesting that insulin-elicited signals that pass through PI3-kinase subsequently diverge into two independent pathways, an Akt pathway and a $PKC-{\zeta}$ pathway, and that later pathway contributes, at least in part, insulin stimulation of GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes via a direct GLUT4 phosphorylation.

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Glut1 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion by regulating epidermal growth factor receptor and integrin signaling in triple-negative breast cancer cells

  • Oh, Sunhwa;Kim, Hyungjoo;Nam, KeeSoo;Shin, Incheol
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.132-137
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    • 2017
  • Elevated glucose levels in cancer cells can be attributed to increased levels of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins. Glut1 expression is increased in human malignant cells. To investigate alternative roles of Glut1 in breast cancer, we silenced Glut1 in triple-negative breast-cancer cell lines using a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system. Glut1 silencing was verified by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Knockdown of Glut1 resulted in decreased cell proliferation, glucose uptake, migration, and invasion through modulation of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway and integrin ${\beta}1$/Src/FAK signaling pathways. These results suggest that Glut1 not only plays a role as a glucose transporter, but also acts as a regulator of signaling cascades in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer.

Fagopyritol, a Derivative of D-chiro-inositol, Induces GLUT4 Translocation via Actin Filament Remodeling in L6-GLUT4myc Skeletal Muscle Cells (랫드 근육세포에서 fagopyritol이 액틴 필라멘트 구조와 포도당 수송체 4에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Hajin;Hwang, In Koo;Jung, Harry;Kwon, Seung-Hae;Park, Ok Kyu;Suh, Jun Gyo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1163-1169
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    • 2013
  • Insulin induces glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the muscle cell surface. As fagopyritol has insulin-like effects, the effects of fagopyritol on GLUT4 translocation and filamentous (F) actin remodeling in L6-GLUT4myc skeletal muscle cells were investigated. Fagopyritol significantly increased plasma membrane GLUT4 levels compared with the basal control in L6-GLUT4myc myoblast cells. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) treatment prevented GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the myoblasts. Fagopyritol treatment apparently stimulates F-actin remodeling in myoblasts. In addition, fagopyritol treatment induced GLUT4 translocation and F-actin remodeling in myotubes. Taken together, these results suggest that fagopyritol promotes GLUT4 translocation and F-actin remodeling by activating the PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway.

Correlation of Gene Expression between Adiponectin and Glucose Transporter 4 in Mouse Adipose Tissue (생쥐 지방조직에서의 아디포넥틴과 포도당수송체-4 유전자 발현의 상관관계)

  • Lee, Yong-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.895-902
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    • 2014
  • Adiponectin has been known to improve insulin sensitivity and elicit glucose uptake via increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation. In the current study, mRNA expression levels of adiponectin and GLUT4 were measured in subcutaneous adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed normal (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) until 16, 26, 36, 47, or 77 weeks of age starting from 6 weeks of age. Expression levels were also measured in mice with calorie restriction (CR) and in thiazolidinedione (TZD) treated mice. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we demonstrated that GLUT4 expression in adipose tissue significantly decreased in HFD mice groups and increased in CR (p<0.05) and TZD (p=0.007) groups while there was no difference in adiponectin mRNA expression levels between experimental and control groups. General linear regression models were used to assess the association of gene expression levels between adiponectin and GLUT4 and to determine whether adiponectin affects GLUT4 transcription. mRNA expression levels of adiponectin and GLUT4 are significantly associated each other in mice fed a ND (p<0.0001) or HFD (p<0.0001), in groups separated into each age and diet, and CR group (p=0.002), but not in TZD group (p=0.73). These results demonstrated that gene expression of adiponectin and GLUT4 is strongly associated, suggesting that there is a common regulatory mechanism for adiponectin and GLUT4 gene expression and/or adiponectin has a direct role in GLUT4 gene expression in adipose tissue.

Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of the Porcine Insulin-responsive Glucose Transporter (GLUT4)

  • Zuo, Jianjun;Dai, Fawen;Feng, Dingyuan;Cao, Qingyun;Ye, Hui;Dong, Zemin;Xia, Weiguang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.640-648
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    • 2010
  • Insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is a member of the glucose transporter family and mainly presents in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. To clarify the molecular structure of porcine GLUT4, RACE was used to clone its cDNA. Several cDNA clones corresponding to different regions of GLUT4 were obtained by amplifying reverse-transcriptase products of total RNA extracted from Landrace porcine skeletal muscles. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA clones revealed that porcine GLUT4 cDNA was composed of 2,491 base pairs with a coding region of 509 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was over 90% identical to human, rabbit and cattle GLUT4. The tissue distribution of GLUT4 was also examined by Real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA expression abundance of GLUT4 was heart>liver, skeletal muscle and brain>lung, kidney and intestine. The developmental expression of GLUT4 and insulin receptor (IR) was also examined by Real-time RT-PCR using total RNA extracted from longissimus dorsi (LM), semimembranosus (SM), and semitendinosus (SD) muscle of Landrace at the age of 1, 7, 30, 60 and 90 d. It was shown that there was significant difference in the mRNA expression level of GLUT4 in skeletal muscles of Landrace at different ages (p<0.05). The mRNA expression level of IR also showed significant difference at different ages (p<0.05). The developmental change in the mRNA expression abundance of GLUT4 was similar to that in IR, and both showed a higher level at birth and 30 d than at other ages. However, there was no significant tissue difference in the mRNA expression of GLUT4 or IR (p>0.05). These results showed that the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA clones was highly identical with human, rabbit and cattle GLUT4 and the developmental change of GLUT4 mRNA in skeletal muscles was similar to that of IR, suggesting that porcine GLUT4 might be an insulin-responsive glucose transporter. Moreover, the tissue distribution of GLUT4 mRNA showed that GLUT4 might be an important nutritional transporter in porcine skeletal muscles.

Cross-reactivity of Human Polyclonal Anti-GLUT1 Antisera with the Endogenous Insect Cell Glucose Transporters and the Baculovirus-expressed GLUT1

  • Lee, Chong-Kee
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2001
  • Most mammalian cells take up glucose by passive transport proteins in the plasma membranes. The best known of these proteins is the human erythrocyte glucose transporter, GLUT1. High levels of heterologous expression far the transporter are necessary for the investigation of its three-dimensional structure by crystallization. To achieve this, the baculovirus expression system has become popular choice. However, Spodoptera frugiperda Clone 9 (Sf9) cells, which are commonly employed as the host permissive cell line to support baculovirus replication and protein synthesis, grow well on TC-100 medium that contains 0.1% D-glucose as the major carbon source, suggesting the presence of endogenous glucose transporters. Furthermore, very little is known of the endogenous transporters properties of Sf9 cells. Therefore, human GLUT1 antibodies would play an important role for characterization of the GLUT1 expressed in insect cell. However, the successful use of such antibodies for characterization of GLUT1 expression m insect cells relies upon their specificity for the human protein and lack of cross-reaction with endogenous transporters. It is therefore important to determine the potential cross-reactivity of the antibodies with the endogenous insect cell glucose transporters. In the present study, the potential cross-reactivity of the human GLUT1 antibodies with the endogenous insect cell glucose transporters was examined by Western blotting. Neither the antibodies against intact GLUT1 nor those against the C-terminus labelled any band migrating in the region expected fur a protein of M$_r$ comparable to GLUT1, whereas these antibodies specifically recognized the human GLUT1. Specificity of the human GLUT1 antibodies tested was also shown by cross-reaction with the GLUT1 expressed in insect cells. In addition, the insect cell glucose transporter was found to have very low affinity for cytochalasin B, a potent inhibitor of human erythrocyte glucose transporter.

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Effects of Glucose and IGF-I on Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut1) and Development of Preimplantation Mouse Embryo (생쥐의 착상전 배아의 발생과 Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut1) 발현에 대한 포도당과 IGF-I의 영향)

  • 전한식;계명찬;김종월;강춘빈;김문규
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 1998
  • A sodium-independent facilitative glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) is a major route by which glucose can be transported across the plasma membrane of mouse embryo. Although it has been known that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promotes glucose transport into the mouse embryo, whether IGF-I directly regulates transcription of Glut1 has been uncovered in mouse preimplantation embryo. This study was aimed to elucidate the role of glucose and IGF-I in development and Glut1 expression in preimplantation mouse embryo. Two-cell embryos developed in blastocyst regardless of the glucose in the presence of pyruvate. IGF-I significantly increased the number of blastomeres in the mid-blastula. Deprivation of glucose did not affect the amount of Glut1 transcripts in morula cultured from 2-cell embryo. IGF-I potentiated Glut1 expression in morula cultured from 2-cell embryo even in the absence of glucose. Taken together, it is concluded that depletion of glucose does not promote Glut1 expression the in morula cultured form 2-cell embryo, and that increment of Glut1 expression possibly mediates embryotropic effect of IGF-I on preimplantation mouse embryo.

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Inhibition of GLUT-1 Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes by Acetoxyscirpendiol of Paecilomyces tenuipes

  • Lee, Dong-Hee;Kim, Ha-Won
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.74-78
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    • 2004
  • Paecilomyces tenuipes, a caterpillar fungus, contains many health-promoting ingredients. Recent reports indicate that consumption of P. tenuipes helps reducing blood sugar content for diabetes. Mechanism for reduction in the circulatory sugar content, however, still remains least understood. Methanolic extraction of P. tenuipes (MPT) was prepared and acetoxyscirpendiol (ASD) was subsequently purified limn MPT. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was expressed in the Xenopus oocytes and the effect of MPT or ASD on the expressed GLUT-1 was analyzed according to the uptake of 2-dideoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG). MPT was shown to inhibit GLUT-1 activity significant1y compared to the non-treated control. In the presence of ASD and its derivatives, GLUT-1 activity was greatly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Among ASD and its derivatives, AS-1 showed most significant inhibition. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ASD in P. tenuipes may serve as a functional substance in lowering blood sugar in the circulatory system. ASD and its derivatives can be utilized as inhibitors of GLUT-1.

Differential Expression of Glucose Transporter Gene in Mouse Early Embryos (생쥐 초기배아의 Glucose Transporter유전자 발현 양상에 관한 연구)

  • Youm, Hye-Won;Byun, Hye-Kyung;Song, Gyun-Ji;Kim, Hae-Kwon;Lee, Ho-Joon
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 1998
  • The uptake of glucose for metabolism and growth is essential to most animal cells and is mediated by glucose-transporter (GLUT) proteins. The aim of this study was to determine which class of glucose transporter molecules was responsible for uptake of glucose in the mouse early embryo and at which stage the corresponding genes were expressed. In addition, co-culture system with vero cell was used to investigate the effect of the system on GLUT expression. Two-cell stage embryos were collected from the superovulated ICR female and divided into 3 groups. As a control, embryos were cultured in 0.4% BSA-T6 medium which includes glucose. For the experimental groups, embryos were cultured in either co-culture system with vero cells or glucose-free T6 medium supplemented with 0.4% BSA and pyruvate as an energy substrate. 2-cell to blastocyst stage embryos in those groups were respectively collected into microtubes (50 embryos/tube). Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was performed. The products were analysed after staining ethidium bromide by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Blastocysts were collected from each group at l20hr after hCG injection. They were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde, stained with hoechst, and mounted for observation. In control, GLUT1 was expressed from 4-cell to blastocyst. GLUT2 and GLUT3 were expressed in morula and blastocyst. GLUT4 was expressed in all stages. When embryos were cultured in glucose-free medium, no significant difference was shown in the expression of GLUT1, 2 and 3, compared to control. However GLUT4 was not expressed until morular stage. When embryos were co-cultured with vero cell, there was no significant difference in the expression of GLUT1, 2, 3 and 4 compared to control. To determine cell growth of embryos, the average cell number of blastocyst was counted. The cell number of co-culture ($93.8{\pm}3.1$, n=35) is significantly higher than that of control and glucose-free group ($76.6{\pm}3.8$, n=35 and $68.2{\pm}4.3$, n=30). This study shows that the GLUT genes are expressed differently according to embryo stage. GLUTs were detectable throughout mouse preimplantation development in control and co-culture groups. However, GLUT4 was not detected from 2- to 8-cell stage but detected from morula stage in glucose-free medium, suggested that GLUT genes are expressed autocrinally in the embryo regardless of the presence of glucose as an energy substrate. In addition, co-culture system can increase the cell count of blastocyst but not improve the expression of GLUT. In conclusion, expression of GLUT is dependent on embryo stage in preimplantation embryo development.

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