• Title, Summary, Keyword: GLC

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Reaction Pattern of Bacillus cereus D-11 Chitosanase on Chitooligosaccharide Alcohols

  • Gao, Xing-Ai;Jung, Woo-Jin;Kuk, Ju-Hee;Park, Ro-Dong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.358-361
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    • 2009
  • The purified endochitosanase(Mw 41 kDa) from bacterium Bacillus cereus D-11 hydrolyzed chitooligomers $(GlcN)_{5-7}$ into chitobiose, chitotriose, and chitotetraose as the final products. The minimal size of the oligosaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis was a pentamer. To further investigate the cleavage pattern of this enzyme, chitooligosaccharide alcohols were prepared as substrates and the end products of hydrolysis were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. The chitosanase split $(GlcN)_4GlcNOH$ into $(GlcN)_3+(GlcN)_1GlcNOH$, and $(GlcN)_5GIcNOH$ into $(GlcN)_4+(GlcN)_1GlcNOH$ and $(GlcN)_3+(GlcN)_2GlcNOH$. The heptamer $(GlcN)_6GlcNOH$ was split into $(GlcN)_5$ [thereafter hydrolyzed again into $(GlcN_3+(GlcN)2]+(GlcN)_1GlcNOH$, $(GlcN)_4+(GlcN)_2GlcNOH$, and $(GlcN)_3+(GlcN)_3GlcNOH$, whereas $(GlcN)_{1-3}GlcNOH$ was not hydrolyzed. The monomers GlcN and GIcNOH were never detected from the enzyme reaction. These results suggest that D-11 chitosanase recognizes three glucosamine residues in the minus position and simultaneously two residues in the plus position from the cleavage point.

Identification of Potential Substrates of N-acteylglucosamine Kinase by a Proteomic Approach (프로테오믹스를 이용한 N-아세틸글루코사민 인산화효소 기질단백질의 동정)

  • Lee, HyunSook;Moon, Il Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.586-594
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    • 2013
  • Post-translational O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of serine or threonine is a new protein modulation mechanism. In contrast to the classical glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation occurs in a one-step transfer of O-GlcNAc on both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In contrast to the general consensus that O-GlcNAc is a final modification, a recent paper (J Proteome Res. 2011 10:2725-2733) showed the presence of O-GlcNAc-P on a synaptic assembly protein AP180. This finding raises a fundamental question about its prevalence. To address this question, we used proteomics to identify those proteins that were phospho-signal enriched by GlcNAc kinase (NAGK). Comparison of pDsRed2-$NAGK_{WT}$-transfected HEK293T cell extract with pDsRed2-$NAGK_{D107A}$-transfected control culture revealed 15 phospho-signal increased spots. Excluding those spots that had no detectable amount of protein expression yielded 7 spots, which were selected for ID determination. Among these, two duplicate spots (two $HSP90{\beta}$ and two ENO1 spots) were shown to be O-GlcNAcylated, two (dUTP nucleotidohydrolase mitochondrial isoform 2, glutathione S-transferase P) were not known to be involved in O-GlcNAcylation, and one (heat shock protein gp96 precursor or grp94) was a glycoprotein. The increase in the phospho-levels of O-GlcNAc by NAGK strongly indicates that these proteins are phosphorylated on O-GlcNAc. Our present data support the idea that O-GlcNAc is not a terminal modification.

The Potential 'O-GlcNAc-P'om' ('O-GlcNAc-P'om'의 존재 가능성)

  • Moon, Il Soo;Lee, HyunSook;Lee, Hyung Jong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.324-331
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    • 2013
  • The addition and removal of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) molecules on serine or threonine residues of a protein is called O-GlcNAcylation. This post-translational modification occurs on both cytoplasmic and nuclear protein, and is fast and reversible as comparable to phosphorylation. In contrast to the phospho-signaling cycles, this emerging moon-lightening signaling is cycled by only two enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). The simple machinery is a good evolutionary adaptation of a cell for quick accommodation to continuously fluctuating intra- and extracellular microenvironments. Rather than "switching" on or off a specific proteins - this would be done by phosphorylation where numerous specific kinases and phosphatases are involved - O-GlcNAcylation would play a "rheostat" which would be much more delicately increase or decrease the efficacy of signal transductions in response to cellular nutrient and stress conditions. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that O-GlcNAc is further modified by phosphorylation. The O-GlcNAc-P will upgrade the modulation efficiency of cellular processes to continuous 'analogue' level. So far, only one protein AP180 was reported to have O-GlcNAc-P on Thr310. But, proteomic data from our laboratory indicate that there are multiple O-GlcNAc-P proteins, constituting "O-GlcNAc-P'om". This will focus on the possibility of existence of "O-GlcNAc-P'om".

Glucosamine Hydrochloride and N-Acetylglucosamine Influence the Response of Bovine Chondrocytes to TGF-β3 and IGF in Monolayer and Three-Dimensional Tissue Culture

  • Pizzolatti, Andre Luiz A.;Gaudig, Florian;Seitz, Daniel;Roesler, Carlos R.M.;Salmoria, Gean Vitor
    • Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.781-791
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN HCl) has been shown to inhibit cell growth and matrix synthesis, but not with N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) supplementation. This effect might be related to an inhibition of critical growth factors (GF), or to a different metabolization of the two glucosamine derivatives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the synergy between GlcN HCl, GlcNAc, and GF on proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis. METHOD: Bovine chondrocytes were cultivated in monolayers for 48 h and in three-dimensional (3D) chitosan scaffolds for 30 days in perfusion bioreactors. Serum-free (SF) medium was supplemented with either growth factors (GF) $TGF-{\beta}$ ($5ng\;mL^{-1}$) and IGF-I ($10ng\;mL^{-1}$), GlcN HCl or GlcNAc at 1mM each or both. Six groups were compared according to medium supplementation: (a) SF control; (b) SF + GlcN HCl; (c) SF + GlcNAc; (d) SF + GF; (e) SF + GF + GlcN HCl; and (f) SF + GF + GlcNAc. Cell proliferation, proteoglycan, collagen I (COL1), and collagen II (COL2) synthesis were evaluated. RESULTS: The two glucosamines showed opposite effects in monolayer culture: GlcN HCl significantly reduced proliferation and GlcNAc significantly augmented cellular metabolism. In the 30 days 3D culture, the GlcN HCl added to GF stimulated cell proliferation more than when compared to GF only, but the proteoglycan synthesis was smaller than GF. However, GlcNAc added to GF improved the cell proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis more than when compared to GF and GF/GlcN HCl. The synthesis of COL1 and COL2 was observed in all groups containing GF. CONCLUSION: GlcN HCl and GlcNAc increased cell growth and stimulated COL2 synthesis in long-time 3D culture. However, only GlcNAc added to GF improved proteoglycan synthesis.

Analysis of Human O-GlcNAcase Gene and the Expression of the Recombinant Gene. (사람의 O-linked N-acetyl-$\beta$-D-glucosaminidase 유전자의 분석과 재조합 발현)

  • 강대욱;서현효
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2004
  • Dynamic modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on Ser and Thr residues is ubiquitous in higher eukaryotes. And this modification may serve as a signaling mod-ification analogous to protein phosphorylation. Addition and cleavage of O-GlcNAc are catalyzed by O-linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-linked N-acety1glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase), respectively. Two types of human O-GlcNAcase gene were cloned and expressed as three fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. O-GlcNA-case activity showed in the order of thioredoxin fusion> $6{\times}His$ tag> GST fusion. O-GlcNAcase had enzy-matic activity against only ${\rho}$NP-GlcNAc of seven tested substrate analogs. Blast search revealed that O-GlcNAcase has two conserved domains, amino terminal hyaluronidase-like domain and carboxy terminal N-acetyltransferase domain. Extensive deletion studies were done to define catalytically important domains. The deletions of hyaluronidase-like domain and N-acetyltransferase domain abolished enzyme activity. But, N-ter-minal 55 amino acid deletion and C-terminal truncation showed lower activity. Based on deletion analysis, we suggest that hyaluronidase-like domain is essential for enzyme activity and carboxy terminal N-acetyltrans-ferase domain may be modulatory function.

Reframing The Global Leadership Competencies Models (글로벌 리더십 역량 모형의 재구성)

  • Kim, Beom-Seong
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.215-228
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    • 2012
  • This study aims to answer the research question of what are the global leadership competencies(GLC) and what is the integrating framework of GLC? To attain the goal of reframing the GLC models with systematic research on GLC, the specific objectives are delineated as follows; the first objective is to identify the area of GLC. The second one is to extract the dimensions agreed with consensus. The third one is to suggest the reframed GLC model. Through the literature review and content analysis about GLC and global mindset, the two dimensions-subject and objects-of GLC model are emerged to classify the existing clusters of GLC. The extracted objects are self, others, culture, business, and global world. The dimension of subject who is global leader is more specifically divided into the knowing/doing process and three aspects of human activity like cognitive, emotional, and behavioral one. GLC are reframed and rearranged based on the two dimensions. As a results new framework for GLC with 11 clusters are presented. Knowing group of GLC contains personal, social, cultural, business literacy, and global mindset. Doing group of GLC contains personal, social, cultural, business savvy, and global change. Personal traits as a core character are at the core of the knowing and doing process of the self. Lastly, the implications and limitations of this research are suggested, and suggestion for further research is followed.

Detection of O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosamine Modification and Its Associated Enzymes in Human Degenerated Intervertebral Discs

  • Nikolaou, Georgios;Zibis, Aristeidis Hristos;Fyllos, Apostolos H.;Katsioulis, Antonios;Sotiriou, Sotirios;Kotrotsios, Anastasios;Sgantzos, Markos;Vassiou, Aikaterini;Arvanitis, Dimitrios L.
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.863-869
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    • 2017
  • Study Design: Human herniated discs were obtained from discectomy specimens for the immunohistochemical detection of O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAcase (OGA)/O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the extent of O-GlcNAcylation and its associated enzymes (OGT/OGA) in human degenerated intervertebral discs. Overview of Literature: The O-GlcNAcylation of nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins as well as the effects of such post-translational modifications are currently the focus of extensive research. O-GlcNAcylation is believed to contribute to the etiology of chronic illnesses by acting as a nutrient and stress sensor in the cellular environment. Mature intervertebral disc cells are chondrocyte-like cells, and O-GlcNAc has been shown to promote chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro. We believe that O-GlcNAcylation is a key regulator of disc degeneration. Methods: Fifty-six specimens were fixed for 24 hours in a 10% solution of neutral-buffered formaldehyde, dehydrated, and embedded in paraffin. Tissue slices ($4-{\mu}m-thick$) were used for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Results: We found that O-GlcNAcylation of cytoplasmic proteins was less than that of nuclear proteins in both single cells and cell clusters. Cytoplasmic O-GlcNAcylation occurs subsequent to nuclear O-GlcNAcylation and is directly proportional to disc degeneration. OGT and O-GlcNAc expression levels were identical in all specimens examined. Conclusions: O-GlcNAc and OGA/OGT expression is shown to correlate for the first time with intervertebral disc cell degeneration. Increasing disc degeneration is associated with increasing O-GlcNAcylation in both nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in human disc cells.

Action Patterns of Chitinase and Separations of Chitooligosaccharides Produced by Chitinolytic Hydrolysis (키티나제에 의한 키토올리고당의 생성활성 규명과 올리고당의 당별 분리 생산)

  • Kim, Kwang
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 2002
  • N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)n] whose degree of polymer-ization is from one to ten (n=1-10) were fractionated by column chromatography on CM-Sephadex. Electro dialysis from a partially deacetylated chitosan hydrolysate prepared crudely with the N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase(chitinase) and exo-N, N'-diacetylchito-biohydrolase(chitobiase) of Serratia marcescens QM B1466. Reducing sugar compositions and sequences of the N-acetyl-glucosamine oligosaccharides were identified by N-acetylation, randomly cleavage with chitinase and ego-splitting with chitobiase. N-acetyl-glucosamine heterochitooligosaccharides with glucosamine oligosaccharides, (GlcN)n at the reducing end residues together with $(GlcN)_1\sim(GlcN)_4$ were detected. Separation was accomplished by prefractionation with election by 0 to 1.0 M NaCl gradient solution. $(GlcNAc)_1 =4.25%,\; (GlcNAc)_2=4.49%,; (GlcNAc)_3=11.1%,\; (GlcNAc)_4=2.5%,$$ $(GlcNAc)_{5}$=0.64%, $(GlcNAc)_{6}$=2.12% and $(GlcNAc)_{7}$=1.21%, respectively, were crystallized after electrodialysis and lyophilization Each N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligosaccharides content were detected by HPLC.

Proteomic Analysis of O-GlcNAc Modifications Derived from Streptozotocin and Glucosamine Induced β-cell Apoptosis

  • Park, Jung-Eun;Kwon, Hye-Jin;Kang, Yup;Kim, Young-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.1058-1068
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    • 2007
  • The post-translational modifications of Ser and Thr residues by O-linked $\beta$-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), i.e., O-GlcNAcylation, is considered a key means of regulating signaling, in a manner analogous to protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) stimulates O-GlcNAcylation, and that this may be responsible for many of the manifestations of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine whether excessive O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins results in pancreatic $\beta$ cell dysfunction, we increased nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation levels in $\beta$ cells by exposing them to streptozotocin and/or glucosamine. Streptozotocin and glucosamine co-treatment increased O-GlcNAcylated proteomic patterns as assessed by immunoblotting, and these increases in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylations were accompanied by impaired insulin secretion and enhanced apoptosis in pancreatic $\beta$ cells. This observed $\beta$cell dysfunction prompted us to examine Akt and Bcl-2 family member proteins to determine which proteins are O-GlcNAcylated under conditions of high HBP throughput, and how these proteins are associated with $\beta$ cell apoptosis. Eventually, we identified ten new O-GlcNAcylated proteins that were expressed during $\beta$ cell apoptosis, and analyzed the functional implications of these proteins in relation to pancreatic $\beta$ cell dysfunction.

Culture Conditions of E. coli Harboring Human O-Linked N-Acetyl-$eta$-Glucosaminidase Gene and Enzymatic Properties (사람의 O-linked-N-acetyl-$eta$-D-glucosaminidase 유전자를 함유한 대장균의 배양조건과 효소학적 특성)

  • 강대욱;조용권;서현효
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2004
  • Protein modification by N-acetyl-$\beta$-D-glucosamine (O-G1cNAc) on the hydroxyl groups of Ser or Thr ubiq-uitously occurs in eukaryotic cells and is involved in many cellular phenomena. The level of O-G1cNAc-mod-ified protein is regulated by OGT and O-GlcNAcase enzymes. We have tried to produce recombinant O-GlcNAcase in E. coli as an effort to establish in vitro screening system for modulators of O-GlcNAcase. The culture conditions for improvement of O-GlcNAcase productivity, were as follows: induction temperature, $30^{\circ}C$; the concentration of L-arabinose, 0.02% and induction time, 5 hr. Under these culture conditions, E. coli cells containing O-GlcNAcase gene had no enzyme activity until up to 3 hr culture. However, O-GlcNAcase activity dramatically increased from 3 to 5 hr culture. It almost maintained the same level after 5 hr culture. Western blot analysis verified the amount of expressed O-GlcNAcase increased with culture time, being con-sistent with activity data. The optimal reaction condition determined in this study was as follows: protein quan-tity, $5{\mu}g$; reaction time, 30 min; reaction temperature, $45^{\circ}C$; substrate concentration, 2 mM; reaction pH, 6.5. Methanol had little effect on O-GlcNAcase activity and 90% of activity were retained at 10%. Only 15% resid-ual activity were detected at 5% of chloroform.