• Title, Summary, Keyword: GC

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Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp. (Bacillus spp.를 이용한 옥수수 밑둥썩음병의 생물학적 방제)

  • Han, Joon-Hee;Park, Gi-Chang;Kim, Joon-Oh;Kim, Kyoung Su
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.280-289
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    • 2015
  • Maize (Zea mays L.) is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08) were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.

Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinoma and Specific Features of the Accompanying Immune Response

  • Cho, Junhun;Kang, Myung-Soo;Kim, Kyoung-Mee
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2016
  • Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is one of the four subtypes of gastric carcinoma (GC), as defined by the novel classification recently proposed by The Cancer Genome Atlas. EBVaGC has several clinicopathological features such as longer survival and higher frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) and carcinoma with Crohn's disease-like lymphoid reaction that distinguish it from EBV-negative GC. The intensity and pattern of host cellular immune response in GC have been found to significantly correlate with the prognosis of patients with GC, suggesting that immune reaction and tumor microenvironment have critical roles in the progression of GC, and in particular, EBVaGC. Here, we reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prominent immune reactions in patients with EBVaGC. In EBVaGC, deregulation of the expression of immune response-related genes promotes marked intra-or peritumoral immune cell infiltration. The expression of programmed death receptor-ligand 1 is known to be increased in EBVaGC, and therefore, it has been proposed as a favorable prognostic factor for patients with EBVaGC, albeit some data supporting this claim are controversial. Overall, the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance of the host cellular immune response in patients with EBVaGC have not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, further research is necessary to better understand the role of tumor microenvironment in EBVaGC.

The Comparison of VOC Characteristics Emitted from Wood-based Panels Using GC/FID and GC/MS (GC/FID와 GC/MS 분석법에 의한 목질제품에서의 VOC 방출특성 비교)

  • Hwang, Yoon-Seo;Park, Hyun-Ju;Son, Youn-Suk;Kim, Jo-Chun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.436-442
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    • 2011
  • In this study, the Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) emitted from wood-based panels were compared by two analytical methods using the GC/FID and the GC/MS. Japanese Larch, Yellow Poplar, Particle Board (PB) and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) were selected as target materials. Major compounds emitted from the panels were Toluene, ${\alpha}$-pinene, ${\beta}$-pinene and limonene. In case of TVOC using GC/FID method, MDF E2 (1,497 ${\mu}g/m^3$) revealed the highest concentration among all wood-based panels, while Japanese Larch (1,772 ${\mu}g/m^3$) showed the highest value with respect to GC/MS method. Furthermore, it was found that the amount of VOC emitted from panels was different depending upon analytical methods. This significant difference was attributed to analytical sensitivities of GC/FID and GC/MS for various VOC. Besides, it was found that the composition ratios of main VOC compounds were not significantly different.

Method Development for the Odor-Active Compound Determination by Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection/Olfactometry (냄새성분 측정을 위한 기체 크로마토그래피/불꽃이온화 검출/후각 검출법의 개발)

  • Kim, Man-Goo;Jung, Young-Rim;Seo, Young-Min;Yang, Hee-Hwa
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.180-190
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    • 2001
  • Oder-active compounds are complex in a sample. These compounds are usually analyzed by GC or GC/MSD while such analytical measurement can quantify specific volatile organic compounds, it has limitations in identifying odor-active compounds. To resolve this problem, GC-Sniffing or GC-Olfactometry method has been attempted. In this study, GC/FID/Olfactometry system was developed. This system can simultaneously sniff and detect GC effluents by traditional GC combined with human olfactory system. The time gap between FID and ODP response was dependent on the kinds and concentrations of chemicals and panels, with more volatile, stronger and shorten breath cycle panel showing narrow time gap. Thus, clear relationship between FID and ODP should be considered to identify the odor-active compounds.

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Comparison of the Cold-Pressed Peel Oil Composition between ]Korean and Japanese Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcov. forma Miyagawa-wase) by GC, GC-MS and GC-O

  • Park, Hyang-Sook;Sawamura, Masayoshi
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.5-11
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    • 2002
  • The comparison of the volatile flavor components from Korean and Japanese Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcov. forma Miyagawa-wase) peel oils, isolated by cold-pressing, was performed by gas chromatography, mass-spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eighty-five volatile components were identified in each oil by GC and GC-MS. Forty-three components were detected in each oil by GC-O. The total amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons was 95.88% (Korean mandarin) and 95.29% (Japanese mandarin). Limonene, ${\gamma}$-terpinene, myrcene and $\alpha$-pinene were the main components of the cold-pressed oils from the both samples. The volatile composition of the Japanese mandarin was characterized by a higher content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, especially bicyclogermacrene, $\alpha$-humullene and valencene. The volatile composition of two samples can easily be distinguished by the percentages of aldehydes, ketones and esters, which were found at higher levels in the Japanese mandarin. The sweet and fruity flavor was stronger in the Korean mandarin oil while herbaceous flavor was stronger in Japanese sample. From GC-O data it is suggested that the sweet and fruity flavor of the Korean mandarin resulted from terpinolene and linalool, and the herbaceous note of the Japanese mandarin from $\alpha$-humullene, nepal, ι-carvone and perill aldehyde.

Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine Based on Carbon Nanotube-Sol-Gel Titania-Nafion Composite Film Modified Electrode

  • Park, Ji-Ae;Kim, Byung-Kun;Choi, Han-Nim;Lee, Won-Yong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.3123-3127
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    • 2010
  • A highly sensitive electrochemical detection method for dopamine (DA) has been developed by relying on a multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT)-sol-gel titania-Nafion composite film modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA. Therefore, the CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode showed improved voltammetric and amperometric responses for DA compared to those obtained with both titania-Nafion/GC and Nafion/GC electrodes. The CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode gave a linear response ($R^2$ = 0.999) for DA from $0.5\;{\mu}M$ to 0.5 mM with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of $0.1\;{\mu}M$ and a good sensitivity of 150 mA/M while other electrodes such as CNT-Nafion/GC, titania-Nafion/GC, and a bare GC gave a sensitivity of 89, 39, and 36 mA/M, respectively. Besides, the CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode displayed very fast response time within 2 s. The modified electrode showed good selectivity against ascorbic acid. The modified electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. The CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode was applied to the determination of DA in urine and serum samples.

Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Kinnchi Absorbed in SPME by GC-AED and GC-MSD (SPME로 포집한 김치 휘발성분의 GC-AED및 GC-MSD에 의한 동정)

  • 하재호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.543-545
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    • 2002
  • The volatile compounds in kimchi adsorbed with solid phase microextraction (SPM) were analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-atomic emission detector (GC-AED) and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MSD). The volatile compounds were effectively adsorbed in SPME. Twenty five compounds such as dimethyl-sulfide were identified by GC-MSD and some of these were further confirmed to contain a sulfur and a nitrogen by GC-AED.

Comparison of three analytical methods for PCBs-containing liquid wastes (폴리염화비페닐류 함유 액상폐기물 시험방법별 분석결과 비교)

  • Kim, Kyeo-Keun;Yoon, Seong-Kyu;Bae, Woo-Keun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.278-283
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to compare the analytical results among L2000DX and two GC/ECD methods (rapid and conventional). 15 samples of transformer oils were collected to compare the analytical results. In the analytical results of PCBs-containing transformer oil, the PCBs concentrations were in the range of 4.4 mg/L to 182.8 mg/L with L2000DX, N.D. to 14.63 mg/L with conventional GC/ECD, and N.D. to 13.03 mg/L using rapid GC/ECD. The PCB concentrations detected with the L2000DX showed a large difference to those detected with GC/ECD methods. Otherwise, little difference was shown between the two GC/ECD methods at a concentration range lower than 4 mg/L, although the rapid GC/ECD method tended to detect a slightly lower concentration near the regulation criteria of Korea for 2 mg/L.

Gelatinized Carbohydrates in the Diet of Catla catla Fingerlings: Effect of Levels and Sources on Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Tissue Enzyme Activities

  • Yengkokpam, Sona;Sahu, N.P.;Pal, A.K.;Mukherjee, S.C.;Debnath, Dipesh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.89-99
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    • 2007
  • A Feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of three different sources and two levels of dietary gelatinized carbohydrate (GC) on nutrient utilization, growth, tissue composition and tissue enzyme activities of fingerlings of Catla catla (15.1-15.3 g). Six isocaloric (17.1-17.5 kJ/g) semi-purified diets were prepared either with rice, corn or tapioca at 40 or 50% GC each. The crude protein (CP) level used in the diet was 35% and 25% for 40% and 50% GC level, respectively to study the protein sparing effect of GC. The degree of gelatinization was higher for corn and tapioca than rice under similar cooking conditions. After a 60-d feeding trial, dry matter, carbohydrate, protein and lipid digestibility were higher in tapioca fed groups at both the levels of GC. However, the highest specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed in the corn fed groups at 50% GC level indicating better utilization of nutrients from gelatinized corn. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was almost similar in corn and tapioca fed groups between two levels of GC but in rice fed groups, FCR was lower in 40% GC than 50% GC level. The results indicated higher protein-sparing effect in corn and tapioca fed groups than rice fed groups. The order of gelatinized carbohydrate utilization in Catla catla fingerlings at 50% GC level was corn>tapioca>rice. At 40% GC level, corn and tapioca were comparable and more efficiently utilized than rice. In the corn fed groups, 50% GC was comparable with 40% GC level, whereas in rice and tapioca fed groups the 40% GC was better in terms of nutrient utilization. Liver glycogen content and hepatosomatic index were significantly (p<0.05) higher in those groups fed high GC (50%) irrespective of carbohydrate sources. Higher intestinal amylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were observed in higher GC fed groups than the lower GC groups. No mortality was found in any groups at any levels of GC.

Flavor Components of Poncirus trifoliata (탱자(Poncirus trifoliata)의 향기성분 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Chang-Hwan;Kim, Jung-Han;Kim, Kyoung-Rae;Ahn, Hey-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.749-754
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    • 1989
  • The essential oil was prepared by a gas co-distillation method from flavedo of Poncirus trifoliata and was analyzed by GC/ retention index (RI) and GC/MS. The essential oil prepared by a gas co-distillation gave a whole fragrance of Poncirus trifoliata. The identification of the flavor components was performed by multi-dimensional analysis using GC/RI and GC/MS. GC/RI and GC/MS were complementary to each other. In applying GC/RI for identification, it was more effective when two columns of different polarities were used. Thirty volatile flavor constituents were identified in Poncirus trifoliata. Limonene, myrcene, ${\beta}-caryophyllene,\;trans-{\beta}-ocimene$, ${\beta}-pinene$, 3-thujene and 7-geranyloxycoumarin were the major constituents and cis-3-hexenyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, 2-methyl acetophenone, elixene and elemicine had not been reported earlier as citrus components.

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