• Title, Summary, Keyword: G1 phase arrest

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Cha-ga Mushroom Water Extract induces G0/G1 Arrest in B16-F10 Melanoma cells (차가버섯추출물에 의한 흑색종의 세포주기 억제효과)

  • Youn, Myung-Ja;Song, Jeong-Hoon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.204-208
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    • 2007
  • Chaga mushroom extract is well known as immune modulator and anti-cancer agent. However, the molecular mechanism by which Chaga exerts cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated anti-proliferative effects of Chaga extract on murine melanoma B16 cells. Chaga extract dose-dependently inhibited cell growth along with the arrest of G0/G1 phase and the induction of apoptotic cell death. Treatment with Chaga extract resulted in a decrease of cyclin E, cyclin D1, cdk 2, cdk 4 expression levels. Furthermore, in vivo inoculation study of B16 melanoma cells into Balb/c mice Chaga extract markedly suppressed the metastatic growth of tumor cells (6 folds, p<0.05,). These results indicate that Chaga mushroom extract induces apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells through arrest of G0/G1 phase in cell cycle.

Machanism of Cisplatin-induced Apoptosis and Bojungbangam-tang-mediated Anti-apoptotic Effect on Cell Proliferation in Rat Mesangial Cells (Cisplatin과 보정방암탕에 의한 백서 사구체 혈관사이세포의 세포사멸 기전 연구)

  • Ju, Sung Min;Kim, Sung Hoon;Kim, Yeong Mok;Jeon, Byung Hun;Kim, Won Sin
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2013
  • Cisplatin is a anti-neoplastic agent which is commonly used for the treatment of solid tumor. Cisplatin activates multiple signal transduction pathways involved in the stress-induced apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Previous study reported that cisplatin induces apoptosis through activation of ERK, p38 and JNK in rat mesangial cells, but apoptotic pathway remain known. The present study investigated the apoptotic pathway for cisplatin-indcued apoptosis in rat mesangial cells. cisplatin-induced apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9. Caspase-8 inhibition prevented the activation of both caspase-3 and caspase-9. In addition, cisplatin-induced apoptosis increased the expression of Bax, but not the level of Bcl-2. These change of Bax/bcl-2 ratio caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol. In previous study, the ethanol extract of Bojungbangam-tang (EBJT) inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis in rat mesangial cells through inhibition of ERK and JNK activation. However, EBJT did not increase cell proliferation, because it did not prevent cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest. These effect of EBJT may be related to p38 activation. Cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest are inhibited by treatment with p38 inhibitor and EBJT in rat mesangial cells. Also, p38 inhibition and EBJT treatment on cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest are markedly increased the G0/G1 phase and reduced the sub-G1. In conclusion, anti-apoptotic effet of EBJT did not increases cell proliferation, because EBJT did not reduce p38 activation related to cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest.

Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells via $G_0/G_1$ phase arrest and induction of differentiation

  • Cho, Seoung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2006
  • 1 The present work was performed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on proliferation, cell cycle-regulation and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms for these effects. 2 Ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in both a dose- and time-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$, $20{\mu}M$. 3 DNA flow-cytometry indicated that ginsenoside Rh2 markedly induced a $G_1$ phase arrest of HL-60 cells. 4 Among the $G_1$ phase cell cycle-related proteins, the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)4, 6 and cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 were reduced by ginsenoside Rh2, whereas the steadystate levels of CDK2 and cyclin E were unaffected. 5 The protein levels of a CDK inhibitor p16, $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ were markedly increased by ginsenoside Rh2. 6 Ginsenoside Rh2 markedly enhanced the binding of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ with CDK2 and CDK6, resulting in the reduced activity of both kinases and the hypophosphorylation of Rb protein. 7 We furthermore suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 is a potent inducer of the differentiation of HL-60 cells, based on observations such as a reduction of the nitroblue tetrazolium level, an increase in the esterase activities and phagocytic activity, morphology changes, and the expression of CD11b, CD14, CD64 and CD66b surface antigens. 8 In conclusion, the onset of ginsenoside Rh2-induced the $G_0/G_1$ arrest of HL-60 cells prior to the differentiation is linked to a sharp up-regulation of the $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ level and a decrease in the CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. This is the first report demonstrating that ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibits the proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells via the $G_1$ phase cell cycle arrest and differentiation induction.

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Kaempferol induced the apoptosis via cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer MDA-MB-453 cells

  • Choi, Eun-Jeong;Ahn, Woong-Shick
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.322-325
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    • 2008
  • The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cellular proliferation and cell cycle arrest and explore the mechanism for these effects in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453 cells. Cells were treated with kaempferol at various concentrations (ranging from 1 to $200\;{\mu}M$) for 24 and 48 hrs. Kaempferol significantly inhibited cancer cell growth in cells exposed to 50 and $10\;{\mu}M$ of kaempferol and incubated for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Exposure to kaempferol resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Of the G2/M-phase related proteins, kaempferol down-regulated CDK1 and cyclin A and B in cells exposed to kaempferol. In addition, small DNA fragments at the sub-G0 phase were increased by up to 23.12 and 31.90% at 10 and $50\;{\mu}M$ incubated for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. The kaempferol-induced apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation of p53. In addition, the phosphorylation of p53 at the Ser-15 residue was observed with kaempferol. Kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation by disrupting the cell cycle, which is strongly associated with the induction of arrest at G2/M phase and may induce apoptosis via p53 phosphorylation in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453 cells.

Inhibitory Effect of Bojungbangam-tang Kakambang on Cisplatin-Induced G2/M Phase Arrest in Human Renal Proximal Tubular HK-2 Cells (보정방암탕가감방(保正防癌湯加減方)이 cisplatin으로 유도된 인간 근위세뇨관 HK-2세포의 G2/M phase arrest에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sung-Cheul;Lee, Su-Kyung;Yeom, Seung-Ryong;Kwon, Young-Dal;Song, Yung-Sun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.1555-1563
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    • 2007
  • To idenifty effect of Bojungbangam-tang kakambang on Cisplatin-Induced G2/M Phase Arrest in Human Renal Proximal Tubular HK-2 Cells. Cytotoxicity of cisplatin was detected in HK-2 cells and the value of IC50 is about $25\;{\mu}M$. The treatment of cisplatin to HK-2 showed the G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The ethanol extract of Bojungbangam-tang kakambang (EBTKB), a new herbal prescription composed of ten crude herbs, inhibited cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest in HK-2 cells. EBTKB increased G0/G1 peak in cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells. p53, p21 and p27 expression were increased in cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells. Inhibitory effect of EBTKB on cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest was accomplished through inhibition of p53, p21 and p27 expression. Also, reduced CDK2 and cyclin A expression by cisplatin were increased by EBTKB, but cyclin E was not changed. Reduction of ERK activation and increment of p38 activation by cisplatin were increased ERK activation and decreased p38 activation by EBTKB. Cisplatin had no effect on JNK activation, but EBTKB increased JNK activation. These results can suggest that EBTKB inhibits cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest in HK-2 cell through reduction of p53-dependent p21 and p27 protein, ERK activation and p38 inactivation.

Viscum Album Var Hot Water Extract Mediates Anti-cancer Effects through G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in SK-Hep1 Human Hepatocarcinoma cells

  • Cruz, Joseph Flores dela;Kim, Yeon Soo;Lumbera, Wenchie Marie Lara;Hwang, Seong Gu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6417-6421
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    • 2015
  • Viscum album var (VAV) also known as mistletoe, has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its immunomodulating activities, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China and Korea. There are numerous reports showing that VAV possesses anti-cancer effects, however influence on human hepatocarcinoma has never been elucidated. In the present study, hot water extracts of VAV was evaluated for its potential anti-cancer effect in vitro. SK-Hep1 cells were treated with VAV (50-400ug/ml) for both 24 and 48 hours then cell viability was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the proportion of SK-Hep1 in the different stages of cell cycle. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were conducted to measure expression of cell cycle arrest related genes and proteins respectively. VAV dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of SK-Hep1 cells without any cytotoxicity with normal Chang liver cell (CCL-13). Flow cytometry analysis showed that VAV extract inhibited the cell cycle of SK-Hep1 cells via G1 phase arrest. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis both revealed that cyclin dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and cyclin D1 gene expression were significantly down regulated while p21 was upregulated dose dependently by VAV treatment. Combined down regulation of Cdk2, Cyclin D1 and up regulation of p21 can result in cell death. These results indicate that VAV showed evidence of anti-cancer activity through G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SK-Hep1 cells.

Sodium Metaarsenite (KML001) Induces G1 Phase Arrest in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells (대장암 세포주에서 메타아비산 나트륨에 의한 G1 세포주기 정지)

  • Hong, Yun-Kyung;Kim, Sun-Mi;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Kang, Jae-Seon;Hong, Yong-Geun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 2011
  • KML001 reduced the proliferation of HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner without change of cell viability. Beclin-1 expression was significantly attenuated by KML001 (P<0.05), but no significant changes were observed in KML001-treated cells. The number of cells in G1 phase was increased 48 hr after KML001 treatment. Furthermore, a dramatic reduction in the frequency of beating and the number of embryoid bodies of the cells was noted after treatment. Taken together, KML001 suppresses the proliferation of HCT116 cells, which might be due to G1 phase arrest.

Cell Cycle Arrest Effects by Artemisia annua Linné in Hep3B Liver Cancer Cell (Hep3B 간암세포에서 개똥쑥 추출물에 의한 Cell Cycle Arrest 효과)

  • Kim, Eun Ji;Kim, Guen Tae;Kim, Bo Min;Lim, Eun Gyeong;Kim, Sang Yong;Ha, Sung Ho;Kim, Young Min;Yoo, Je-Geun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 2015
  • Cells proliferate via repeating process that growth and division. This process is G1, S, G2 and M four phases consists. Monitoring the progression of the cell cycle is a specific step that to be a continuous process is repeated to adjust the start of the next step. At this time, this process is called a Checkpoint. Currently, there are three known checkpoints that G1-S phase, G2-M phase, and the M phase. In this study, we confirmed that cell cycle arrest effects by ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua Linne (AAE) in Hep3B liver cancer cells. AAE was regulated proteins which involved in cell cycle such as pAkt, pMDM2, p53, p21, pCDK2 (T14/Y15). AAE induced cell cycle arrest in G1 checkpoint through phosphorylation of CDK2. Akt and p53 upstream is inhibited by AAE and p53 activated by non-activated pMDM2, p53 inhibitor. Thereby, activated p53 is transcript to p21 and activated p21 protein is combined with Cyclin E-pCDK2 complex. Therefore, we confirmed that AAE-induced cell cycle arrest was occurred by p21-Cyclin E-pCDK2 complex by inhibition of pAkt signal. Because of this cell cycle can't pass to S phase from G1 phase.

Induction of G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptotic Cell Death by 5-Fluorouracil in Ewing′s Sarcoma CHP-100 Cells (CHP-100 Ewing′s 육종세포에서 5-fluorouracil에 의한 G1 arrest 유도 및 apoptosis 유발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung Ok;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1015-1021
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    • 2016
  • 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a pyrimidine analog, is a widely used anticancer drug, which works through irreversible inhibition of thymidylate synthase. In the present study, it was investigated the anti-proliferative effects and molecular mechanisms of 5-FU using Ewing's Sarcoma CHP-100 Cells. The present data indicated that treatment of 5-FU to CHP-100 cells induced a G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in a time-dependent manner. 5-FU-induced G1 arrest was correlated with the accumulation of the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and association of pRB with the transcription factors E2F-1 and E2F-4. Although 5-FU treatment did affect the levels of cyclin-dependent kinases, the levels of cyclin A and B were markedly down-regulated as compared with the untreated control group. In addition, 5-FU-induced G1 arrest of CHP-100 cells was also associated with the induction of apoptosis, as determined by apoptotic cell morphologies, degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and Annexin V staining. Furthermore, 5-FU induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with up-regulated pro-apoptotic Bax expression, down-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. Collectively, the data suggest that 5-FU is effective in inducing cell growth reduction and apoptosis, in part, by reducing phosphorylation of pRB and activating mitochondrial dysfunction in CHP-100 cells.

Caesalpinia sappan L. Induces G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Lymphoma U937 Cells (소목(蘇木) 물추출물의 G2/M기 정지를 통한 U937세포의 성장억제 효과)

  • Jeon, Byung-Jae;Ju, Sung-Min;Yang, Hyun-Mo;Kim, Bo-Hyun;Kim, Won-Sin;Jeon, Byung-Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2010
  • Caesalpinia sappan L. (C. sappan) has long been used in traditional medicine as an emmenagogue, hemostatic and anti-inflammatory agent. The present study investigated the effects of water extract of C. sappan in human lymphoma U937 cells. The proliferation of U937 cells was decreased by C. sappan in a dose-dependently manner. Anti-proliferative effect of C. sappan on U937 cells was associated with G2/M phase arrest, which was mediated by regulating the expression of p21 protein. Moreover, phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was increased by C. sappan. Blockade of JNK and p38 was significantly inhibited C. sappan-induced G2/M phase arrest. Taken together, these results suggest that Anti-proliferative effect of C. sappan on U937 is assocated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by expression of p21 protein and, JNK and p38 activation.