• Title, Summary, Keyword: G-Rh2

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The effects of exogenous insulin-like growth factor-I on broiler chicken growth (외인성 insulin-like growth factor-I이 육계의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ho-il;Lee, Moon-joon;Lee, Dae-yeoul;Kim, Young-ann;Kang, Chang-won;Chon, Seung-ki
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 1994
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-I) plays an important role in the regulation of mammalian and poultry growth. IGF-I has many actions in different tissues, which include metabolic, mitogenic, and differentiative actions. IGF-I induces insulin-like effects - such as increased cell glucose uptake and glycogen sysnthesis, however several physiological actions of IGF-I may not have been identified yet. In order to investigate the effect on growth in broiler chicken treated with exogenous insulin-like growth factor-I, 30 chickens were injected $50{\mu}g$ reconbinant human IGF- I (rhIGF- I ) per kg body weight as experimental group and 30 ckickens saline subcutanously as control, 3 times according to ages from 2 to 35 days. We established radioimmunoassay method by which we can measure chicken IGF- I (cIGF- I ) as in rhIGF- I assay. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The dilution curve showed in parallelism between rhIGF- I and cIGF- I in the Sep-pak $C_{18}$ cartridge plasma extracts. 2) The body weight of broiler chicken were significantly increased at 31 days($1,176.50{\pm}99.79g$) and 35 days($1,252.84{\pm}125.21g$) of age in treatment groups, compared with control group($1,011.88{\pm}40.22g,\;1,111.32{\pm}153.67g$). The liver and kidney weights on 35 days$(35.24{\pm}5.18g,\;11.05{\pm}1.47g)$ were significantly higher in rhIGF- I treated group than control group($30.95{\pm}4.04g,\;10.01{\pm}1.60g$) 3) The plasma concentration of IGF- l and total protein in rhIGF- I treated group were $58.17{\pm}1.69ng/ml$, $3.75{\pm}0.62g/dl$ respectively compared with control group $45.70{\pm}1.64ng/ml$, $2.32{\pm}0.53g/dl$. The results suggest that exogenous rhIGF- I increased total body weight, liver and kidney weights in broiler chicken, and it may increase IGF- I and total protein concentration in serum.

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The Phase-Shift Method for the Langmuir Adsorption Isotherms at the Noble Metal (Au, Rh) Electrode Interfaces (귀금속(Au, Rh) 전극계면에서 Langmuir 흡착등온식에 관한 위상이동방법)

  • Chun, Jang H.;Jeon, Sang K.;Lee, Jae H.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2003
  • The Langmuir adsorption isotherms of the over-potentially deposited hydrogen (OPD H) fur the cathodic $H_2$ evolution reaction (HER) at the poly-Au and $Rh|0.5M\;H_2SO_4$ aqueous electrolyte interfaces have been studied using cyclic voltammetric and ac impedance techniques. The behavior of the phase shift $(0^{\circ}{\leq}{-\phi}{\leq}90^{\circ})$ for the optimum intermediate frequency corresponds well to that of the fractional surface coverage $(1{\geq}{\theta}{\geq}0)$ at the interfaces. The phase-shift profile $({-\phi}\;vs.\;E)$ for the optimum intermediate frequency, i.e., the phase-shift method, can be used as a new electrochemical method to determine the Langmuir adsorption isotherm $({\theta}\;vs.\;E)$ of the OPD H for the cathodic HER at the interfaces. At the poly-Au|0.5M $H_2SO_4$ aqueous electrolyte interface, the equilibrium constant (K) and the standard free energy $({\Delta}G_{ads})$ of the OPD H are $2.3\times10^{-6}$ and 32.2kJ/mol, respectively. At the poly-Rh|0.5M $H_2SO_4$ aqueous electrolyte interface, K and ${\Delta}G_{ads}$ of the OPD H are $4.1\times10^4\;or\;1.2\times10^{-2}$ and 19.3 or 11.0kJ/mol depending on E, respectively. In contrast to the poly-Au electrode interface, the two different Langmuir adsorption isotherms of the OPD H are observed at the poly-Rh electrode interface. The two different Langmuir adsorption isotherms of the OPD H correspond to the two different adsorption sites of the OPD H on the poly-Rh electrode surface.

Ginsenoside-Rh2 Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Side Population Cells

  • Qian, Jun;Li, Jing;Jia, Jian-Guang;Jin, Xin;Yu, Da-Jun;Guo, Chen-Xu;Xie, Bo;Qian, Li-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1817-1821
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: To observed the effects of ginsenoside -Rh2 (GS-Rh2) on proliferation and apoptosis of side population (SP) human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Materials and Methods: SGC-7901 SP and Non-SP cells were sorted by flow cytometry and assessed using the cck-8 method. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 of SP before and after the intervention was determined by Western-blotting. Results: It was found that the proliferation of SP was significantly faster than that of NSP (P<0.05). In addition, GS-Rh2 inhibited proliferation of gastric cancer SP cells, induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis, and changed the expression of BAX/Bcl-2 proteins in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: With increase of GS-Rh2 dose, GS-Rh2 gradually inhibit the proliferation of SGC-7901 SP cells, which have high proliferation rate, through G1/G0 phase arrest, followed by apoptosis which involves the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2.

Effect of High Pressure and Steaming Extraction Processes on Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 Contents of Cultured-Root in Wild Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (초고압 증숙처리가 산삼배양근의 진세노사이드 Rg3와 Rh2의 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Woon-Yong;Lee, Choon-Geun;Seo, Yong-Chang;Song, Chi-Ho;Lim, Hye-Won;Lee, Hyeon-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to enhance contents of low molecular weight ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg3 using an ultra high pressure and steaming process in wild cultured-Root in wild ginseng. For selective increase in contents of Rg3 and Rh2 in cultured wild ginseng roots, an ultra high extraction was applied at 500MPa for 20 min which was followed by steaming process at $90^{\circ}C$ for 12 hr. It was revealed that contents of ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rd, were decreased with the complex process described above, whereas contents of ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg3 were increased up to 4.918 mg/g and 6.115 mg/g, respectively. In addition, concentration of benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene in extracts of the cultured wild ginseng roots treated by the complex process was 0.64 ppm but it was 0.78 ppm when it was treated with the steaming process. From the results, it was strongly suggested that low molecular weight ginsenosides, Rh2 and Rg3, are converted from Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd which are easily broken down by an ultra high pressure and steaming process. This results indicate that an ultra high pressure and steaming process can selectively increase in contents of Rg3 and Rh2 in cultured wild ginseng roots and this process might enhance the utilization and values of cultured wild ginseng roots.

Simultaneous Analysis Method for Polar and Non-polar Ginsenosides in Cultivated Wild Ginseng by Reversed-phase HPLC-CAD (HPLC-CAD에 의한 산양삼의 극성 및 비극성 ginsenoside 동시 분석)

  • Ok, Seon;Kang, Jae Seon;Kim, Kang Min
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.247-252
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    • 2016
  • Cultivated wild ginseng is a widely used dietary supplement and medicinal herb. The aim of this study was to optimize the ginseng using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- charged aerosol detection (CAD) for ginsenoside analysis. CAD measures the physical property of an analyte and responds to almost all non-volatile species, independent of their nature, spectral properties, or particle size. It has become widely employed in pharmaceutical analysis. The cultivated wild ginseng extracts were analyzed for compositions of ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Rg1, Rf, Re, and Rh1. The optimal analysis condition was set up from an experiment using a gradient. Ten grams of cultivated wild ginseng were extracted with 95% EtOH 100 ml for 24 hr at 80℃. The contents of the 6six major ginsenosides in the cultivated wild ginseng extract were Rb1 (5.48±0.12 mg/g), Rd (5.33±0.14 mg/g), Rg1 (12.80± 0.05 mg/g), Rf (19.08±0.68 mg/g), Re (19.87±0.05 mg/g), and Rh1 (16.47±0.16 mg/g), respectively. HPLC showed that the protopanaxatriol group (Rg1, Rf, Re, Rh1) had more content than the protopanaxadiol group (Rb1, Rd) in cultivated wild ginseng extract. In summary, the ginsenosides were identified with HPLC-CAD analysis, and their presence and quantity imply the importance of quality control, as well as the pharmacological activity of the ginseng root.

Decolorization of a Rhodamine B Using Ru-graphite Electrode (Ru-흑연 전극을 이용한 Rhodamine B의 색 제거)

  • Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.547-553
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    • 2008
  • For the RhB removal from the wastewater, electrochemical method was adapted to this study. Three dimensionally stable anode (Pt, Ir and Ru) and graphite and Ru cathode were used. In order to identify decolorization, the effects of electrode, current density, electrolyte and air flow rate were investigated. The effects of electrode material, current, electrolyte concentration and air flow rate were investigated on the decolorization of RhB. Electro-Fenton's reaction was evaluated by added $Fe^{2+}$ and $H_2O_2$ generated by the graphite cathode. Performance for RhB decolorization of the four electrode systems lay in: Ru-graphite > Ru-Ru > Ir-graphite > Pt-graphite. A complete color removal was obtained for RhB (30 mg/L) at the end of 30 min of electrolysis under optimum operations of 2 g/L NaCl concentration and 2 A current. $Fe^{2+}$ addition increased initial reaction and decreased final RhB concentration. However the effect was not high.

Degradation of Rhodamine B in Water using Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) in the Electrolysis Process (고체 고분자 전해질(SPE)을 이용한 전기분해 공정에서 Rhodamine B 분해)

  • Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Feasibility of electrochemical oxidation of the aqueous non-biodegradable wastewater such as cationic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) has been investigated in an electrochemical reactor with solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). Methods: Nafion 117 cationic exchange membrane as SPE has been used. Anode/Nafion/cathode sandwiches were constructed by sandwiching Nafion between two dimensionally stable anodes (JP202 electrode). Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of applied current (0.5~2.0 A), supporting electrolyte type (0.2 N NaCl, $Na_2SO_4$, and 1.0 g/L NaCl), initial RhB concentration (2.5~30.0 mg/L) on RhB and COD degradation and $UV_{254}$ absorbance. Results: Experimental results showed that an increase of applied current in electrolysis reaction with solid polymer electrolyte has resulted in the increase of RhB and $UV_{254}$ degradation. Performance for RhB degradation by electrolyte type was best with NaCl 0.2 N followed by SPE, and $Na_2SO_4$. However, the decrease of $UV_{254}$ absorbance of RhB was different from RhB degradation: SPE > NaCl 0.2 N > $Na_2SO_4$. RhB and $UV_{254}$ absorbance decreased linearly with time regardless of the initial concentration. The initial RhB and COD degradation in electrolysis reaction using SPE showed a pseudo-first order kinetics and rate constants were 0.0617 ($R^2=0.9843$) and 0.0216 ($R^2=0.9776$), respectively. Conclusions: Degradation of RhB in the electrochemical reactor with SPE can be achieved applying electrochemical oxidation. Supporting electrolyte has no positive effect on the final $UV_{254}$ absorbance and COD degradation. Mineralization of COD may take a relatively longer time than that of the RhB degradation.

Ginsenoside Rh2 epigenetically regulates cell-mediated immune pathway to inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

  • Lee, Hyunkyung;Lee, Seungyeon;Jeong, Dawoon;Kim, Sun Jung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2018
  • Background: Ginsenoside Rh2 has been known to enhance the activity of immune cells, as well as to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Although the repertoire of genes regulated by Rh2 is well-known in many cancer cells, the epigenetic regulation has yet to be determined, especially for comprehensive approaches to detect methylation changes. Methods: The effect of Rh2 on genome-wide DNA methylation changes in breast cancer cells was examined by treating cultured MCF-7 with Rh2. Pyrosequencing analysis was carried out to measure the methylation level of a global methylation marker, LINE1. Genome-wide methylation analysis was carried out to identify epigenetically regulated genes and to elucidate the most prominent signaling pathway affected by Rh2. Apoptosis and proliferation were monitored to examine the cellular effect of Rh2. Results: LINE1 showed induction of hypomethylation at specific CpGs by 1.6-9.1% (p < 0.05). Genome-wide methylation analysis identified the "cell-mediated immune response"-related pathway as the top network. Cell proliferation of MCF-7 was retarded by Rh2 in a dose-dependent manner. Hypermethylated genes such as CASP1, INSL5, and OR52A1 showed downregulation in the Rh2-treated MCF-7, while hypomethylated genes such as CLINT1, ST3GAL4, and C1orf198 showed upregulation. Notably, a higher survival rate was associated with lower expression of INSL5 and OR52A1 in breast cancer patients, while with higher expression of CLINT1. Conclusion: The results indicate that Rh2 induces epigenetic methylation changes in genes involved in immune response and tumorigenesis, thereby contributing to enhanced immunogenicity and inhibiting the growth of cancer cells.

Effects of Packaging Methods on Water Adsorption Rate and Shelf-life of Hot-air and Freeze Dried Garlic Slices (포장방법이 열풍 및 동결 건조마늘절편의 흡습속도와 Shelf-life 에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh, Ha-Young;Park, Hyung-Woo;Kang, Tong-Sam;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.380-384
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    • 1988
  • The coefficients of the hot-air and freeze dried garlic isotherms and the critical water activities of these were estimated to be 0.85-0.94 by the linear regression and 0.58-0.60 by the sensory evaluation and ${\Delta}E$ value. Water adsorption rate(K) of hot-air dried garlic packaged with $48{\mu}m$ low density polyethylene(LDPE) decreased from $0.12g\;H_2O/100g/day\;to\;0.093g\;H_2O$/100g/day with decreasing the package dimension from $0.051m^2\;to\;0.029m^2\;at\;40^{\circ}C$ and 75% RH, and that of freeze dried one decreased from $0.17g\;H_2O/100g/day\;to\;0.12g\;H_2O$/100g/day as the filling weight increased from 50g to 10g in the package of $0.051m^2$. Shelf-life of hot-air dried garlic packaged with $80{\mu}m$ LDPE were 99days at $40^{\circ}C,\;283day\;at\;30^{\circ}C\;and\;455\;days\;at\;15^{\circ}C$ in the 75% RH. The differences of water contents between predicted data with water vapor permeability of the conventional method and experimental data were 0-1.5% in the water content range of around 13-18%, but about 2 in the water content range of around 8-11%.

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General Pharmacology of Recombinant Human Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor DA-3030 Expressed in E. coli (유전자 재조합 인형 과립구 콜로니 자극인자 DA-3030의 일반약리작용)

  • 배은주;신명수;김순회;강수형;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.281-285
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    • 1994
  • Neutropenia is a major dose-limiting factor in cancer chemotherapy diminishing its usefulness and increase patient's susceptibility to infectious disease. Some recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factors(rhG-CSFs) are in use to reduce the risk of this serious side effect. In this study, we examined the pharmacological properties of DA-3030, a rhG-CSF expressed in E. coli. DA-3030 100 and $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, i. v., had no significant effect on the central nervous, gastrointestinal system in mice and cardiovascular system in rabbits, but it slightly inhibited the spontaneous motility of isolated nonpregnant uterus in rats. It also had no influence on excretion of urinary electrolytes. DA-3030 administered for successive 3 days increased the blood WBC count in zymosan air pouch inflammed rats and in normal rats. These results indicate that DA-3030 has little side effects in animals.

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