• Title, Summary, Keyword: G-Rh2

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Poly(arylene ether ketone) block copolymer prepared through sulfonation process for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (술폰화 공정을 통해 제조한 고분자 전해질형 연료전지용 폴리(아릴렌 이서 케톤) 블록 코폴리머)

  • Jang, Hyeri;Nahm, Keesuk;Yoo, Dongjin
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 2016
  • In this study, a sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) block copolymer was prepared from hydrophilic oligomer and hydrophobic oligomer. The structure of the prepared membrane was characterized by $^1H$-NMR, FT-IR and GPC. The $M_w$(weight-average molecular weights) of the polymer was $209,700g\;mol^{-1}$ and the molecular weight distribution($M_w/M_n$) of 1.25 was obtained. The prepared membrane showed excellent thermal stability with gradual weight loss up to $200^{\circ}C$. The proton conductivity of SPAEK block copolymer reached the maximum of $9.0mS\;cm^{-1}$ at $90^{\circ}C$ under 100% relative humidity (RH). From the observed results, it is necessary to do more aggressive attempt to study the possibility of application as an ion-conductive composite electrolyte.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Ginseng JungKwa Produced with Hot-Water Extract from Maegmundong (Liriope platyphylla tubers) (맥문동 열수추출액을 이용한 인삼정과의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Ka-Soon;Kim, Gwan-Hou;Seong, Bong-Jae;Kim, Hyun-Ho;Song, Mi-Ran;Kim, Mee-Ree;Lee, Gyu-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.12
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    • pp.1819-1825
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics of ginseng JungKwa produced with hot-water extract from Maegmundong (MGJ) instead of sugar. Chemical characteristics of MGJ and control ginseng JungKwa produced by sucrose (CGJ) were measured by proximate constituents, free sugars, ginsenosides, total phenolic compound, flavonoid content, and antioxidative activity was measured by electron donating abilities and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Carbohydrate, crude protein, crude ash contents of MGJ were 76.40, 1.46 and 3.49%, where as those of CGJ were 80.01, 0.59 and 0.96%. Free sugar compositions of MGJ were fructose (32.42%), oligosaccharide (16.91%), disaccharide (13.91%) and glucose (13.16%). Eleven ginsenosides types were detected on MGJ and 9 kinds on CGJ; their contents were 740.1 and 675.6 mg%, respectively. Total phenolic compound and flavonoid content were 5.46 and 0.016% on MGJ, 5.02 and 0.014% on CGJ, respectively. In physiological characteristics, the $IC_{50}$ of electron donating ability by DPPH on MGJ was about 34.5 mg/mL and ability was slightly higher than CGJ, although there's not much difference in ability between MGJ and CGJ. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were 92% on MGJ and 96% on CJG when treated at $50{\mu}g$/mL.

Analysis of Immunomodulating Gene Expression by cDNA Microarray in $\beta$-Glucan-treated Murine Macrophage

  • Sung, Su-Kyong;Kim, Ha-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.98-98
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    • 2003
  • ${\beta}$-(1,3)-D-Glucans have been known to exhibit antitumor and antimicrobial activities. The presence of dectin-1,${\alpha}$, ${\beta}$-glucan receptor of dendritic cell, on macrophage has been controvertial. RT-PCR analysis led to the detection of dectin-1${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$ in murine macrophage Raw264.7 cell line. Among the various organs of mouse, dectin-1${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$ were detected in the thymus, lung, spleen, stomach and intestine. To analyze gene expression modulated by ${\beta}$-glucan treated murine Raw264.7 macrophage, total mRNA was applied to cDNA microarray to interrogate the expression of 7,000 known genes. cDNA chip analysis showed that ${\beta}$-glucan of P. osteatus increased gene expressions of immunomodulating genes, membrane antigenic proteins, chemokine ligands, complements, cytokines, various kinases, lectin associated genes and oncogenes in Raw 264.7 cell line. When treated with ${\beta}$-glucan of P. osteatus and LPS, induction of gene expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-R1 was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Induction of TNF-R type II expression was confirmed by FACS analysis. IL-6 expression was abolished by EDTA in ${\beta}$-glucan and LPS treated Raw264.7 cell line, indicating that ${\beta}$-glucan binds to dectin-l in a Ca$\^$++/ -dependent manner. To increase antitumor efficacy of ${\beta}$-glucan, ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) was co-treated with ${\beta}$-glucan in vivo and in vitro tests. IC$\sub$50/ values of GRh2 were 20 and 25 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ in SNU-1 and B16 melanoma F10 cell line, respectively. Co-treatment with ${\beta}$-glucan and GRh2 showed synergistic antitumor activity with cisplatin and mitomycin C both in vitro and in vivo. Single or co-treatment with ${\beta}$-glucan and GRh2 increased tumor bearing mouse life span. Co-treatment with ${\beta}$-glucan and GRh2 showed more increased life span with mitomycin C than that with cisplatin. Antitumor activities were 67% and 72 % by co-injection with ${\beta}$-glucan and GRh2 in the absence or presence of mitomycin C, respectively.

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Discrimination of Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Different Areas in Korea Using HPLC-ELSD and Principal Component Analysis

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Cho, Jin-Gyeong;Lee, Min-Kyung;Lee, Jae-Woong;Lee, Youn-Hyung;Yang, Deok-Chun;Baek, Nam-In
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2011
  • In order to distinguish the cultivation area of Panax ginseng, principal component analysis (PCA) using quantitative and qualitative data acquired from HPLC was carried out. A new HPLC method coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous quantification of ten major ginsenosides, namely $Rh_1$, $Rg_2$, $Rg_3$, $Rg_1$, Rf, Re, Rd, $Rb_2$, Rc, and $Rb_1$ in the root of P. ginseng C. A. Meyer. Simultaneous separations of these ten ginsenosides were achieved on a carbohydrate analytical column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water-isopropanol, and acetonitrile-water-isopropanol using a gradient elution. Distinct differences in qualitative and quantitative characteristics for ginsenosides were found between the ginseng roots produced in two different Korean cultivation areas, Ganghwa and Punggi. The ginsenoside profiles obtained via HPLC analysis were subjected to PCA. PCA score plots using two principal components (PCs) showed good separation for the ginseng roots cultivated in Ganghwa and Punggi. PC1 influenced the separation, capturing 43.6% of the variance, while PC2 affected differentiation, explaining 18.0% of the variance. The highest contribution components were ginsenoside $Rg_3$ for PC1 and ginsenoside Rf for PC2. Particularly, the PCA score plot for the small ginseng roots of six-year old, each of which was light than 147 g fresh weight, showed more distinct discrimination. PC1 influenced the separation between different sample sets, capturing 51.8% of the variance, while PC2 affected differentiation, also explaining 28.0% of the variance. The highest contribution component was ginsenoside Rf for PC1 and ginsenoside $Rg_2$ for PC2. In conclusion, the HPLC-ELSD method using a carbohydrate column allowed for the simultaneous quantification of ten major ginsenosides, and PCA analysis of the ginsenoside peaks shown on the HPLC chromatogram would be a very acceptable strategy for discrimination of the cultivation area of ginseng roots.

Review of Anti-Leukemia Effects from Medicinal Plants (항 백혈병작용에 관련된 천연물의 자료조사)

  • Pae Hyun Ock;Lim Chang Kyung;Jang Seon Il;Han Dong Min;An Won Gun;Yoon Yoo Sik;Chon Byung Hun;Kim Won Sin;Yun Young Gab
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.605-610
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    • 2003
  • According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, leukemia is a malignant disease (cancer) that originates in a cell in the marrow. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of developing marrow cells. There are two major classifications of leukemia: myelogenous or lymphocytic, which can each be acute or chronic. The terms myelogenous or lymphocytic denote the cell type involved. Thus, four major types of leukemia are: acute or chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma are considered to be related cancers because they involve the uncontrolled growth of cells with similar functions and origins. The diseases result from an acquired (not inherited) genetic injury to the DNA of a single cell, which becomes abnormal (malignant) and multiplies continuously. In the United States, about 2,000 children and 27,000 adults are diagnosed each year with leukemia. Treatment for cancer may include one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy, surgery and bone marrow transplantation. The most effective treatment for leukemia is chemotherapy, which may involve one or a combination of anticancer drugs that destroy cancer cells. Specific types of leukemia are sometimes treated with radiation therapy or biological therapy. Common side effects of most chemotherapy drugs include hair loss, nausea and vomiting, decreased blood counts and infections. Each type of leukemia is sensitive to different combinations of chemotherapy. Medications and length of treatment vary from person to person. Treatment time is usually from one to two years. During this time, your care is managed on an outpatient basis at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center or through your local doctor. Once your protocol is determined, you will receive more specific information about the drug(s) that Will be used to treat your leukemia. There are many factors that will determine the course of treatment, including age, general health, the specific type of leukemia, and also whether there has been previous treatment. there is considerable interest among basic and clinical researchers in novel drugs with activity against leukemia. the vast history of experience of traditional oriental medicine with medicinal plants may facilitate the identification of novel anti leukemic compounds. In the present investigation, we studied 31 kinds of anti leukemic medicinal plants, which its pharmacological action was already reported through many experimental articles and oriental medical book: 『pharmacological action and application of anticancer traditional chinese medicine』 In summary: Used leukemia cellline are HL60, HL-60, Jurkat, Molt-4 of human, and P388, L-1210, L615, L-210, EL-4 of mouse. 31 kinds of anti leukemic medicinal plants are Panax ginseng C.A Mey; Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc; Daphne genkwa Sieb. et Zucc; Aloe ferox Mill; Phorboc diester; Tripterygium wilfordii Hook .f.; Lycoris radiata (L Her)Herb; Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz; Lilium brownii F.E. Brown Var; Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.; Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels; Asparagus cochinensis (Lour. )Merr; Isatis tinctoria L.; Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet; Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.; Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim; Dioscorea opposita Thumb; Schisandra chinensis (Rurcz. )Baill.; Auium Sativum L; Isatis tinctoria, L; Ligustisum Chvanxiong Hort; Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch; Euphorbia Kansui Liou; Polygala tenuifolia Willd; Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth; Chelidonium majus L; Rumax madaeo Mak; Sophora Subprostmousea Chunet T.ehen; Strychnos mux-vomical; Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.)Harms; Rubia cordifolia L. Anti leukemic compounds, which were isolated from medicinal plants are ginsenoside Ro, ginsenoside Rh2, Emodin, Yuanhuacine, Aleemodin, phorbocdiester, Triptolide, Homolycorine, Atractylol, Colchicnamile, Paeonol, Aspargus polysaccharide A.B.C.D, Indirubin, Leonunrine, Acinosohic acid, Trichosanthin, Ge 132, Schizandrin, allicin, Indirubin, cmdiumlactone chuanxiongol, 18A glycyrrhetic acid, Kansuiphorin A 13 oxyingenol Kansuiphorin B. These investigation suggest that it may be very useful for developing more effective anti leukemic new dregs from medicinal plants.

A Study on Organic/Inorganic Composite Membrane for Low humidity and High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (저가습 고온 고분자 연료전지용 유-무기 복합막에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Young-Woo;Kim, Mi-Nai;Lim, Sung-Dae;Park, Seok-Hee;Yoon, Young-Gi;Yang, Tae-Hyun;Kim, Chang-Soo;Nam, Ki-Sook
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.135.1-135.1
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    • 2010
  • 최근 고온에서 사용 가능한 PEMFC용 고분자전해질 막 개발에 대한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. PEMFC가 고온에서 작동하게 되면 높은 성능과 많은 장점을 갖게 된다. PEMFC를 $100^{\circ}C$ 이상에서 운전하게 될 경우 백금 전극 반응을 향상시켜 고가의 백금 촉매 양을 줄일 수 있게 되고, 수소연료 속에 미량 포함된 CO에 의한 촉매표면 피독현상에 대한 내구성을 높일 수 있어 저 순도 수소연료 사용이 가능해 진다. 또한 가습장치와 수소 연료 개질장치의 부피를 줄일 수 있게 되어 전체적인 PEMFC 시스템이 단순화 된다. 현재 연료전지용 고분자 전해질막으로 DuPont사의 과-불소계 고분자 전해질막인 Nafion$^{(R)}$이 가장 널리 사용되고 있다. Nafion$^{(R)}$은 유연한 분자구조 안에 소수성이 강한 주사슬과 친수성을 나타내는 술폰산이 결합된 곁사슬이 존재하여 술폰화 곁사슬의 클러스터 둘레에는 친수성 영역이 형성이 되기때문에 소수/친수 상 분리가 잘되어 이온 클러스터 형성이 용이하지만 제조비용이 높은 단점을 갖고 있다. 특히, 전해질 막내에서 Bronsted base 역할을 하는 물에 의해 이온전도가 이루어지기 때문에 고온에서는 수분증발로 인해 성능이 급격히 감소된다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 고온 저가습 조건에서 운전이 가능하고 Nafion이 갖는 문제점을 해결하고자, 내열특성이 뛰어나며 높은 수소이온 전도도 학보가 용이한 Sulfonated Poly(aryl ether)sulfone(SPAES) 고분자 전해질에, 고온에서도 수화성이 유지될 수 있도록 지르코니아를 황산화한 sulfated zirconia(s-$ZrO_2$)를 함침하여 복합 고분자전해질막을 제조하여 고온 저가습 조건에서의 수소이온 전도 특성에 관한 연구를 수행하였다. 개발된 막의 물리/화학적 특성은 water content(Wup%), 이온교환 용량(IEC, meq $g^{-1}$), 수소이온전도도(s $cm^{-1}$) 열 중량 분석(TGA), X선 회절분석(XRD) 등을 통하여 분석 및 관찰하였다. 내화학 및 열적 특성분석 결과, 황산화 반응공정으로 $ZrO_2$에 술폰산기가 안정적으로 결합하고 있음이 관찰되었으며, 본 연구에서 개발된 유 무기 복합막이 $250^{\circ}C$이상 열적안정성을 확보하고 있는 것으로 판단되었다. $100^{\circ}C$ 이하의 저온 영역에서, 일정 비율의 s-$ZrO_2$/SPAES막에서 이온교환용량(IEC)이 순수 SPAES 막보다 낮음에도 불구하고, water uptake가 증가함과 동시에 수소이온 전도도가 향상된 것을 관찰하였다. 또한, 고온에서는 수소이온이 자유롭게 이동할 수 있는 water channel을 형성하는 free water는 증발 하지만 s-$ZrO_2$와 SPAES의 술폰산기 사이에 강력하게 결합하고 있는 bound Water는 $100^{\circ}C$ 이상의 고온 영역에서도 존재하여, 비록 무가습 조건에서도 일정 비율의 s-$ZrO_2$/SPAES50 전해질 막의 경우, 높은 전도도를 나타냄을 관찰할 수 있었다. 따라서 본 연구를 통해 저가습 고온 적용을 목적으로 개발된 s-$ZrO_2$/SPAES50막은 우수한 내열 특성을 나타냄과 동시에 저가습 고온 영역($120^{\circ}C$, $50RH{\downarrow}$)에서 높은 수소이온 전도도를 유지하여, 고온 저가습 연료전지 운전에 적합할 것으로 사료된다.

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Superovulatory Response to 200 mg FSH Level and Production In Vivo Embryos in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) (200 mg FSH 투여에 의한 한우의 과배란 유도 및 체내 수정란 생산)

  • Park, Joung-Jun;Yoo, Han-Jun;Kim, Ki-Won;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Park, Choon-Keun;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the FSH levels for superovulation procedure in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). The effectiveness of 200 mg and 400 mg of FSH to initiate superovulation was examined in Hanwoo. Donors, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR 7 days later, 200 mg FSH group was treated with 40, 30, 20, 10 mg FSH levels in declining doses twice daily by intramuscular injection fur 4 days. Also, 400 mg FSH group was treated with 80, 60, 40, 20 mg FSH levels. On the 3rd day administration of FSH, 25 mg $PGF_2$ ${\alpha}$ was administered and CIDR was withdrawn. Donors were artificially inseminated twice at 12 hr intervals. The donor cattle received 250 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at time of 1st insemination and embryos were recovered 8 days after the 1st insemination. As a results, average number of CL treated with FSH 200 mg was higher as $20.9{\pm}1.20$ than $15.8{\pm}0.63$ for donors treated with FSH 400 mg, respectively(p<0.05). Treated group of 200 mg FSH level increased (p<0.05) the number of embryos recovered per procedure compared to 400 mg FSH level ($18.2{\pm}1.18$ vs. $12.38{\pm}0.52$, respectively). When treatment of 200 mg FSH was performed, average transferable embryos/ova increased (p<0.05) to $14.1{\pm}1.12$ from $6.8{\pm}0.33$ of treated of 400 mg FSH. Group of 200 mg FSH increased (p<0.05) to $8.3{\pm}0.76$ from $2.0{\pm}0.26$ in morula stage compare to 400 mg FSH group. Mean of total early blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stage embryos was similar (p<0.05) between the 200 mg and 400 mg FSH levels group ($4.7{\pm}1.19$ vs. $2.9{\pm}0.18$ and $1.2{\pm}0.40$ vs. $1.9{\pm}0.17$). These results suggest that 200 mg FSH level-based superovulation protocol with CIDR may be effectively used fur production of superior embryos in Hanwoo. In other words, the less level of FSH may be effectively applied for Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), because Hanwoo was smaller body size than beef or daily cow.

Relationship between Superovulation Treatment and Blood Urea Nitrogen(BUN) Concentration in Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우 과배란 처리와 혈액 내 요소태 질소 수준과의 관계)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Choi, Sun-Ho;Kim, Nam-Tae;Jung, Jin-Woo;Kim, Sung-Jae;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;You, Yong-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was investigate the superovulation treatment and to relate concentrations of blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in Hanwoo donors. Thirty six, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2a$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1st insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. Cows with BUN <10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had return of estrus of 34.6, 30.5 and 30.4 days respectively. Return of estrus after superovulation treatment was not significantly lower for cows with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) above 10 mg/dl than for cows with BUN below 10 mg/dl. Cows with BUN <10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had number of transferable embryos of $3.2{\pm}1.2$, $5.4{\pm}1.9$ and $4.1{\pm}2.1$ respectively.

Relationship between Transferable Embryos and Blood Urea Nitrogen, Glucose and Total Cholesterol Concentration in Hanwoo Donors (한우 공란우 이식기능 수정란수와 혈액내 요소태질소, 포도당 및 총콜레스테롤 수준과의 관계)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Lim, Hyun-Joo;Park, Seong-Jai;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.335-339
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between concentration of urea nitrogen, glucose, cholesterol and number of transferable embryos for the purpose of improving reproductive performance in blood of Hanwoo donors. Fifty five, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2$ ${\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received 100 ${\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of 1nd insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. Cows with BUN < 10, 11~18 and ${\geq}$19 mg/dl had number of transferable embryos of $4.32{\pm}1.3$, $5.8{\pm}1.8$ and $4.7{\pm}2.1$ respectively. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and 10${\leq}$ of corpora lutea(CL) was 8.9 and 14.3, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10${\leq}$ CL was 4.8 and 5.6, respectively.

Resumption of Ovarian Cyclicity after Superovulation Treatment to Donor Cow in Hanwoo (한우 공란우 과배란 처리 후 난소 주기 재개에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Jun-Kyu;Choe, Chang-Yong;Cho, Sang-Rae;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Choi, Sun-Ho;Kim, Nam-Tae;Jung, Jin-Woo;Kim, Sung-Jae;Jung, Yeon-Sub;Bok, Nan-Hee;You, Yong-Hee;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal ovarian cycles after superovulation treatment of Hanwoo donors. Thirty six, at random stages of the estrous cycle, received a CIDR. Four days later, the animals were superovulated with a total of 28AU FSH (Antorin, 2AU=1 ml) administered twice daily in constant doses over 4 days. On the 3th administration of FSH, CIDR was withdrawn and 25 mg $PGF_2{\alpha}$ was administered. Cows were artificially inseminated twice after estrous detection at 12 hr intervals. The cows received $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH at the time of Ind insemination. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 days after the 1st insemination. The cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity on the day of ovulation if followed by regular ovarian cycles. 50.0 percentage of the cows (18/36) had normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity (resumption within 40 days after superovulation), and 50.0% (18/36) had delayed resumption(resumption did not occur until>40 days after superovulation). Delayed resumption Type II (first ovulation did not occur until $\geq$ 40 days after superovulation, i.e. delayed first ovulation 33.3%) were the most common types of delayed resumptions. The mean numbers of total ova from < 10 and 10$\leq$ of corpora lutea (CL) was 7.3 and 13.9, respectively. The number of transferable embryos differed between < 10 and 10$\leq$ CL was 4.2 and 5.1, respectively. 11.1 percentage of the cows (4/36) did not resumption their ovarian cyclicity until 60 days after superovulation treatment.