• Title, Summary, Keyword: G-Rh2

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Studies on Development of Breeding Technique to Increase Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) III. Hormonal Treatment of Reproductive Disorders and Effect of Intraovarian $\textrm{PGF}_{2a}$ Administration in Hanwoo (한우의 신속한 증식을 위한 번식기술 개발에 관한 연구 - III. 한우에서 번식장애 처치 및 $\textrm{PGF}_{2a}$의 난소실질내 투여효과에 관한 연구)

  • 손창호;오병철;임원호;백종환;오명환;이강남;정근기;강성근;김대영
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 2002
  • In order to develop the breeding techniques to increase Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) population, the present study was performed 1) to establish the treatment protocol on reproductive disorders with GnRH or PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/, 2) to improve intraovarian PG $F_{2}$$\alpha$/ administration for reducing open period. Among total of 43 diagnosed, high percentage of cows (41.9%, 18 cows) were diagnosed as silent heat, followed by inactive ovaries (32.6%, 14 cows), ovarian cysts (9.3%, 4 cows), persistent corpus luteum (7.0%, 3 cows), endometriosis (4.7%, 2 cows), pyometra (2.3%, 1 cow) and luteal cysts (2.3%, 1 cow). To treat silent heat, 18 cows were administrated with 25 mg PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/, heat-detected, artificially inseminated and monitored pregnancy. All treated cows were heat-detected and 16 cows (88%) were successfully pregnant. With 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$ GnRH treatment, 7 cows (70%) with inactive ovaries and 3 cows (75%) with ovarian cysts were successfully pregnant. Administration with 25mg PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/, successfully treated 3 cows (100%) with persistent corpus luteum and 1 cow (100%) with luteal cysts, followed by 100% pregnancy rate. With the combined treatment of 25 mg PG $F_{2}$$\alpha$/and antibiotics, 2 cows (100%) with endometriosis were effectively treated and got pregnant after. artificial insemination (AI). In order to reduce open period, 5 mg PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/ was administrated intraovarian to 20 days cows after delivery, heat-detected, artificially inseminated and monitored pregnancy. In the first experiment, in order to recover uterus, 5mg PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/were administrated, followed by administration of 5mg PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/ at the interval of 14 days. As results, 74% (17/23 cows) of pregnancy rate after AI. In order to further reduce the open period, 5 mg PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/was administrated at the interval of 11 days without the period of uterus recovery, resulted in 94% (16/17 cows) pregnancy rate. In conclusion, these results showed that PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/ and GnRH treatment were effective hormonal treatment resume in Hanwoo with various reproductive disorders. In addition, modified protocol of intraovarian PGF/sub 2$\alpha$/ administration could be the effective method for reducing the open period.

Effect of Ethane 1,2-Dimethane Sulfonate(EDS) on the Expression of Pituitary Gonadotropin in Male Rats (수컷 흰쥐 뇌하수체의 생식소자극호르몬 발현에 미치는 Ethane 1,2-Dimethane Sulfonate(EDS)의 효과)

  • Son, Hyeok-Joon;Kim, Soo-Woong;Paick, Jae-Seung;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2007
  • Ethane 1,2-dimethane sulfonate(EDS), a toxin which specifically kills Leydig cells(LC), has been widely used to prepare the reversible testosterone(T) depletion rat model. In the present study, we monitored the gene expression profiles of pituitary gonadotropins, LH and FSH, up to 7 weeks after EDS injection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats($300{\sim}350\;g$ B.W.) were injected with a single dose of EDS(75 mg/kg i.p.) and sacrificed on weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Total RNAs were purified from each pituitary, and the message levels of common alpha subunit($C{\alpha}$) of pituitary glycoprotein hormones, LH beta subunit($LH{\beta}$), FSH beta subunit($FSH{\beta}$) and GnRH receptor(GnRH-R) were evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs. The message levels of $C{\alpha}$ increased sharply during weeks 1-4, then return to the control level on week 5. The mRNA levels of $LH{\beta}$ were elevated after week 2, reached the peak at week 4, then declined to the control level after week 5. The message levels of $FSH{\beta}$ were elevated after week 2, reached the peak at week 3, then declined to the nadir at week 5. Similarly, the mRNA levels of GnRH-R were elevated after week 2, reached the peak at week 3, then gradually declined to the control level after week 5. The present study indicated that EDS treatment could induce reversible alterations in the transcriptional activities of gonadotropin subunits and GnRH-R in the anterior pituitary from male rats. EDS injection model might be useful to understand the mechanism of hormonal regulation of hypothalamus- pituitary neuroendocrine axis in male rats.

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Effect of Relative Humidity on Physiology and Antioxidant Metabolism of Grafted Watermelon Seedlings (상대습도가 수박 접목묘의 생리 및 항산화 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Wei, Hao;Manivannan, Abinaya;Muneer, Sowbiya;Kim, SooHoon;Ya, Liu;Park, Ji Eun;Jeong, Byoung Ryong
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.351-358
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the effect of different relative humidity (RH) regimes on graft healing of grafted seedlings of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.). Two watermelon cultivars ('Speed' and 'Sambok Honey') were grafted onto the 'RS-Dongjanggun' bottle gourd rootstock (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) and the grafted seedlings were maintained under one of three relative humidity regimes, 95-96% [1.1-0.8 (day) or $0.8-0.6(night)\;g{\cdot}m^{-3}$ vapor pressure deficit (VPD)], 97-98% [ 0.7-0.4 (day) or $0.5-0.3(night)\;g{\cdot}m^{-3}$ (VPD)], or 99-100% [0.3-0.0 (day) or $0.2-0.0(night)\;g{\cdot}m^{-3}$ (VPD)] according to the Mollier diagram based on the air temperature of $25^{\circ}C\;day/18^{\circ}C\;night$ with 16 h photoperiod per day. Among the RH treatments, 97-98% significantly increased plant height and fresh weight of the rootstock and scion of the 'Speed' and it also enhanced the graft union connection of both cultivars after two days of grafting. However, plant height and thickness of the scion of 'Sambok Honey' was increased by the 99-100% RH treatment. Furthermore, both cultivars grown in the 95-96 and 97-98% RH treatments consisted of lower levels of endogenous $H_2O_2$ and less activities of antioxidant enzymes which illustrated the occurrence of less oxidative stress. Hence, the results of this study identified the optimal RH level for the graft healing of watermelon seedlings.

Effects of Cu and Ni Additives for Hydrogen Storage and Release of Fe-based Oxide Mediums (Fe-계 산화물 매체의 수소 저장 및 방출을 위한 Cu 및 Ni 첨가제의 효과)

  • Kim, Hong-Soon;Cha, Kwang-Seo;Lee, Dong-Hee;Yoo, Byoung-Kwan;Kang, Kyoung-Soo;Park, Chu-Sik;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.394-402
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    • 2008
  • The Effects of Cu or Ni additives co-added with Ce/Zr mixed oxides to Fe-based oxide mediums were investigated for the purpose of the replacement of Rh, a precious metal additive, in terms of hydrogen storage(reduction by hydrogen) and release(water splitting). From the results of temperature programmed reduction(TPR), initial reduction rate of iron oxide in the mediums was greatly increased with the addition of Cu, similar to that of Rh. For isothermal redox reaction of 10 cycles, the total amounts of hydrogen evolved in water splitting steps for the mediums added with Cu or Ni were highly maintained at ca. 7 mmol/g-material, even though the oxidation rates were slightly lower than that for the medium added with Rh. This result suggests that the replacement of Rh to Cu or Ni is possible as a co-additive for Fe-based oxide mediums.

Quantitative Analysis of Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Extracted under Various Temperature and Time (홍삼의 추출 시간 및 온도에 따른 Ginsenosides 함량 비교분석)

  • Yang, Byung-Wook;Han, Sung-Tai;Ko, Sung-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.217-220
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    • 2006
  • This study compared the contents of ginsenoside according to the extract conditions of red ginseng to provide basic information for developing functional food using red ginseng. According to the result, the content of crude saponin was highest in 72 hours of extraction at $82^{\circ}C$ (RG-823). The content of prosapogenin (ginsenoside $Rh_1,\;Rh_2,\;Rg_2,\;Rg_3$) was highest in 48 hours of extraction, and followed by 72 and 24 hours at $82^{\circ}C$. And at $93^{\circ}C$ the prosapogenin contents were highest in the order of 48 hours, and next in 24 and 72 hours. In addition, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rb_2$ Rc and Re were not detected in 72 hours of extraction at $93^{\circ}C$ (RG-933) presumedly due to hydrolysis, but ginsenoside Rd, Rf and $Rg_1$ were detected as long as 72 hours of extraction. These results show that protopanaxatriol group is relatively more resistant to heat than protopanaxadiol group.

Enhancing hydrogen evolution activity of MoS2 basal plane by substitutional doping and strain engineering

  • Kim, Byeong-Hun;Lee, Byeong-Ju
    • Proceeding of EDISON Challenge
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    • pp.280-284
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    • 2016
  • 본 연구에서는 Density functional theory(DFT) 계산을 이용하여, $MoS_2$의 Mo와 S를 다른 원자로 치환 했을 때 $2H-MoS_2$ monolayer의 basal plane에서 HER활성을 향상시켰다. 특히 Ge와 Rh를 치환한 경우, ${\Delta}G_H$가 각각 0.03eV, 0,07eV로 최적에 가까운 HER활성이 나타났다. 다른 원자의 치환이 Fermi level 근처의 DOS(density of states)를 높여, ${\Delta}G_H$을 0에 가깝게 낮출 수 있음을 확인하였다. 또한 치환되는 원자의 농도, 그리고 strain을 변화시켜 농도와 strain의 증가에 따른 ${\Delta}G_H$ 감소를 발견했다. 이로써 각치환되는 원자마다, 치환 농도와 strain을 함께 변화시켜 ${\Delta}G_H$을 낮출 수 있었다. ${\Delta}G_H$가 0에 가까운(${\pm}{\pm}0.2eV$ 이내) 원자종류, 치환 농도, strain의 여러 조합을 찾았다.

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The Effect of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone on Growth in Children with Nephropathy Receiving Long-term Steroid Therapy (장기간의 스테로이드 치료를 받고 있는 신병증 환아에서 Recombinant Human Growth Hormone의 효과)

  • Kim, Se-Jin;Kim, Sun-Kyoung;Kim, Sung-Do;Cho, Byoung-Soo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.142-151
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : Growth retardation is one of the serious problems in children with nephropathy requiring long-term steroid therapy. We observed the efficacy and safety of recombinant human growth hormone(rhGH) on the growth in children with long-term steroid therapy. Methods : We studied 60 children(male 47, female 13) with nephropathy who received rhGH(1 U/kg/week) for more than 0.5 years($1.39{\pm}1.12$). Their mean age was 11.0 years($11.17{\pm}2.62$). They received steroid therapy from January 1987 through July 2005, and the mean duration of steroid therapy was $4.32{\pm}2.97$ years. Among the patients, there were 32 nephrotic syndrome, 9 IgA nephropathy, 4 mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, 4 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 2 Henoch $Sch\ddot{o}nlein$ nephritis, 2 Alport syndrome and 7 other cases. Data were gathered on the growth parameters, such as growth velocity, height standard deviation score(SDS), IGF-1, IGFBP-3, bone mass density(BMD) and general chemistry changes. Results : Height velocity increased significantly with rhGH therapy from $3.29{\pm}1.95$ to $8.66{\pm}3.75$(cm/yr) and height SDS decreased from $-0.72{\pm}0.93$ to $-1.04{\pm}0.86$ at one year after steroid therapy but increased to $-0.55{\pm}0.96$ at one year after rhGH administration(P<0.05). BMD improved from $0.71{\pm}0.14$ to $0.79{\pm}0.15g/cm^2$(P<0.05). IGF-1 increased from $445.09{\pm}138.01$ to $506.62{\pm}181.31ng/mL$(P<0.05). IGFBP-3 decreased from $4073.75{\pm}700.78$ to $3933.61{\pm}789.25ug/L$ numerically, but there was no statistically significant difference(P=0.533). Conclusion : The administration of rhGH in the short stature patients who received long-term steroid therapy showed improvement in growth parameters such as SDS, growth velocity, and BMD without significant side-effects or changes in the biochemical parameters.

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Comparison of the concentration characteristics and optical properties of aerosol chemical components in different regions (지역별 에어로졸 화학성분 농도 및 광학특성 비교)

  • So, Yun-Yeong;Song, Sang-Keun;Choi, Yu-Na
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.107-123
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    • 2019
  • The aerosol chemical components in $PM_{2.5}$ in several regions (Seoul, Busan, Daejeon, and Jeju Island) were investigated with regard to their concentration characteristics and optical properties. The optical properties of the various aerosol components (e.g., water-soluble, insoluble, Black Carbon (BC), and sea-salt) were estimated using hourly and daily aerosol sampling data from the study area via a modeling approach. Overall, the water-soluble component was predominant over all other components in terms of concentration and impact on optical properties (except for the absorption coefficient of BC). The annual mean concentration and Aerosol Optical Ddepth (AOD) of the water-soluble component were highest in Seoul (at the Gwangjin site) ($26{\mu}g/m^3$ and 0.29 in 2013, respectively). Further, despite relatively moderate BC concentrations, the annual mean absorption coefficient of BC ($21.7Mm^{-1}$) was highest in Busan (at the Yeonsan site) in 2013, due to the strong light absorbing ability of BC. In addition, high AODs for the water-soluble component were observed most frequently in spring and/or winter at most of the study sites, while low values were noted in summer and/or early fall. The diurnal variation in the AOD of each component in Seoul (at the Gwangjin site) was slightly high in the morning and low in the afternoon during the study period; however, such distinctions were not apparent in Jeju Island (at the Aweol site), except for a slightly high AOD of the water-soluble component in the morning (08:00 LST). The monthly and diurnal differences in the AOD values for each component could be attributed to the differences in their mass concentrations and Relative Humidities (RH). In a sensitivity test, the AODs estimated under RH conditions of 80 and 90% were factors of 1.2 and 1.7 higher, respectively, than the values estimated using the observed RH.

Direct Action of Genistein on the Hypothalamic Neuronal Circuits in Prepubertal Female Rats : Estrogen Receptor Beta($ER{\beta}$) Pathway? (미성숙한 암컷 흰쥐 시상하부의 신경회로에 미치는 Genistein의 직접 작용 : 에스트로겐 수용체 베타아형 경로?)

  • Heo, Hyun-Jin;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2011
  • Some phytoestrogens in soy and red wine, for example, might have beneficiary rather than adverse effects. In particular, dietary soy intake seems to be highly correlated with protection of breast cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disorders. However, questions persist on the potential adverse effects of the main soy constituent genistein (GS) on female reproductive physiology. Previously we found that prepubertal exposure to GS could activate the reproductive system of immature female rats leading to precocious puberty onset, and intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected GS could directly activate hypothalamic kisspeptin-GnRH neuronal circuits in adult female rats. The present study was performed to examine the hypothalamus-specific GS effects in prepubertal female rats and which subtype of estrogen receptor is mediated in this GS effect. Prepubertal female rats (PND 30) were anaesthetized, treated with single dose of GS (3.4 ${\mu}g$/animal), and sacrificed at 2 hrs post-injection. To determine the transcriptional changes of reproductive hormone-related genes in hypothalamus, total RNAs were extracted and applied to the semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ICV infusion of GS significantly lowered the transcriptional activities of mTOR (1:$0.361{\pm}0.058$ AU, p<0.001) but increased that of GAD67 (1:$1.285{\pm}0.099$ AU, p<0.05), which are known to act as an upstream modulator of kisspeptin and GnRH neuronal activities in the hypothalamus, respectively. GS administration enhanced significantly the mRNA levels of KiSS-1(1:$1.458{\pm}0.078$ AU, p<0.001), and exerted no effect on the mRNA level of kisspeptin receptor GPR-54 (1:$1.29{\pm}0.08$ AU). GnRH gene expression was significantly decreased in GS-treated group compared to control group (1:$0.379{\pm}0.196$ AU, p<0.05). There was no difference in the mRNA level of $ER{\alpha}$ in the GS-treated group compare to control group (1:$1.180{\pm}0.390$ AU, Fig. 3A). However, icv infusion of GS significantly increased the transcriptional activities of $ER{\beta}$ (1:$4.209{\pm}0.796$ AU, p<0.01, Fig. 3B). Taken together, the present study indicated that the acute exposure to GS could directly alter the hypothalamic GnRH modulating system in prepubertal female rats. Our study strongly suggested the involvement of $ER{\beta}$ pathway in GS's hypothalamus-specific action, and this idea is consistent with the GS's well-known $ER{\beta}$-mediated protective action in breast cancer.

Ginsenoside, Phenolic Acid Composition and Physiological Significances of Fermented Ginseng Leaf (발효처리가 인삼잎의 진세노사이드 및 페놀산 조성 변화와 생리활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ka-Soon;Seong, Bong-Jae;Kim, Gwan-Hou;Kim, Sun-Ick;Han, Seung-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Ho;Baik, Nam-Doo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.1194-1200
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the compositional changes of ginsenosides and phenolic acids of ginseng leaf by fermentation in order to promote the utilization of ginseng leaf. The chief ginsenosides in non-fermented ginseng leaf (NFGL) were ginsenoside-Rg1 (26.0 mg/g), -Re (47.3 mg/g) and -Rd (23.9 mg/g). By fermentation, ginsenoside-Rg1, -Rb1, -Rb2, -Rb3, -Rc and -Re were decreased tremendously and new ginsenoside-Rh2, -Rh1, -Rg2 and -Rg3 appeared. Especially, ginsenoside-Rg3 (3.7 mg/g) on FGL was increased 15-fold compared to that of NFGL (0.2 mg/g). Total phenolic compound content of NFGL and FGL measured by colorimetric analysis was 350.4 and 312.5 mg%, respectively. There were 8 free and 6 ester forms of phenolic acids in NFGL. Among them, content of ferulic acid was the highest, comprised of 12.6 and 50.7 mg%, respectively. In FGL, total content of protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid were increased by 28, 5 and 7.8 fold and ferulic acid was decreased greatly. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of FGL was stronger than NFGL, while electron donating abilities of FGL were similar to NFGL.