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Mammalian Reproduction and Pheromones (포유동물의 생식과 페로몬)

  • Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 2006
  • Rodents and many other mammals have two chemosensory systems that mediate responses to pheromones, the main and accessory olfactory system, MOS and AOS, respectively. The chemosensory neurons associated with the MOS are located in the main olfactory epithelium, while those associated with the AOS are located in the vomeronasal organ(VNO). Pheromonal odorants access the lumen of the VNO via canals in the roof of the mouth, and are largely thought to be nonvolatile. The main pheromone receptor proteins consist of two superfamilies, V1Rs and V2Rs, that are structurally distinct and unrelated to the olfactory receptors expressed in the main olfactory epithelium. These two type of receptors are seven transmembrane domain G-protein coupled proteins(V1R with $G_{{\alpha}i2}$, V2R with $G_{0\;{\alpha}}$). V2Rs are co-expressed with nonclassical MHC Ib genes(M10 and other 8 M1 family proteins). Other important molecular component of VNO neuron is a TrpC2, a cation channel protein of transient receptor potential(TRP) family and thought to have a crucial role in signal transduction. There are four types of pheromones in mammalian chemical communication - primers, signalers, modulators and releasers. Responses to these chemosignals can vary substantially within and between individuals. This variability can stem from the modulating effects of steroid hormones and/or non-steroid factors such as neurotransmitters on olfactory processing. Such modulation frequently augments or facilitates the effects that prevailing social and environmental conditions have on the reproductive axis. The best example is the pregnancy block effect(Bruce effect), caused by testosterone-dependent major urinary proteins(MUPs) in male mouse urine. Intriguingly, mouse GnRH neurons receive pheromone signals from both odor and pheromone relays in the brain and may also receive common odor signals. Though it is quite controversial, recent studies reveal a complex interplay between reproduction and other functions in which GnRH neurons appear to integrate information from multiple sources and modulate a variety of brain functions.

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RhGLP-1 (7-36) protects diabetic rats against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via up-regulating expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and increasing the activities of SOD

  • Fang, Yi;Liu, Xiaofang;Zhao, Libo;Wei, Zhongna;Jiang, Daoli;Shao, Hua;Zang, Yannan;Xu, Jia;Wang, Qian;Liu, Yang;Peng, Ye;Yin, Xiaoxing
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.475-485
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    • 2017
  • The present study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect and possible mechanisms of rhGLP-1 (7-36) against transient ischemia/reperfusion injuries induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in type 2 diabetic rats. First, diabetic rats were established by a combination of a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Second, they were subjected to MCAO for 2 h, then treated with rhGLP-1 (7-36) (10, 20, $40{\mu}g/kg$ i.p.) at the same time of reperfusion. In the following 3 days, they were injected with rhGLP-1 (7-36) at the same dose and route for three times each day. After 72 h, hypoglycemic effects were assessed by blood glucose changes, and neuroprotective effects were evaluated by neurological deficits, infarct volume and histomorphology. Mechanisms were investigated by detecting the distribution and expression of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) in ischemic brain tissue, the levels of phospho-PI3 kinase (PI3K)/PI3K ratio and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-l), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). Our results showed that rhGLP-1 (7-36) significantly reduced blood glucose and infarction volume, alleviated neurological deficits, enhanced the density of surviving neurons and vascular proliferation. The nuclear positive cells ratio and expression of Nrf2, the levels of P-PI3K/PI3K ratio and HO-l increased, the activities of SOD increased and the contents of MDA decreased. The current results indicated the protective effect of rhGLP-1 (7-36) in diabetic rats following MCAO/R that may be concerned with reducing blood glucose, up-regulating expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and increasing the activities of SOD.

Four-week Intravenous Toxicity Study of DA-3030, a Recombinant Human G-CSF, in Rats (재조합 인 과립구 콜로니 자극인자 DA-3030의 랫드에 대한 4주 정맥내 반복투여 독성연구)

  • 강경구;김옥진;안병옥;백남기;이순복;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.270-280
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the repeated dose toxicity of DA-3030, a recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor(rhG-CSF), in rats. DA-3030 was administered intravenously once a day for 4 weeks to 20 males and 20 females per group at doses of 0(control), 115 and 1150 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, and to 15 males and 15 females per group at doses of 1.15 and 11.5$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. After the administration period, 5 males and 5 females per group in the 0,115 and 1150 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg groups were placed on withdrawal for 2 weeks. Through-out the study, all the rats survived. The administration of DA-3030 induced, a marked increase in the number of peripheral neutrophils, elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and splenomegaly in the rats of both sexes receiving 115 or 1150 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. Histopathologic examination revealed extramedullary granulopoiesis in spleen and liver, and increase in the number of activated macrophages in spleen in rats of both sexes in 115 and 115 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg groups, and increased M/E ratio in 11.5, 115 and 1150$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg groups. Most of the changes produced by DA-3030 were thought to be attributable to exaggerated pharmacological effect of the drug, and subsided or disappeared after the recovery period. Under the present condition, no effect dose of DA-3030 is estimated at 1.15 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/day.

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Pulsatile GnRH Therapy in Male Patients with Hypogonadotropic Hyprogonadism (GnRH의 맥동성 투여에 의한 남성 성선기능저하증의 치료)

  • Park, Ki-Hyun;Jee, Yong-Seok;Lee, Byung-Seok;Lee, Bo-Yun;Cho, Dong-Jae;Song, Chan-Ho;Lee, Moo-Sang;Choi, Hyung-Ki;Lee, Hyun-Chul;Heo, Kab-Beom
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 1992
  • The effects of pulsatile GnRH therapy have been studied for the treatment of different forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, including idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypogonadism developed as a result of treatment with combination of surgery and irradiation for pituitary or hypothalamic tumor. GnRH was administered subcutaneously in a dose of $10{\mu}g$ every 2 hours with the pulsatile infusion pump. With GnRH therapy, all patients improved secretion of LH, FSH and testosterone. Testicular volumes increased. Spermatogenesis was induced in 8 patients. Pulsatile GnRH therapy is an effective treatment for idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and can have a role in hypogonadism previously treated with combination of surgery and irradiation for pituitary or hypothalamic tumor.

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GABAA Receptor- and Non-NMDA Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Actions of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons

  • Cho, Dong-Hyu;Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad;Han, Seong-Kyu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2012
  • Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various reproductive diseases. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the fundamental regulators of pulsatile release of gonadotropin required for fertility. In this study, an extract of KRG (KRGE) was applied to GnRH neurons to identify the receptors activated by KRGE. The brain slice patch clamp technique in whole cell and perforated patch was used to clarify the effect of KRGE on the membrane currents and membrane potentials of GnRH neurons. Application of KRGE (3 ${\mu}g$/${\mu}L$) under whole cell patch induced remarkable inward currents (56.17${\pm}$7.45 pA, n=25) and depolarization (12.91${\pm}$3.80 mV, n=4) in GnRH neurons under high $Cl^-$ pipette solution condition. These inward currents were not only reproducible, but also concentration dependent. In addition, inward currents and depolarization induced by KRGE persisted in the presence of the voltage gated $Na^+$ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), suggesting that the responses by KRGE were postsynaptic events. Application of KRGE under the gramicidin perforated patch induced depolarization in the presence of TTX suggesting its physiological significance on GnRH response. Further, the KRGE-induced inward currents were partially blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 10 ${\mu}M$) or picrotoxin (PIC; $GABA_A$ receptor antagonist, 50 ${\mu}M$), and almost blocked by PIC and CNQX mixture. Taken together, these results suggest that KRGE contains ingredients with possible GABA and non-NMDA glutamate receptor mimetic activity, and may play an important role in the endocrine function of reproductive physiology, via activation of $GABA_A$ and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in GnRH neurons.

Control of Spinach Downy Mildew by Forced Ventilation in Greenhouse Cultivation (강제환기처리에 의한 비닐하우스재배 시금치의 노균병 발생 억제)

  • Park, Seok-Hee;Lee, Joong-Hwan;Woo, Jin-Ha;Choi, Seong-Yong;Park, So-Deuk;Moon, Yong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2014
  • Spinach downy mildew caused by Peronospora spinaciae is the main reason of yield reduction in Korea as well as in worldwide. After forced ventilation or horizontal air circulation fans were installed to control growth conditions in green house, the changes of temperature, relative humidity (RH), growth and yield, and occurrence of downy mildew were examined. Althought here was no significant difference of temperature between the treatments, RH as 9.2% lower at nighttime by forced ventilation. In addition, final fresh weight was increased to 17.8g compared to control (10.1g), which as 7.7g enhancement. Downy mildew s tarted to show 20 days after sowing (DAS) and increased to 34.7% at 60 DAS on harvest time in control. In contrast downy mildew was occurred 40 DAS with 0.7% incidence rate and 4% at harvest by forced ventilation. The results indicated that reduction of only 9.2% of RH at nighttime by forced ventilation in greenhouse spinach growth was dramatically thrived over 76.2%. Additionally spinach downy mildew occurred 20 days later with extremely lower incident rate, which meant 88.5% reduction of downy mildew.

Treatment of Hyperestrogenism Caused by follicular Cysts in a Dog (개에서 난포낭종에 의해 발생한 고에스트로겐증의 치료)

  • Lee Jong Hwan;Kang Hyun-Gu;Kim Ill-Hwa;Eum Kyung Hwan;Lee Kee-Chang;Lee Chung-San;Lee Dong-Yub
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.428-430
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    • 2005
  • A female French Bulldog was referred to Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Chungbuk National University. In case, alopecia and erythema nodosum were the main complaints in a 16 months old female dog. Ventral alopecia and dorsal erythema nodosum have been presented on skin lesions for 8 months. There were no specific change with CBC and blood chemistry but plasma estrogen concentration was 68 pg/ml and cornified superficial epithelial cells were detected above $90\%$ by cytology examination of vaginal smear preparation. Ovarian cyst was detected by ultrasonography in the left ovary. Cystic diameter was $14.2\times12.0mm$. Therefore, we diagnosed as unilateral multiple follicular cysts. The dog was treated with GnRH $50{\mu}g$ injection by intramuscularly Cyst size was decreased $7.3\times7.2mm$ after 7 days GnRH treatment and disappeared after 14 days GnRH treatment. Also dermatitis by unilateral multiple follicular cysts were recovered after 21 days GnRH treatment.

Quality Characteristics of Ginseng Coffee Treated by Coating of White Ginseng Extract

  • Kim, Kyung-Tack;Lee, Young-Chul;Cho, Chang-Won;Rhee, Young-Kyoung;Bae, Hye-Min
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • The quality attributes of coffee treated with different concentrations of white ginseng extract were examined. Increased concentration of white ginseng extract was associated with higher color values (Hunter L. a, b scale). The crude saponin contents of untreated roasted coffee beans (control) and those coated with $5^{\circ}$ Brix (WGC-1) and $20^{\circ}$ Brix white ginseng extract (WGC-2) were 8.29%, 8.74%, and 8.93%, respectively. The total ginsenoside contents of WGC-1 and WGC-2 were 0.3 mg/g and 0.6 mg/g, respectively. In the case of major ginsenosides, the contents of ginsenosides $Rg_1,\;Rg_2,\;Rb_1,\;Rb_2,\;Rg_2,\;Rh_1$, and $Rg_3$ increased directly with the concentration of white ginseng extract. Total sugar and acidic polysaccharide contents also increased directly with the concentration of white ginseng extract. The coffee beans coated with ginseng extract scored significantly higher ginseng taste scores than the control (p<0.005) in sensory evaluation. In terms of coffee taste, WGC-2 had significantly lower scores than the commercial coffee bean. In the consumer sensory evaluation, overall preference did not differ significantly among the treatments.

Ginsenoside derivatives and quality characteristics of fermented ginseng using lactic acid bacteria (유산균을 이용한 발효인삼의 ginsenoside 유도체 및 품질특성)

  • Kang, Bok-Hee;Lee, Kun-Jae;Hur, Sang-Sun;Lee, Dong-Sun;Lee, Sang-Han;Shin, Ki-Sun;Lee, Jin-Man
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.573-582
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    • 2013
  • This study was done in order to investigate the bioconversion of ginsenoside, as well as the quality characteristics of fermented ginseng, by using lactic acid bacteria. Quality characteristics such as the thin layer chromatography(TLC) pattern, ginsenosides, total phenolic content, electron donating ability, and total sugar of fermenting ginseng and red ginseng were analyzed. The ginsenoside Rg2r, Rh2s and Rh2r of the fermented ginseng and red ginseng for 65 hours at a temperature of $37^{\circ}C$ were not detected. The ginsenoside Rg1 and Re contents have decreased, while the Rh1, Rg2s, Rd, Rg3r, and Rg3s have increased due to fermentation. The ginsenoside Rg3 of the fermented red ginseng has increased and the contents were $114.83{\sim}131.68{\mu}g/mL$ (control $104.56{\mu}g/mL$). The total phenolic content and electron donating ability of the red ginseng have totally decreased after 7 days of fermentation. The total phenolic contents of the fermented ginseng and red ginseng with different lactic acid bacteria did not show any tendency as different strains. The electron donating ability of the fermented ginseng has increased; however, the electron donating ability of the red ginseng has decreased. The total sugars of the fermented ginseng and red ginseng with different lactic acid bacteria have also decreased.

Color Removal of Rhodamine B by Photoelectrocatalytic Process Using Immobilized TiO2 (고정화 광촉매를 이용한 광전기촉매 공정에서 Rhodamine B의 색도 제거)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 2008
  • A feasibility study for the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) was performed in a photoelectrochemical reactor with immobilized $TiO_2$ particle. The effects of operating conditions, such as current, electrolyte and pH were evaluated. The experimental results showed that optimum $TiO_2$ dosage and current in the photoelectrocatalytic process were 83.3 g/l and 0.5 A, respectively. It was found that the RhB could be degraded more efficiently by this photoelectrocatalytic process than the sum of the two individual oxidation processes (photocatalytic and electrolytic process). The addition of NaCl increased the initial decolorization rate and reduced reaction time. The optimum dosage of NaCl was 0.15 g/l. The decolorization rate of the photoelectrocatalytic process increased sharply with a decrease in pH value. However when the NaCl was added, the pH effect was not high.