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Gold Nanoparticle-Based Detection of Hg(II) in an Aqueous Solution: Fluorescence Quenching and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Study

  • Ganbold, Erdene-Ochir;Park, Jin-Ho;Ock, Kwang-Su;Joo, Sang-Woo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.519-523
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    • 2011
  • We studied the detection of the Hg(II) concentration in an aqueous solution using rhodamine dyes on citrate-reduced Au nanoparticles (NPs). The quenching effect from Au NPs was found to decrease as the Hg(II) concentration increased under our experimental conditions. As the fluorescence signals intensified, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensities reduced on the contrary due to less rhodamine dyes on Au NPs as the Hg(II) concentration increased. The rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) dyes were examined via fluorescence and SERS measurements depending on Hg(II) concentrations. Fast and easy fluorescence detection of an Hg (II) concentration as low as a few ppm could be achieved by naked eye using citrate-reduced Au NPs.

Processing and Quality properties of Chestnut Paste (밤페이스트의 제조와 품질 특성)

  • 문광덕;서영호;김준한;임정호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.572-578
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    • 1999
  • This study was conducted to investigate processing condition and characteristics of chestnut paste. The kinds of chestnut powder processed with blanching and drying of raw material were four named RH(not blanched, hot air dried), RF(not blanched, freeze dried), BH(blanched, hot air dried) and BF(blanched, freeze dried). Blanching affected the reduction of drying time in chestnut. Water absorption index of the blanched samples were higher than the nonblanched. Blanching affected the viscosity of pastes when water was added to process paste also, but drying methods did not affected to it. The proper ratio of water to the powder to process paste was 1.3 to 1.5 times in RH and RF, whereas 2.7 times in BH and BF by sensory evaluation. Soluble tannin content of paste was higher in RF and RH paste than BF and BH. Vitamin C content was the highest(88.49mg/100g) in RF paste and reducing sugar content was the highest in RF paste. Hunter's L and a values were the highest in BF and RH pastes, respectively, among the all paste samples. Volatile compounds detected from chestnutpastes were hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, ketones. The major volatile compound in all the pastes was 2,6 bis(1,1 dimethylethyl) 4 methyl phenol.

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Moisture Sorption and Desorption Isotherms of Various Leaf Tobaccos (잎담배의 흡습 및 탈습에 관한 연구)

  • 진학용;최승찬;이태호;유광근
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.30-40
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    • 1981
  • The moisture sorption and desorption isotherms of various tobaccos were obtained over a relative humidity range from 0 to 90% at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$. The hysteresis effect, constant and rate of moisture sorption and desorption, monomolecular-layer moisture content, and specific surface area were analyzed from the obtained data. The moisture sorption and desorption isotherms showed a different characteristics for different tobacco varieties. At a lower humidity range below 50% RH, Burley tobacco had higher moisture sorption and desorption figures than Hicks and Basma, while, at a higher humidity range above 50% RH, Hicks had higher values than the others. The hysteresis effect of tobacco were greater in an intermediate humidity range (40-70% RN), and Basma showed a greater effect than the others. The sorption and desorption constant (K) increased with temperature, but decreased with RH, and Burley tobacco had larger K values, while Hicks had smaller K values than others. The sorption and desorption rate of Burley tobacco were greater than the other tobaccos. The monomolecular-layer moisture was 27.8 and 51.4mg/g, and the specific surface was 101 and $186m^2/g$, for Basma and Burley, respectively.

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Density Functional Study on the C-H Bond Cleavage of Aldimine by a Rhodium(I) Catalyst

  • Yoo, Kyung-Hwa;Jun, Chul-Ho;Choi, Cheol-Ho;Sim, Eun-Ji
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1920-1926
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the C-H bond activation mechanism of aldimine by the [RhCl$(PPH_3)_3$] model catalyst using DFT B3LYP//SBKJC/6-31G*/6-31G on GAMESS. Due to their potential utility in organic synthesis, C-H bond activation is one of the most active research fields in organic and organometallic chemistry. C-H bond activation by a transition metal catalyst can be classified into two types of mechanisms: direct C-H bond cleavage by the metal catalyst or a multi-step mechanism via a tetrahedral transition state. There are three structural isomers of [RhCl$(PH_3)_2$] coordinated aldimine that differ in the position of chloride with respect to the molecular plane. By comparing activation energies of the overall reaction pathways that the three isomeric structures follow in each mechanism, we found that the C-H bond activation of aldimine by the [RhCl$(PH_3)_3$] catalyst occurs through the tetrahedral intermediate.

Inhibitory Effects of 23 Korean Local Plant Extracts on Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 (AKR 1 B10) (한국 자생식물 추출물 23종의 Aldo-keto reductase family 1 B10 (AKR 1 B10) 효소 억제효과)

  • Lee, Joo-Young;Song, Dae-Geun;Jung, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Jong-Hwan;Ahn, Soo-Young;Nho, Chu-Won;Pan, Cheol-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.238-243
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    • 2009
  • We examined ethanol extracts prepared from 23 Korean local plants obtained in Pyeongchang, Gangwon-do for their inhibitory effects on recombinant human AKR 1 B10 (rhAKR1B10) in vitro. To do this, rhAKR1B10 was first expressed in E. coli as a biological active form and purified by using Ni-affinity chromatography followed by gel permeation chromatography. Then, rhAKR1B10 was used for screening out 23 Korean local plant extracts having an inhibitory activity against itself. Among them, six extracts showed more than 50% inhibition of rhAKR1B10 activity at the concentration of $10{\mu}g$/ml. Especially, the extracts of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis Nakai and Rhus trichocarpa Miq. were the most potent because their $IC_{50}$ values were 2.94 and $2.00{\mu}g$/ml, respectively.

Effect of humidity on the quality characteristics of the 3rd day of 5th instar silkworm powder

  • Lee, Ji Hae;Kim, SooHyun;Jo, You-Young;Kweon, HaeYong;Jeon, Jong Young;Ju, Wan-Teak;Kim, Hyun-Bok;Kim, Kee-Young;Kim, Seong-Wan;Kim, Su-Bae
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2019
  • Freeze-dried 3rd day of 5th instar silkworm powder (FDSP) has been produced and consumed as functional food ingredient in Korea. Generally, FDSP is distributed in the dehumidification state. In this study, the effect of humid condition (30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% RH) on the quality characteristics of FDSP was examined. The color of FDSP, greenish yellow, becomes dark with the change of redness and yellowness. When FDSP is exposed for 4 h at 90% RH, the lightness was changed from 56 to 51, redness from -0.8 to 3.7, and yellowness from 26.5 to 21.6. The proximate composition of FDSP was not significantly changed except 90% RH condition. At that condition, moisture content (5.7%) was increased to 26.8% and crude fat (11.3%) decreased to 1.9% (3 wk 90% RH). Mineral content change during storage can be classified to 3 types; sulfur rapidly decreased, potassium mostly stable with some decreased with humidity, and sodium increased with high humid condition. Vitamins were not significantly affected. However, DNJ was abruptly decreased to 0.03 g/100g in humid condition.

Protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in vitro and in vivo

  • Baek, Seung-Hoon;Shin, Byong-kyu;Kim, Nam Jae;Chang, Sun-Young;Park, Jeong Hill
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2017
  • Background: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect in cisplatin chemotherapy. Previously, we reported that the ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 reduced cisplatin toxicity on porcine renal proximal epithelial tubular cells (LLC-PK1). Here, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on kidney function and elucidate their antioxidant effect using in vitro and in vivo models of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Methods: An enriched mixture of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 (KG-KH; 49.3% and 43.1%, respectively) was purified from sun ginseng (heat processed Panax ginseng). Cytotoxicity was induced by treatment of $20{\mu}M$ cisplatin to LLC-PK1 cells and rat model of acute renal failure was generated by single intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg cisplatin. Protective effects were assessed by determining cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histopathological examination. Results: The in vitro assay demonstrated that KG-KH ($50{\mu}g/mL$) significantly increased cell viability (4.6-fold), superoxide dismutase activity (2.8-fold), and glutathione reductase activity (1.5-fold), but reduced reactive oxygen species generation (56%) compared to cisplatin control cells. KG-KH (6 mg/kg, per os) also significantly inhibited renal edema (87% kidney index) and dysfunction (71.4% blood urea nitrogen, 67.4% creatinine) compared to cisplatin control rats. Of note, KG-KH significantly recovered the kidney levels of catalase (1.2-fold) and superoxide dismutase (1.5-fold). Conclusion: Considering the oxidative injury as an early trigger of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, our findings suggest that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 protect the kidney from cisplatin-induced oxidative injury and help to recover renal function by restoring intrinsic antioxidant defenses.

Effects of Changes in Glycosylation Sites on Secretion of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Cultured CHO Cells

  • Lee, H. G;Lee, P. Y.;Lee, Y. K.;Kim, S. J.;H. K. Chung;M. K. Seo;Park, J. K.;K. S. Min;W. K. Chang
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.299-307
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    • 2003
  • The effects of additions/deletions in glycosylated residues of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) produced in CHO-K1 on their secretion were examined. hEPO cDNA was amplified from human liver mRNA and cloned into the pCR2.1 TOPO. Using overlapping-extension site-directed mutagenesis method, glycosylation sites at 24th, 38th, 83rd, and 126th were respectively or accumulatively removed by substituting its asparagine (or serine) with glutamine. To add novel glycosylation sites, 69 and 105th leucine was mutated to asparagine. Mutant and wild type rhEPO constructs were cloned into the pcDNA3 expression vector with CMV promoter and transfected into CHO cell line, CHO-K1, to produce mutant rhEPO mutant rhEPO proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and Western analysis with monoclonal anti-EPO antibody were performed using supernatants of the cultures showing transient and stable expressions respectively. Addition of novel glycosylation reduced rhEPO secretion dramatically while deletion mutants had little effect except some double deletion mutants ($\Delta$24/83 and $\Delta$38/83) and triple mutant ($\Delta$24/38/83). This fact suggests that not single but combination of changes in glycosyl groups affect secretion of rhEPO in cell culture, possibly via changes in their conformations.

Effect of Relative Humidity and Storage Temperature on the Quality of Green Tea Powder (상대습도 및 저장 온도가 분말녹차의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Min;Lim, Sang-Wook;Cho, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Sung-Gil;Heo, Ho-Jin;Lee, Seung-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2009
  • After storing green tea powder for three months at three different temperatures (-20, 4, and $20^{\circ}C$) with three different relative humidities (RHs) (23, 69, and 81%), the chemical quality was evaluated with green tea, which was prepared by soaking 1.5 g of the powder into 100 mL of distilled water at $70^{\circ}C$ for 5 min. Total phenolic contents, total flavanol contents, and ascorbic acid contents of green tea powder stored at $4^{\circ}C$ with 23% RH changed from 267.5, 49.4, and 24.2 mg/g to 287.1, 44.9, and 36.9 mg/g, respectively, compared to the powder before storage. EGC and EGCG, the main catechins of green tea, also changed from 16.9 and 27.3 mg/g to 24.3 and 36.5, g/g, respectively, after storage for 3 months at $4^{\circ}C$ with 23% RH. However, when the green tea powder was stored at -20 or $20^{\cric}C$ with higher RH such as 69 and 81%, the chemical compounds were significantly decreased. The results indicate that temperature and RH are important during storage of green tea powder, and low RH and refrigerated condition ($-4^{\cric}C$) are preferable to increase or preserve the chemical compounds of the tea.