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Application of the Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to the Treatment of Dye using Electrocoagulation/flotation Process (전기응집/부상 공정을 이용한 염료 처리에 중심합성설계와 반응표면분석법의 적용)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2010
  • This experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied to the investigation of the electrocoagulation/flotation of dye wastewater. The electrocoagulation/flotation reactions were mathematically described as a function of parameters current (A), NaCl concentration (B), initial RhB concentration (C) and time (D) being modeled by use of the central composite design (CCD). The application of RSM using the CCD yielded the following regression equation, which is an empirical relationship between the RhB removal (%) and test variables in RhB removal (%) = $-300.42+129.21{\cdot}Current+46.99{\cdot}NaCl-0.11{\cdot}RhB-+43.71{\cdot}Time-5.67{\cdot}Current{\cdot}NaCl-3.18{\cdot}Current{\cdot}Time-2.41{\cdot}NaCl{\cdot}Time-19.79{\cdot}Current^2-2.27{\cdot}NaCl^2-1.59{\cdot}Time^2$. the model predictions agreed well with the experimentally observed result ($R^{2}=0.9728$). The estimated ridge of maximum response and optimal conditions for RhB removal (%) using canonical analysis was 99.4% (A: 1,77 A, NaCl concentration: 2.23 g/L, RhB concentration: 56.12 mg/L, Time: 9.98 min). To confirm this optimum condition, three additional experiments were performed and RhB removal (%) were within range of 86.87% (95% PI low)~111.93% (95% PI high) obtained.

Dopaminergic Regulation of Gonadotropin-II Secretion in Testosterone-treated Precocious Male and Immature Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Aida, Katsumi
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2000
  • The present work examined the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopaminergic drugs on the secretion of maturational gonadotropin (GTH II) in relation to testosterone m treatment. This study provides evidence that the plasma GTH II levels are increased by T treatment in precocious males, but not in the immature animal. In addition, GnRH analogue (GnRHa) alone significantly increased the plasma GTH II secretion in immature rainbow trout treated with T, as well as in T-treated and T-untreated precocious males. However, injection with either dopamine (DA) or domperidone (DOM; DA D2 receptor antagonist) alone did not alter the basal plasma GTH 11 secretion in all experimental groups. The secretion of GTH II in the T-treated precocious males was remarkably influenced by GnRHa or combination of dopaminergic drugs. Notably, the effects of dopaminergic drugs on GnRHa-induced GTH II secretion w8s prolonged by T in precocious males. In T-treated immature animals, GnRHa-induced GTH II secretion was Increased only by a dose DOM (10$\mu$g/g body n) but not by higher dose DOM (100$\mu$/g body wt). In the T-untreated immature rainbow trout, however, plasma GTH 11 secretion was not influenced by the same treatments. Therefore, these results indicate that DA may be acting indirectly by blocking the effect of GnRH on GTH II secretion in vivo. T may act to modulate the relative contribution by the stimulatory (GnRH) and inhibitory (DA) neuroendocrine factors, which would ultimately determine the pattern of GTH II secretion.

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Studies of Opsin Genes in a Smelt Fish, Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

  • Minamoto, Toshifumi;Shimizu, Isamu
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.269-271
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    • 2002
  • To investigate the visual and extra-ocular photoreception, we cloned the opsin genes in ayu (Plecoglossus allivelis). Amplified fragments encoding exon-4 (-5) of opsin cDNAs were cloned from the retina and brains of ayu, and sequenced. One clone was identified as rod (AYU-Rh), two as green cone (AYU-GI, -G2), one as red cone (A YU-R), two as ultraviolet cone (AYU-UVl, UV2), one as VA (AYU-VA), and one as extra-ocular rod (AYU-ExoRh) opsins. 335 amino acids sequence deduced from the full-length cDNA of AYU-Rh showed high identity with that of other fish. Southern blotting analysis indicated that ayu possess two 'rhodopsin' genes, one is visual rhodopsin and the other is non-visual extra-ocular rhodopsin. In situ hybridization showed that the mRNA of AYU-Rh was localized only in rod cells in the retina. On the other hands, AYU-ExoRh was expressed only in the pineal. We cloned two isoforms (AYU-VAM and -VAL) of VA opsin from ayu. The deduced amino acid sequences of these variants were identical to each other within the first 342 residues, but they showed divergence in the C-terminal sequence. AYU- VAL corresponded to the long isoform found in other fish, and AYU-VAM was identified as a new type of VA opsin variant. Pal-VAM is a new probably functional non-visual photoreceptive molecule in fish.

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Mechanical Characteristics of the Rift, Grain and Hardway Planes in Jurassic Granites, Korea (쥬라기 화강암류에서 발달된 1번 면, 2번 면 및 3번 면의 역학적 특성)

  • Park, Deok-Won
    • Korean Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.273-291
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    • 2020
  • The strength characteristics of the three orthogonal splitting planes, known as rift, grain and hardway planes in granite quarries, were examined. R, G and H specimens were obtained from the block samples of Jurassic granites in Geochang and Hapcheon areas. The directions of the long axes of these three specimens are perpendicular to each of the three planes. First, The chart, showing the scaling characteristics of three graphs related to the uniaxial compressive strengths of R, G and H specimens, were made. The graphs for the three specimens, along with the increase of strength, are arranged in the order of H < G < R. The angles of inclination of the graphs for the three specimens, suggesting the degree of uniformity of the texture within the specimen, were compared. The above angles for H specimens(θH, 24.0°~37.3°) are the lowest among the three specimens. Second, the scaling characteristics related to the three graphs of RG, GH and RH specimens, representing a combination of the mean compressive strengths of the two specimens, were derived. These three graphs, taking the various N-shaped forms, are arranged in the order of GH < RH < RG. Third, the correlation chart between the strength difference(Δσt) and the angle of inclination(θ) was made. The above two parameters show the correlation of the exponential function with an exponent(λ) of -0.003. In both granites, the angle of inclination(θRH) of the RH-graph is the lowest. Fourth, the six types of charts, showing the correlations among the three kinds of compressive strengths for the three specimens and the five parameters for the two sets of microcracks aligned parallel to the compressive load applied to each specimen, were made. From these charts for Geochang and Hapcheon granites, the mean value(0.877) of the correlation coefficients(R2) for total density(Lt), along with the frequency(N, 0.872) and density(ρ, 0.874), is the highest. In addition, the mean values(0.829) of correlation coefficients associated with the mean compressive strengths are more higher than the minimum(0.768) and maximum(0.804) compression strengths of three specimens. Fifth, the distributional characteristics of the Brazilian tensile strengths measured in directions parallel to the above two sets of microcracks in the three specimens from Geochang granite were derived. From the related chart, the three graphs for these tensile strengths corresponding to the R, G and H specimens show an order of H(R1+G1) < G(R2+H1) < R(R1+G1). The order of arrangement of the three graphs for the tensile strengths and that for the compressive strengths are mutually consistent. Therefore, the compressive strengths of the three specimens are proportional to the three types of tensile strengths. Sixth, the values of correlation coefficients, among the three tensile strengths corresponding to each cumulative number(N=1~10) from the above three graphs and the five parameters corresponding to each graph, were derived. The mean values of correlation coefficients for each parameter from the 10 correlation charts increase in the order of density(0.763) < total length(0.817) < frequency(0.839) < mean length(Lm, 0.901) ≤ median length(Lmed, 0.903). Seventh, the correlation charts among the compressive strengths and tensile strengths for the three specimens were made. The above correlation charts were divided into nine types based on the three kinds of compressive strengths and the five groups(A~E) of tensile strengths. From the related charts, as the tensile strength increases with the mean and maximum compressive strengths excluding the minimum compressive strength, the value of correlation coefficient increases rapidly.

Development of Fermentation Process of Ginseng Leaf Extraction Probiotic Strain and Characterization of Product Quality (프로바이오틱 균주에 의한 인삼 잎 추출물 발효공정 확립 및 생성물의 품질 특성분석)

  • Hur, Sang-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1213-1223
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to investigate extraction efficiency by microwave for extraction of pesticide residues and the bioconversion of ginsenosides of ginseng leaf by using various lactic acid bacteria in order to promote the utilization of ginseng leaf. The hexane extraction by microwave of tolclofos-methyl and azoxystrobin in ginseng leaf was efficient. The optimal condition for extraction of tolclofos-methyl and azoxystrobin in ginseng leaf by microwave was 50 to 95 watts of power supply, 3 minutes of extraction.The gisenosides Rg1 and Rb1 contents have decreased, while the Rh1, Rg3, Rk1 and Rh2 have increased due to fermentation. The ginsenosides Rg3 of the fermented ginseng leaf has increased and the contents were $70.62{\sim}77.61{\mu}g/g$(control $2.77{\mu}g/g$). The total phenolic acid content and electron donating ability of the ginseng leaf have totally decreased after 7 days of fermentation. The total phenolic acid contents of the fermented ginseng leaf with various lactic acid bacteria did not show any tendency as different strains.

Programmed Reproductive Management Including Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch Protocol in Dairy Cows (젖소에서 일련의 Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch Protocol을 이용한 번식관리 예)

  • Kim, Ill-Hwa;Francisco, Nilo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.397-401
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    • 2010
  • This study was to evaluate the usefulness of a programmed reproductive management including Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch protocol in lactating dairy cows. Nine hundred and thirty four cows calved during February to May 2008 were used for this study. Cows received im injections of 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ at $45{\pm}3$ and $59{\pm}3$ days in milk (DIM). Fourteen days later, Ovsynch was initiated with an im injection of $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH ($73{\pm}3$ DIM), 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 7 days later ($80{\pm}3$ DIM), $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH 56 h later and timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 h after the GnRH injection. Cows showed estrus during the Presynch-Ovsynch, were inseminated artificially according to am-pm rule. Pregnancy was determined on 32 days after AI using ultrasonography. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined for pregnancy by rectal palpation at 60 days after AI. Non-pregnant cows were resynchronized by receiving $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH, 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 7 days later, $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH 56 h later and TAI 16 h after. Cows with estrus since the first AI before the completion of Resynch protocol were also inseminated artificially according to am-pm rule. Pregnancy was determined by the same manner as following the first AI. Fifty five percents of the cows treated showed estrus and received AI before completion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, while 45% received TAI, regardless of estrus exhibition following the completion of the protocol. The pregnancy rate following the first AI was higher in cows that showed estrus and received AI (43.3 and 38.5%) during the Presynch-Ovsynch than cows with TAI (34.6 and 29.6%) on 32 and 60 days after AI (P < 0.01). Sixty six percents of cows diagnosed non-pregnant following the first AI showed estrus before the completion of Resynch protocol and received AI, while 34% received TAI, regardless of estrus exhibition following the completion of the protocol. The pregnancy rate following the second AI was higher in cows that showed estrus before the completion of Resynch protocol and received AI (40.2 and 36.8%) than cows with TAI (21.2 and 18.2%) on 32 and 60 days after AI (P < 0.01). The cumulative pregnancy rates following the first and second AIs were 60.8 and 53.9% on 32 and 60 days after AI, respectively. These data suggest that inclusion of Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch protocol and estrus detection into the programmed reproductive management might be an alternative option to control dairy cattle breeding.

Effect of Using Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal Device with Ovsynch Program on Reproduction in Dairy Cattle during Summer Season

  • Alnimer, M.;Lubbadeh, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1268-1273
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    • 2003
  • Sixty postpartum lactating Friesian cows in 3 treatments at a commercial dairy farm were used to study the effect of using progesterone supplementation with GnRH and PGF2$\alpha$ synchronization with and without timed AI on fertility during summer. Cows in treatment1($Tr_1$) and treatment2 ($Tr_1$) were fitted with progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) device and injected with 10 g GnRH agonist on $51{\pm}3$ d postpartum (pp). Seven days later, PRID was removed and cows received 25 mg PGF2$\alpha$. Two days later, $Tr_1$ cows received another injection of 10 g GnRH and timed AI 16-20 h later. Control cows received only 25 mg PGF2$\alpha$ $58{\pm}3d\;pp$. $Tr_2$ and control cows were AI at detected estrus. Serum progesterone for all cows was determined on days of injection, AI and 21, 23 and 28 d postinsemination. Pregnancy rates from first AI based on serum P4 concentrations on d 21, 23 and 28 postinsemination (50, 40 and 35%) and that based on rectal palpation 40-45 d postinsemination (30, 15 and 15% for $Tr_1$, $Tr_2$ and control cows, respectively) did not differ among the three groups. Whereas, pregnancy rate at 120 d pp for $Tr_1$ (65%) was higher (p<0.05) than that in $Tr_2$ (30%) or control (30%). The overall pregnancy rate was not significantly different (90, 90 and 75% for $Tr_1$, $Tr_2$ and control, respectively). Days open for cows in $Tr_1$ ($100.3{\pm}9$) was less (p<0.03) than that in $Tr_2$ ($130.9{\pm}9$) or control ($135.1{\pm}10$). Results indicate that using PRID device with Ovsynch program had significantly increased pregnancy rate and decreased days open compared to AI at detected estrus after synchronization with GnRH, PRID and PGF2$\alpha$ or synchronization with one injection of PGF2$\alpha$.

펜톤-유사 반응과 광-펜톤-유사 반응을 이용한 염료의 탈색 비교

  • Park, Yeong-Sik;Kim, Dong-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.353-356
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    • 2006
  • 펜톤-유사 반응의 최척 철 입자 양과 $H_2O_2$ 주입 량은 각각 25 g/L, 60 mmol로 나타났고, 광-펜톤-유사 반응의 최적 철 입자 양과 $H_2O_2$ 양은 각각 0.25 g/L 와 0.625 mmol로 나타나 철 입자 양은 100배, $H_2O_2$ 양은 96배 차이나 펜톤-유사 반응의 경우 다량의 철 입자와 $H_2O_2$ 소비로 인해 RhB의 탈색반응에는 적절하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 UV를 함께 적용한 광-펜톤-유사 반응의 경우 철 입자 양과 $H_2O_2$ 양이 적어 적절한 것으로 사료되었다. RhB의 완전한 탈색을 위해서는 적절한 UV 등 전력이 필요하다고 사료되었다.

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The healing effect of rhGM-CSF on uninfected wounds (rhGM-CSF(Leucogen)의 비감염성 상처 치유 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Seung Kyu;Kim, Byung Soo;Kim, Aeree;Seo, Jae Hong;Choi, Chul Won;Shin, Sang Won;Kim, Yeul Hong;Kim, Woo Kyung;Kim, Jun Suk
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.32-35
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    • 2001
  • Background: rhGM-CSF has been shown to enhance the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells and to promote keratinocyte growth. This study was tried to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF dressing on the uninfected wounds. Methods: Thirty Sprague-dawley white mice(250-300g) were selected in this study. The number of wound with the diameter of 5 mm, was 3 in left and 3 in right at the symmetric sites, respectively. The site of rhGM-CSF dressing was decided by a randomization. rhGM-CSF($Leucogen^{(R)}$) was diluted in the distilled water($5{\mu}g/mL$). The experimental wound group was dressed by l mL of distilled water mixed with rhGM-CSF and control wound group was dressed by l mL of distilled water. The dressing was done, every 24 hours. The criteria of comparison were the duration of wound healing duration, histologic findings and the bacterial culture of wound sites. Results: The duration of wound healing was $10.3{\pm}1.7days$ in experimental group and $10.2{\pm}2.8days$ in control group, without significant difference. There was no specific difference of histologic findings between both groups. The pathogen was not found, at all. Conclusion: It seems to be that rhGM-CSF has no prominent effect on the uninfected wound healing in the mice without immune suppression.

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Decolorization of a Rhodamine B Using Photoelectrocatalytic and Electrolytic/UV Process (광전기촉매 공정과 전기/UV 공정을 이용한 Rhodamine B의 색 제거)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1023-1032
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    • 2008
  • The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic and electrolytic/UV decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated in the photoelectrocatalytic and electrolytic/UV process with $TiO_2$ photoelectrode and DSA (dimensionally stable anode) electrode. Three types of $TiO_2$ photoelectrode were used. Thermal oxidation electrode (Th-$TiO_2$) was made by oxidation of titanium metal sheet; sol-gel electrode (5G-$TiO_2$) and powder electrode (P-$TiO_2$) were made by coating and then heating a layer of titania sol-gel and slurry $TiO_2$ on titanium sheet. DSA electrodes were Ti and Ru/Ti electrode. The relative performance for RhB decolorization of each of the photoelecoodes and DSA electrodes is: Ru/Ti > Ti > SG-$TiO_2$ > Th-$TiO_2$. It was observed that photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of RhB is similar to the sum of the photocatalytic and electrolytic decolorization. Therefore the synergetic effect was not showed in pthotoelectrocatalytic reaction. $Na_{2}SO_{4}$ and NaCl showed different decolorization effect between pthotoelectrocatalytic and electrolytic/UV reaction. In the presence of the NaCl, RhB decolorization of Ru/Ti DSA electrode was higher than that of the other photoelectrode and Ti electrode. Optimum current, NaCl dosage and UV lamp power of the electrolytic/UV process (using Ru/Ti electrode) were 0.75 A, 0.5 g/L and 16 W, respectively.