• 제목, 요약, 키워드: G-Rh2

검색결과 387건 처리시간 0.03초

The interaction of serum albumin with ginsenoside Rh2 resulted in the downregulation of ginsenoside Rh2 cytotoxicity

  • Lin, Yingjia;Li, Yang;Song, Zhi-Guang;Zhu, Hongyan;Jin, Ying-Hua
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2017
  • Background: Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) is a ginseng saponin that is widely investigated because of its remarkable antitumor activity. However, the molecular mechanism by which (20S) G-Rh2 triggers its functions and how target animals avoid its cytotoxic action remains largely unknown. Methods: Phage display was used to screen the human targets of (20S) G-Rh2. Fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy were used to confirm the interaction of candidate target proteins and (20S) G-Rh2. Molecular docking was utilized to calculate the estimated free energy of binding and to structurally visualize their interactions. MTT assay and immunoblotting were used to assess whether human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and bovine serum can reduce the cytotoxic activity of (20S) G-Rh2 in HepG2 cells. Results: In phage display, (20S) G-Rh2-beads and (20R) G-Rh2-beads were combined with numerous kinds of phages, and a total of 111 different human complementary DNAs (cDNA) were identified, including HSA which had the highest rate. The binding constant and number of binding site in the interaction between (20S)-Rh2 and HSA were $3.5{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ and 1, and those in the interaction between (20S) G-Rh2 and BSA were $1.4{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ and 1. The quenching mechanism is static quenching. HSA, BSA and bovine serum significantly reduced the proapoptotic effect of (20S) G-Rh2. Conclusion: HSA and BSA interact with (20S) G-Rh2. Serum inhibited the activity of (20S) G-Rh2 mainly due to the interaction between (20S) G-Rh2 and serum albumin (SA). This study proposes that HSA may enhance (20S) G-Rh2 water solubility, and thus might be used as nanoparticles in the (20S) G-Rh2 delivery process.

Differential Role of protein Kinase C in Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ - induced Apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2) and C6Bu-1 Cells

  • Young Sook Kim;Sun
    • 고려인삼학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.244-252
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    • 1998
  • Ginsenoside Rh, (G-Rh,) from Panax ginseng induced morphological features of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation as a biochemical marker of apoptosis confirmed by TUNEL reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2) and rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells During apoptosis by G-Rh2, protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms were analysed by immunoblotting. In SK-N-BE(2) cells, the levels of a, p and ${\gamma}$ subtypes were increased by undergoing apoptosis, while PKC e isoform increased early in treatment (3 h and 6 h). In addition, PKC s isoform gradually decreased during apoptosis by G-Rh2 and PKC $\theta$ isoform was detected in neither untreated- nor G-Rh1-treated SK-N-BE(2) cells (data not shown). However, no significant changes in the level of S and s isoforms were observed in C6Bu-1 cells undergoing apoptosis by G-Rh2. These results suggest that PKC subtypes may play differential roles in apoptotic signal pathways and their roles can be cell type-specific in apoptosis induced by G-Rh2.

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키토산 분자량에 따른 Rhodamine 6G-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate계의 응집효과에 관한 연구 (Effect of Molecular Weight of Chitosan on Flocculation of Suspended Solids in Rhodamine 6G-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate System)

  • 김성현;나재운;오정선;송기동
    • 대한화학회지
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.672-678
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    • 1998
  • 산업폐기물인 꽃게의 껍질로부터 chitin을 탈아세틸화시켜 분자량이 서로 다른 chitosan을 제조하였다. Rhodamine 6G(Rh 6G)-sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)계 및 Rh 6G-chitosan계들의 흡수 및 형과 spectra를 조사하였고, chitosan의 분자량 및 pH에 따른 Rh 6G-SDS-chitosan계의 응집효과에 대해 조사하였다. Rh 6G-SDS계의 흡광도나 형광세기는 S/D(SDS 농도/Rh 6G 농도)=32 이하에서 감소하다가 그 이상에서 다시 증가하였다. 부유물질(SS) 제거율이나 투광도로부터 S/D=32에서 chitosan을 첨가한 Rh 6G-SDS-chitosan계의 응집 성능이 Rh 6G-SDS계에 비해 훨씬 우수함을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 chitosan의 농도나 분자량이 크면 클수록, S/D 첨가 범위는 32에서 100까지 확대되는 것을 알 수 있었다. 부유물질의 제거율은 chitosan의 분자량이 클수록 pH 2∼9에서 우수한 성능을 가지는 반면, pH 12 이상에서 부유물질의 제거율은 현저히 저하되는 것을 알 수 있었다.

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Activin A/BMP2 Chimera (AB204) Exhibits Better Spinal Bone Fusion Properties than rhBMP2

  • Ryu, Dalsung;Yoon, Byung-Hak;Oh, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Moon-Hang;Kim, Ji-Yong;Yoon, Seung Hwan;Choe, Senyon
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.669-679
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    • 2018
  • Objective : To compare the spinal bone fusion properties of activin A/BMP2 chimera (AB204) with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP2) using a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model. Methods : The study was designed to compare the effects and property at different dosages of AB204 and rhBMP2 on spinal bone fusion. Sixty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion using one of nine treatments during the study, that is, sham; osteon only; $3.0{\mu}g$, $6.0{\mu}g$, or $10.0{\mu}g$ of rhBMP2 with osteon; and $1.0{\mu}g$, $3.0{\mu}g$, $6.0{\mu}g$, or $10.0{\mu}g$ of AB204 with osteon. The effects and property on spinal bone fusion was calculated at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment using the scores of physical palpation, simple radiograph, micro-computed tomography, and immunohistochemistry. Results : Bone fusion scores were significantly higher for $10.0{\mu}g$ AB204 and $10.0{\mu}g$ rhBMP2 than for osteon only or $1.0{\mu}g$ AB204. AB204 exhibited more prolonged osteoblastic activity than rhBMP2. Bone fusion properties of AB204 were similar with the properties of rhBMP2 at doses of 6.0 and $10.0{\mu}g$, but, the properties of AB204 at doses of $3.0{\mu}g$ exhibited better than the properties of rhBMP2 at doses of $3.0{\mu}g$. Conclusion : AB204 chimeras could to be more potent for treating spinal bone fusion than rhBMP2 substitutes with increased osteoblastic activity for over a longer period.

Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cells via $G_0/G_1$ phase arrest and induction of differentiation

  • Cho, Seoung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Tae
    • 고려인삼학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2006
  • 1 The present work was performed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on proliferation, cell cycle-regulation and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms for these effects. 2 Ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in both a dose- and time-dependent manner with an $IC_{50}$, $20{\mu}M$. 3 DNA flow-cytometry indicated that ginsenoside Rh2 markedly induced a $G_1$ phase arrest of HL-60 cells. 4 Among the $G_1$ phase cell cycle-related proteins, the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK)4, 6 and cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 were reduced by ginsenoside Rh2, whereas the steadystate levels of CDK2 and cyclin E were unaffected. 5 The protein levels of a CDK inhibitor p16, $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ were markedly increased by ginsenoside Rh2. 6 Ginsenoside Rh2 markedly enhanced the binding of $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ with CDK2 and CDK6, resulting in the reduced activity of both kinases and the hypophosphorylation of Rb protein. 7 We furthermore suggest that ginsenoside Rh2 is a potent inducer of the differentiation of HL-60 cells, based on observations such as a reduction of the nitroblue tetrazolium level, an increase in the esterase activities and phagocytic activity, morphology changes, and the expression of CD11b, CD14, CD64 and CD66b surface antigens. 8 In conclusion, the onset of ginsenoside Rh2-induced the $G_0/G_1$ arrest of HL-60 cells prior to the differentiation is linked to a sharp up-regulation of the $p21^{CIP1/WAF1}$ level and a decrease in the CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 activities. This is the first report demonstrating that ginsenoside Rh2 potently inhibits the proliferation of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells via the $G_1$ phase cell cycle arrest and differentiation induction.

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Production of the Rare Ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3) by Enzymatic Conversion Combined with Acid Treatment and Evaluation of Its Anti-Cancer Activity

  • Song, Bong-Kyu;Kim, Kyeng Min;Choi, Kang-Duk;Im, Wan-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1233-1241
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    • 2017
  • The ginsenoside Rh2 has strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the application of ginsenoside Rh2 is restricted because of the small amounts found in Korean white and red ginsengs. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (comprising 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3 as a 10-g unit) with high specificity, yield, and purity, a new combination of enzymatic conversion using the commercial enzyme Viscozyme L followed by acid treatment was developed. Viscozyme L treatment at pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$ was used initially to transform the major ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd into ginsenoside F2, followed by acid-heat treatment using citric acid 2% (w/v) at pH 2.0 and $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min. Scale-up production in a 10-L jar fermenter, using 60 g of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside mixture from ginseng roots, produced 24 g of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX. Using 2 g of Rh2-MIX, 131 mg of 20(S)-Rh2, 58 mg of 20(R)-Rh2, 47 mg of Rk2, and 26 mg of Rh3 were obtained at over 98% chromatographic purity. Then, the anti-cancer effect of the four purified ginsenosides was investigated on B16F10, MDA-MB-231, and HuH-7 cell lines. As a result, these four rare ginsenosides markedly inhibited the growth of the cancer cell lines. These results suggested that rare ginsenoside Rh2-MIX could be exploited to prepare an anti-cancer supplement in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

LH-RH 및 Gn-RH 처리 무발정우와 난포낭종우의 혈장내 성호르몬 수준과 난소반응에 관한 연구 (Studies on the Ovarian Changes and Sex Hormone Concentrations in Holstein Cows with Ovarian Quiescence and Follicular Cystic Ovaries after Treatment with LH-RH and Gn-RH)

  • 임영재;김상근
    • 한국가축번식학회지
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 1989
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of LH-RH and Gn-RH treatment in Holstein cows with ovarian quiescence and follicular cystic ovaries. The cows with ovarian quiescence and follicular cystic ovaries injected intramuscularly with 100$\mu\textrm{g}$, 200$\mu\textrm{g}$ and 400$\mu\textrm{g}$ of LH-RH and 200$\mu\textrm{g}$ and 400$\mu\textrm{g}$ of Gn-RH respectively. The cows was diagnosed by repeated rectal palpation. The plasma progesterone and estradiol-17$\beta$ concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. The resutls of this study were summarized as follows : 1. Ovulations were induced after treatment of LH-RH and Gn-RH. The concentrations of progesterone reached small peak level at luteal phase and estradiol-17$\beta$ reached obvious peak level with the development and maturation of the follicle during the periods of degeneration of the corpus luteum, and normal ovarian cycle activity started subsequently. 2. The cows with ovarian quiescence and follicular cystic ovaries were induced ovulation at 38.9$\pm$5.3 hrs. after treatment of LH-RH in 66.7% cows and at 52.7$\pm$7.9 hrs after treatment of Gn-RH in 60.0% cows respectively. 3. The good ovarian responses were indicated in treatment with 200$\mu\textrm{g}$ to 400$\mu\textrm{g}$ of LH-RH than those treated with 100$\mu\textrm{g}$ in cows with ovarian quiescence, and did not show difference of ovarian responses between treatments with 200$\mu\textrm{g}$ to 400$\mu\textrm{g}$ of Gn-RH in cows with follicular cystic ovaries.

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Rhodamine 560을 이용한 rhodamine 6G 색소 레이저의 출력 증가 (Output Enhancement of Rhodamine 6G Dye Laser by Rhodamine 560 Energy Transfer Dye)

  • 장원권;이민희
    • 한국광학회지
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 1994
  • 형광 스펙트럼이 Rhodamine 6G의 흡수 스펙트럼과 일치하는 Rhodamine 560을 첨가 색소로 하여 Rhodamine 6G 색소 레이저의 에너지 전달에 의한 출력 증가를 조사하였다. 펌핑 광원으로 펄스형의 경우 아르곤 기체를 주입한 동축 섬광관을 실험실에서 제작하여 사용하였으며 연속형은 아르곤 레이저를 이용하였다. 펄스형의 경우 주색소인 Rhodamine 6G의 종도가 $1\times10^{-4}mol/l$일 때 첨가 색소인 Rhodamine 560의 농도가 Rhodamine 6G농도의 1% 정도에서 에너지 전달효율이 가장 높았다. 연속형의 경우는 Rhodamine 6G의 종도가 $2\times10^{-3}mol/l$ 일 때 Rhodamine 560의 농도가 Rhodamine 6G 농도의 2.5%에서 에너지 전달효율이 가장 높았다. 아르곤 레이저의 multiline발진에 의한 출력이 3.6W일 때 18% 정도 출력이 증가하였으며 488nm와 514.5nm의 단색광으로 펌핑할 경우 아르곤 레이저의 최대 출력이 1.6W일 때 각각 72%와 88%의 출력 증가율을 보였다.

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에너지 전환에 의한 동축 섬광관 펌핑 Rhodamine 6G 색소 레이저의 출력 증가 (Output Enhancement of Coaxial Flashlamp Pumped Rhodamine 6G Dye Laser by Energy Transfer)

  • 장우권
    • 한국광학회지
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.195-199
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    • 1993
  • Rh-6G(Rhodamine 6G)를 주색소로 하고 C-545(Coumarin 545)를 첨가색소로 하는 펄스형 혼합 색소레이저의 출력을 조사하였다. 동축형의 섬광관을 펌핑 광원으로 이용하였으며 Rh-6G 단일 색소로 발진할 경우 전기 입력 에너지가 346 J 일 때 첨두 출력과 에너지는 각각 27kW, 59mJ이었다. Rh-6G의 흡수 스펙트럼과 일치하는 형광 스펙트럼을 갖는 C-545를 에서지 주개로 선택하였다. Rh-6G의 농도를 최적 농도인 $1{\times}10_-4mol/l$로 고정하고 C-545의 농도를 $1{\times}10_7mol/l$부터 변화시키면서 혼합 색소에 대한 레이저의 출력 특성을 조사하였다. C-545의 농도가 Rh-6G 농도의 0.4%일 때 출력 에너지는 약 70% 증가하였다.

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성성숙 호르몬 처리에 의한 쏘가리의 배란 유도 (Induced Ovulation in the Mandarin Fish, Siniperca scherzeri by Sex-Maturation Hormones)

  • 장선일;이완옥;이종윤;손송정
    • 한국양식학회지
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.513-519
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    • 1998
  • 인간의 태반성 성선자극 호르몬(HCG) 또는 성선자극 호르몬-방출 호르몬 유도체(GnRH-a) 단독 주사와 HCG+GnRH-a, GnRH-a+prostaglandin E sub(2) (PGF sub(2)), GnRH-a+pimozide를 복합적으로 주사하여 성숙한 암컷 쏘가리에서 배란 유도 실험을 하였다. 호르몬과 유도체의 반응 효과는 배란후 인공 수정하여 수정율과 배체형성율을 측정하여 결정하였다. 일반적으로 GnRH-a 실험군이 HCG 실험군에 비해서 수정율과 배체형성율 및 부화율이 높았다. HCG(5,000 IU/kg)+(GnRH-a(10 ${\mu}$g), GnRH-a(10 ${\mu}$g/kg)+PG$F^2$(500 ng/kg) 및 GnRH-a(10 ${\mu}$g/kg)+pimozide(1-5 mg/kg)에서 89% 이상의 높은 부화율을 보였다. 본 연구에서 사용된 성성숙 호르몬과 자극물질로 처리된 모든 암컷에서 배란이 유도되었지만, HCG+GnRH-a+dopamine과 GnRH-a+PG$F_2$+indometacin 처리군에서는 배란이 억제되었다. 이들의 결과는 산란시기에 여러 가지 성성숙 호르몬과 관련된 호르몬과 성성숙 억제물질(GRIF)이 분비된다는 점을 시사한다.

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