• 제목, 요약, 키워드: G-Rh2

검색결과 389건 처리시간 0.032초

포장방법이 열풍 및 동결 건조마늘절편의 흡습속도와 Shelf-life 에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Packaging Methods on Water Adsorption Rate and Shelf-life of Hot-air and Freeze Dried Garlic Slices)

  • 고하영;박형우;강통삼;신동화
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.380-384
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    • 1988
  • 열풍 및 동결건조 마늘플레이크의 등온흡습 곡선을 수분활성도 0.67 이하에서 직선회귀식으로 분석한 결과, 결정계수가 0.85-0.94 범위였으며, 기호도 및 ${\Delta}E$값을 기준으로 한 $40^{\circ}C$에서의 저장한계 수분활성도는 0.58-0.60이었다. $40^{\circ}C$ 75% RH에서 LDPE $40{\mu}m$로 포장한 열풍건조 마늘의 흡습속도는 포장재 면적이 $0.051m^2$에서 $0.029m^2$로 작아짐에 따라 0.12에서 $0.093g\;H_2O$/100g/day로 작아졌다. 동결건조 마늘의 경우 포장재면적 $0.051m^2$에서 $0.17g\;H_2O$/100g/day로 열풍건조에 비해 컸으며, 내용량이 50g에서 100g으로 증가하면 0.12로 감소하였다. $80{\mu}m$ LDPE로 포장된 열풍건조 마늘의 75% RH에서 온도별 shelf-life는 $40^{\circ}C$에서 99일, $30^{\circ}C$에서 283일, $15^{\circ}C$에서 455일로 예측되었다. 간이방법에 의한 투습도를 이용하여 포장재내 수분함량 변화를 예측한 결과 실측치에 비해 수분함량 10-18%에서는 0-1.5%의 편차를 보였고 수분함량 10% 내외에서 는 2% 이내의 편차를 보였다.

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High-level Production of Recombinant Human IFN-$\alpha2a$ with Co-expression of $tRNA^{Arg(AFF/AGA)}$ in High-cell-density Cultures of Escherichia coli

  • Shin, Chul-Soo;Hong, Min-Seon;Shin, Hang-Chel;Lee, Jeewon
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.301-305
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    • 2001
  • The co-expression of the arg U gene in a double-vector expression system of recombi-nant Escherichia coli BL22(DE3)[pET-IEN2a+pAC-argU] significantly enhanced the production level of reconminant human interferon -$\alpha$2a(rhIFN-$\alpha$2a) in high cell density cultures, compared to a recombinant E. coli culture containing only the single expression vector, pET-IEN2a. The dry cell mass concentration increased to almost 100 g/L, and more than 4 g/L of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a was accumu-lated in the culture broth. Evidently, the synthesis of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a was strongly dependent on the pre-induction growtih rate and more efficient at a higher specific growth rate. The additional sup-ply of tRN $A^{Arg(AGG/AGA)}$ enhanced the expression level of the rhIFN-$\alpha$2a gene in the early stage of the post-induction phase, yet thereafter the specific production rate of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a rapidly de-creased due to severe segregational instability of plasmid vector pET-IEN2a. It would appear that the plasmid instability with only occurred to pET-IEN2a in the double vector system, was re-lated to the effect of translational stress due to the over expression of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a.

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대장균이 생산한 재조합 인체 감마인터페론의 발현과 정제 (Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Interferon-gamma Produced by Escherichia coli)

  • 박정렬;김성우;김재범;정우혁;한명완;조영배;정준기
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.204-211
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    • 2006
  • IFN-${\gamma}$의 대량생산을 위한 기초연구로서 IFN-${\gamma}$의 아미노 말단에 glucagon과 ferritin을 융합파트너로 각각 결합시켜 재조합 IFN-${\gamma}$의 발현을 유도하였다. 대장균 내에서 발현되는 IFN-${\gamma}$는 그 자체로 매우 강한 소수성 결합의 양상을 나타내어 inclusion body 형태로 발현된다고 알려져 있으나 OrigamiTM(DE3) 균주로부터 50% 이상의 수용성 형태로 발현시켰다. IFN-${\gamma}$로부터 융합파트너를 제거할 수 있는 system을 개발하기 위해 융합파트너와 IFN-${\gamma}$ 사이에 enterokinase cleavage site를 도입하였으며, enterokinase에 의해 IFN-${\gamma}$에는 영향을 미치지 않고 효과적으로 융합파트너를 제거할 수 있었다. 재조합 IFN-${\gamma}$의 분리 및 정제를 위해 발현벡터상의 융합파트너와 IFN-${\gamma}$사이에 6X His-tag을 도입하였고 융합파트너의 N-말단에도 6X His-tag을 추가적으로 도입함으로써 융합파트너와 더불어 enterokinase에 의해 분해되지 않은 융합단백질을 Ni-NTA agarose column으로 제거함으로서 IFN-${\gamma}$를 완전 정제할 수 있었다. IFN-${\gamma}$의 발현을 유도하는 발현유도체로서 15 mM lactose를 이용하여 5 L 발효조에서 IFN-${\gamma}$의 발현을 검토한 결과, 재조합 균체의 단위 건조질량(dry cell weight, g)으로 약 11 g DCW/L 수준의 재조합 융합단백질을 얻을 수 있었다.

증숙 발효 공정에 의한 파삼의 진세노사이드 전환 수율 증진 (Enhancement of Ginsenosides Conversion Yield by Steaming and Fermentation Process in Low Quality Fresh Ginseng)

  • 최운용;임혜원;최근표;이현용
    • 한국약용작물학회지
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to enhance contents of low molecular ginsenoside using steaming and fermentation process in low quality fresh ginseng. For increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng, a steaming process was applied at $90^{\circ}C$ for 12 hr which was followed by fermentation process at Lactobacillus rhamnosus HK-9 incubated at $36^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. The contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Re and Rd were decreased with the steaming associated with fermentation process but ginsenoside Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK increased after process. It was found that under the steaming associated with fermentation process, low molecule ginsenosides such as Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK were increased as 3.231 mg/g, 2.585 mg/g and 1.955 m/g and 2.478 mg/g, respectively. In addition, concentration of benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene in extracts of the low quality fresh ginseng treated by the complex process was 0.11 ppm but it was 0.22 ppm when it was treated with the steaming process. This result could be caused by that the most efficiently breakdown of 1,2-glucoside and 1,4-glucoside linkage to backbone of ginsenosides by steaming associated with fermentation process. This results indicate that steaming process and fermenration process can increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng.

AMP-activated protein kinase determines apoptotic sensitivity of cancer cells to ginsenoside-Rh2

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Yun, Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kang, Insug;Choe, Wonchae;Kim, Sung-Soo;Ha, Joohun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2014
  • Ginseng saponins exert various important pharmacological effects with regard to the control of many diseases, including cancer. In this study, the anticancer effect of ginsenosides on human cancer cells was investigated and compared. Among the tested compounds, ginsenoside-Rh2 displays the highest inhibitory effect on cell viability in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside-Rh2, a ginseng saponin isolated from the root of Panax ginseng, has been suggested to have potential as an anticancer agent, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we have shown that cancer cells have differential sensitivity to ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis, raising questions regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for the discrepant sensitivity to ginsenoside-Rh2. In this study, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a survival factor under ginsenoside-Rh2 treatment in cancer cells. Cancer cells with acute responsiveness of AMPK display a relative resistance to ginsenoside-Rh2, but cotreatment with AMPK inhibitor resulted in a marked increase of ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis. We also observed that p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) acts as another survival factor under ginsenoside-Rh2 treatment, but there was no signaling crosstalk between AMPK and p38 MAPK, suggesting that combination with inhibitor of AMPK or p38 MAPK can augment the anticancer potential of ginsenoside Rh2.

Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax ginseng, in inflammatory responses and diseases

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Yi, Young-Su;Kim, Mi-Yeon;Cho, Jae Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.435-443
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    • 2017
  • Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives-including ginsenoside (G)-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1-exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ and activator protein-1. This review discusses recent studies regarding molecular mechanisms by which ginsenosides play critical roles in inflammatory responses and diseases, and provides evidence showing their potential to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases.

Molecular Co-evolution of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormones and Their Receptors

  • Seong, Jae-Young;Kwon, Hyuk-Bang
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2007
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), synthesized in the hypothalamus, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Since molecular isoforms of GnRH and their receptors (GnRHR) have been isolated in a broad range of vertebrate species, GnRH and GnRHR provide an excellent model for understanding the molecular co-evolution of a peptide ligand-receptor pair. Vertebrate species possess multiple forms of GnRH, which have been created through evolutionary mechanisms such as gene/chromosome duplication, gene deletion and modification. Similar to GnRHs, GnRH receptors (GnRHR) have also been diversified evolutionarily. Comparative ligand-receptor interaction studies for non-mammalian and mammalian GnRHRs combined with mutational mapping studies of GnRHRs have aided the identification of domains or motifs responsible for ligand binding and receptor activation. Here we discuss the molecular basis of GnRH-GnRHR co-evolution, particularly the structure-function relationship regarding ligand selectivity and signal transduction of mammalian and non-mammalian GnRHRs.

분말 광촉매를 이용한 광전기화학 공정에서 Rhodamine B의 색 제거 (Color Removal of Rhodamine B by Photoelectrochemical Process using Powder TiO$_2$)

  • 김동석;박영식
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.823-830
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    • 2008
  • Rhodamine B(RhB) 탈색에 대한 광전기촉매 공정의 적용가능성을 분말 TiO$_2$를 충전한 슬러리 광전기촉매 반응기에서 연구하였다. 광전기촉매 공정의 반응기 시스템은 분말 TiO$_2$, Pt 전극 및 3개의 8 W UV-C 등으로 구성되어 있다. 전류, 전해질, 공기 유량 및 전극 재질과 같은 운전 인자의 영향을 고찰하였다. 광전기촉매 공정의 최적 광촉매 량과 전류는 각각 0.4 g/L과 0.02A이었다. 광촉매 공정과 전기분해 단독 공정에 의해 분해되는 RhB의 합보다 광전기촉매 공정에 의해 더 빨리 분해되었는데, 광촉매 공정과 전기분해 공정의 결합에 의한 시너지 효과를 나타내는 것으로 사료되었다. 광전기촉매 공정은 공기 유량에 의해 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났고 최적 공기 유량은 2 L/min이었다. RhB 탈색에 대한 전극 재질과 NaCl 효과는 본 실험범위에서는 크지 않은 것으로 나타났다.

Synthesis and Reaction Chemistry of Some Ferrocene-Containing Chelate Ligands with Dirhodium Acetate: X-ray Crystal Structure of $(\eta^1-(S,R)-CPFA)_2Rh_2(OAc)_4$

  • Kim, Eun-Jin;Kim, Tae-Jeong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.990-996
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    • 1994
  • New ferrocene-based chelate amines, $Fe[C_5H_4CH(Me)NMe_2]_2\;(3), \;Fe[C_5H-3(CH(Me)NMe_2)(PPh_2)-1,2]_2\;(4),\;(C_5H_5)Fe(C_5H_3(CH_2NMe_2)(CH(CN)NMe_2-1,2)\;(6),\;and\;(C_5H_5)Fe(C_5H_3(CH_2NMe_2)(CH(Me)NMe_2-1,2)$ (7) have been prepared. The reaction and the coordination chemistry of 4 and other related compounds (S,R)-(1-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-2-dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene (CPFA) and 1,1'-bis-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (BPPF) with $Rh_2(OAc)_4(MeOH)_2$ were investigated. The reaction of the chiral ligand (S,R)-CPFA forms a complex of the type (${\eta}^1$-(S,R)-CPFA-P)$_2Rh_2(OAc)_4$ (8) in which the ligand is coordinated to both rhodium centers in a monodentate fashion through phosphorus. In contrast, the bisphosphine analogues such as BPPF and 4 afford chelate complexes of the type (${\eta}^2-PP)Rh_2(OAc)_4$ (9 & 10) where both ligands act as a chelate bidentate to a single rhodium atom. All these complexes were characterized by microanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. In one case, the structure of 8 was determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystals are monoclinic, space group C2 (No. 5), with a=26.389 (3), b=12.942 (1), c=11.825 (1) A, ${\beta}$=111.22(1)$^{\circ}$, V=3964.7 (8) $A^3$, Z=4, and $D_{calc}$=1.58 g $cm^{-3}$. Two Rh(II) centers are bridged by four $AcO^-$ groups in the ${\eta}^1$ : ${\eta}^1$ mode across a Rh-Rh single bond, and octahedral coordination at Rh(1) and Rh(1') is completed by axially coordinating (S,R)-CPFA and a briding $AcO^-$, respectively.

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Effect of Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on Proliferation of Human Osteosarcoma Cell $U_2OS$

  • Deqiang Dou;Jie Ren;Yingjie Chen;Youwei Zhang;Xinsheng Yao
    • 고려인삼학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2002
  • Object To find out which of the 27 ginsenosides isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey that may inhibit the proliferation of human osteosaocoma cell line $U_2OS$. Methods Effects of each individual ginsenoside on the proliferation of $U_2OS$ cell were studied by determining the viability of cancer cells during culture with or without the presence of the test compound. DNA assay was determined by flow cytometry. Results Ginsonosides -Ro, $-Rh_l,\;-Rh_2,\;-F_1\;and\;-L_8$ at concentrations of 5 ,umol/L could obviously suppress the proliferation of $U_2OS$ cells while ginsenosides $-Rg_1,\;-F_3,$ -Rf, PPT and PT significantly inhibited the cancer cells. Flow cytometry revealed that ginsenosides $-Ro,-Rg_1-Rf,-F_1-Rh_2,PPT$ and PT induced cell cycle arrest at $G_0/G_1$ phase with obvious decrease of cell count at Sand $G_2+M$ phase, Moreover, ginsenosides $-Rf_1,-Rg_1,\;-F_1$ and PPT induced significantly high rates of cell death as compared with the control. Conclusion These data suggested that ginsenosides inhibited $U_2OS$ proliferation Via cell cycle arrest or induction of cell death.

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