• 제목, 요약, 키워드: G-Rh2

검색결과 389건 처리시간 0.038초

전기응집/부상 공정을 이용한 염료 처리에 중심합성설계와 반응표면분석법의 적용 (Application of the Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to the Treatment of Dye using Electrocoagulation/flotation Process)

  • 김동석;박영식
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2010
  • This experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied to the investigation of the electrocoagulation/flotation of dye wastewater. The electrocoagulation/flotation reactions were mathematically described as a function of parameters current (A), NaCl concentration (B), initial RhB concentration (C) and time (D) being modeled by use of the central composite design (CCD). The application of RSM using the CCD yielded the following regression equation, which is an empirical relationship between the RhB removal (%) and test variables in RhB removal (%) = $-300.42+129.21{\cdot}Current+46.99{\cdot}NaCl-0.11{\cdot}RhB-+43.71{\cdot}Time-5.67{\cdot}Current{\cdot}NaCl-3.18{\cdot}Current{\cdot}Time-2.41{\cdot}NaCl{\cdot}Time-19.79{\cdot}Current^2-2.27{\cdot}NaCl^2-1.59{\cdot}Time^2$. the model predictions agreed well with the experimentally observed result ($R^{2}=0.9728$). The estimated ridge of maximum response and optimal conditions for RhB removal (%) using canonical analysis was 99.4% (A: 1,77 A, NaCl concentration: 2.23 g/L, RhB concentration: 56.12 mg/L, Time: 9.98 min). To confirm this optimum condition, three additional experiments were performed and RhB removal (%) were within range of 86.87% (95% PI low)~111.93% (95% PI high) obtained.

Dopaminergic Regulation of Gonadotropin-II Secretion in Testosterone-treated Precocious Male and Immature Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Aida, Katsumi
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2000
  • The present work examined the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopaminergic drugs on the secretion of maturational gonadotropin (GTH II) in relation to testosterone m treatment. This study provides evidence that the plasma GTH II levels are increased by T treatment in precocious males, but not in the immature animal. In addition, GnRH analogue (GnRHa) alone significantly increased the plasma GTH II secretion in immature rainbow trout treated with T, as well as in T-treated and T-untreated precocious males. However, injection with either dopamine (DA) or domperidone (DOM; DA D2 receptor antagonist) alone did not alter the basal plasma GTH 11 secretion in all experimental groups. The secretion of GTH II in the T-treated precocious males was remarkably influenced by GnRHa or combination of dopaminergic drugs. Notably, the effects of dopaminergic drugs on GnRHa-induced GTH II secretion w8s prolonged by T in precocious males. In T-treated immature animals, GnRHa-induced GTH II secretion was Increased only by a dose DOM (10$\mu$g/g body n) but not by higher dose DOM (100$\mu$/g body wt). In the T-untreated immature rainbow trout, however, plasma GTH 11 secretion was not influenced by the same treatments. Therefore, these results indicate that DA may be acting indirectly by blocking the effect of GnRH on GTH II secretion in vivo. T may act to modulate the relative contribution by the stimulatory (GnRH) and inhibitory (DA) neuroendocrine factors, which would ultimately determine the pattern of GTH II secretion.

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Studies of Opsin Genes in a Smelt Fish, Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

  • Minamoto, Toshifumi;Shimizu, Isamu
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.269-271
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    • 2002
  • To investigate the visual and extra-ocular photoreception, we cloned the opsin genes in ayu (Plecoglossus allivelis). Amplified fragments encoding exon-4 (-5) of opsin cDNAs were cloned from the retina and brains of ayu, and sequenced. One clone was identified as rod (AYU-Rh), two as green cone (AYU-GI, -G2), one as red cone (A YU-R), two as ultraviolet cone (AYU-UVl, UV2), one as VA (AYU-VA), and one as extra-ocular rod (AYU-ExoRh) opsins. 335 amino acids sequence deduced from the full-length cDNA of AYU-Rh showed high identity with that of other fish. Southern blotting analysis indicated that ayu possess two 'rhodopsin' genes, one is visual rhodopsin and the other is non-visual extra-ocular rhodopsin. In situ hybridization showed that the mRNA of AYU-Rh was localized only in rod cells in the retina. On the other hands, AYU-ExoRh was expressed only in the pineal. We cloned two isoforms (AYU-VAM and -VAL) of VA opsin from ayu. The deduced amino acid sequences of these variants were identical to each other within the first 342 residues, but they showed divergence in the C-terminal sequence. AYU- VAL corresponded to the long isoform found in other fish, and AYU-VAM was identified as a new type of VA opsin variant. Pal-VAM is a new probably functional non-visual photoreceptive molecule in fish.

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쥬라기 화강암류에서 발달된 1번 면, 2번 면 및 3번 면의 역학적 특성 (Mechanical Characteristics of the Rift, Grain and Hardway Planes in Jurassic Granites, Korea)

  • 박덕원
    • 광물과 암석
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.273-291
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    • 2020
  • 화강암 석산에서 1번 면, 2번 면 및 3번 면으로 알려진 세 직교하는 분할면의 강도 특성을 검토하였다. R, G 및 H 공시체는 거창 및 합천 지역에서 분포하는 쥬라기 화강암류의 블럭 샘플로부터 획득하였다. 이들 세 공시체의 장축의 방향은 세 면 각각에 수직이다. 세 면에 대한 판별에 유용한 주요 사항은 다음과 같다. 첫째, R, G 및 H 공시체의 일축압축강도와 관련된 세 그래프의 스케일링 특성을 보여 주는 도면을 작성하였다. 강도의 증가에 따라 세 공시체의 그래프는 H < G < R의 순으로 배열한다. 공시체 내부의 조직균일도를 지시하는 세 공시체에 대한 그래프의 경사각을 비교하였다. H 공시체(θH, 24.0°~37.3°)에 대한 상기한 각이 세 공시체 중에서 가장 낮다. 둘째, 두 공시체의 평균압축강도의 조합을 나타내는 RG, GH 및 RH 공시체의 세 그래프와 관련된 스케일링 특성을 도출하였다. 다양한 형태를 취하는 이들 세 그래프는 GH < RH < RG의 순으로 배열한다. 섯째, 강도차(Δσt)와 경사각(θ) 사이의 상관도를 작성하였다. 위의 두 파라미터는 -0.003의 지수(λ)를 갖는 지수함수의 상관성을 보여 준다. 두 화강암에서, RH-그래프의 경사각(θRH)이 가장 낮다. 넷째, 세 공시체에 대한 세 종류의 압축강도 그리고 각 공시체에 가해진 압축하중에 평행 배열하는 두 조의 미세균열에 대한 다섯 파라미터 사이의 상관 관계를 보여 주는 여섯 유형의 도면을 작성하였다. 거창 및 합천화강암에 대한 이들 도면으로부터, 빈도수(N, 0.872) 및 밀도(ρ, 0.874)와 함께 총 길이(Lt)에 대한 상관계수(R2)의 평균값(0.877)이 가장 높다. 또한, 세 공시체의 최소(0.768) 및 최대(0.804)의 압축강도에 비하여 평균압축강도와 관련된 상관계수의 값(0.829)이 보다 높다. 다섯째, 거창화강암의 세 공시체에서 발달된 상기의 두 조의 미세균열과 평행한 방향으로 측정한 압열인장강도의 분포 특성을 도출하였다. 관련 도면으로부터, R, G 및 H 공시체에 해당하는 이들 인장강도에 대한 세 그래프는 H(R1+G1) < G(R2+H1) < R(R1+G1)의 순을 보여 준다. 인장강도에 대한 세 그래프의 배열순과 압축강도에 대한 세 그래프의 배열순과 상호 부합한다. 따라서, 세 공시체의 압축강도는 상기한 세 유형의 인장강도와 상호 비례한다. 여섯째, 상기한 세 그래프에서 도출한 각 누적수(N=1~10)에 해당하는 세 인장강도 그리고 각 그래프에 해당하는 다섯 파라미터의 값 사이의 상관 계수를 도출하였다. 10개의 상관도에서 도출한 각 파라미터에 대한 상관 계수의 평균값은 밀도(0.763) < 총 길이(0.817) < 빈도수(0.839) < 평균 길이(Lm, 0.901) ≤ 중앙 길이(Lmed, 0.903)의 순으로 증가한다. 일곱째, 세 공시체에 대한 일축압축강도 그리고 압열인장강도 사이의 상관도를 작성하였다. 상기한 상관도는 세 종류의 압축강도 그리고 다섯 그룹(A~E)의 인장강도를 근거로 아홉 유형으로 분류하였다. 관련 도면으로부터, 최소압축강도를 제외한 평균 및 최대압축강도와 함께 인장강도가 증가할수록, 상관계수의 값은 급격하게 증가한다.

프로바이오틱 균주에 의한 인삼 잎 추출물 발효공정 확립 및 생성물의 품질 특성분석 (Development of Fermentation Process of Ginseng Leaf Extraction Probiotic Strain and Characterization of Product Quality)

  • 허상선
    • 한국응용과학기술학회지
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1213-1223
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    • 2018
  • 본 연구는 인삼 잎의 이용증대를 위해 마이크로웨이브에 의한 인삼 잎의 잔류농약 추출효과와 발효 인삼 잎의 ginsenoside 유용 유도체의 전환 검토 및 품질 특성을 분석 하였다. 인삼 잎에 잔류되어 있는 tolclofos-methyl와 azoxystrobin을 microwave로 추출하기 위한 용매는 hexane이 가장 효율적 이었다. tolclofos-methyl와 azoxystrobin이 잔류되어 있는 인삼 잎에서의 microwave를 이용한 추출 최적 조건은 power 50~95 watts, 추출용매는 hexane, 추출시간은 3분으로 나타났다. 인삼 잎 추출물의 발효에서 발효전과 비교하여 $Rg_1$$Rb_1$은 감소한 반면 $Rh_1$, $Rg_3$, $Rk_1$$Rh_2$는 발효 후 모두 증가한 것으로 나타났다. 특히 홍삼에서 대표적인 성분으로 알려져 있는 $Rg_3$의 경우 발효전 $2.77{\mu}g/g$에서 발효 후 균주의 종류에 따라 $70.62{\sim}77.61{\mu}g/g$으로 증가하였다. 7일간 발효 후 인삼 잎의 총 페놀성 화합물 및 전자공여능은 일부 균주에서는 발효전과 비교하여 감소하다가 다시 증가하는 경향을 나타내었으나, 발효가 진행됨에 따라 전반적으로 감소되는 경향을 나타내었다.

젖소에서 일련의 Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch Protocol을 이용한 번식관리 예 (Programmed Reproductive Management Including Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch Protocol in Dairy Cows)

  • 김일화
    • 한국임상수의학회지
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.397-401
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    • 2010
  • This study was to evaluate the usefulness of a programmed reproductive management including Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch protocol in lactating dairy cows. Nine hundred and thirty four cows calved during February to May 2008 were used for this study. Cows received im injections of 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ at $45{\pm}3$ and $59{\pm}3$ days in milk (DIM). Fourteen days later, Ovsynch was initiated with an im injection of $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH ($73{\pm}3$ DIM), 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 7 days later ($80{\pm}3$ DIM), $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH 56 h later and timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 h after the GnRH injection. Cows showed estrus during the Presynch-Ovsynch, were inseminated artificially according to am-pm rule. Pregnancy was determined on 32 days after AI using ultrasonography. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined for pregnancy by rectal palpation at 60 days after AI. Non-pregnant cows were resynchronized by receiving $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH, 25 mg $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ 7 days later, $100\;{\mu}g$ GnRH 56 h later and TAI 16 h after. Cows with estrus since the first AI before the completion of Resynch protocol were also inseminated artificially according to am-pm rule. Pregnancy was determined by the same manner as following the first AI. Fifty five percents of the cows treated showed estrus and received AI before completion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, while 45% received TAI, regardless of estrus exhibition following the completion of the protocol. The pregnancy rate following the first AI was higher in cows that showed estrus and received AI (43.3 and 38.5%) during the Presynch-Ovsynch than cows with TAI (34.6 and 29.6%) on 32 and 60 days after AI (P < 0.01). Sixty six percents of cows diagnosed non-pregnant following the first AI showed estrus before the completion of Resynch protocol and received AI, while 34% received TAI, regardless of estrus exhibition following the completion of the protocol. The pregnancy rate following the second AI was higher in cows that showed estrus before the completion of Resynch protocol and received AI (40.2 and 36.8%) than cows with TAI (21.2 and 18.2%) on 32 and 60 days after AI (P < 0.01). The cumulative pregnancy rates following the first and second AIs were 60.8 and 53.9% on 32 and 60 days after AI, respectively. These data suggest that inclusion of Presynch-Ovsynch-Resynch protocol and estrus detection into the programmed reproductive management might be an alternative option to control dairy cattle breeding.

Effect of Using Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal Device with Ovsynch Program on Reproduction in Dairy Cattle during Summer Season

  • Alnimer, M.;Lubbadeh, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1268-1273
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    • 2003
  • Sixty postpartum lactating Friesian cows in 3 treatments at a commercial dairy farm were used to study the effect of using progesterone supplementation with GnRH and PGF2$\alpha$ synchronization with and without timed AI on fertility during summer. Cows in treatment1($Tr_1$) and treatment2 ($Tr_1$) were fitted with progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) device and injected with 10 g GnRH agonist on $51{\pm}3$ d postpartum (pp). Seven days later, PRID was removed and cows received 25 mg PGF2$\alpha$. Two days later, $Tr_1$ cows received another injection of 10 g GnRH and timed AI 16-20 h later. Control cows received only 25 mg PGF2$\alpha$ $58{\pm}3d\;pp$. $Tr_2$ and control cows were AI at detected estrus. Serum progesterone for all cows was determined on days of injection, AI and 21, 23 and 28 d postinsemination. Pregnancy rates from first AI based on serum P4 concentrations on d 21, 23 and 28 postinsemination (50, 40 and 35%) and that based on rectal palpation 40-45 d postinsemination (30, 15 and 15% for $Tr_1$, $Tr_2$ and control cows, respectively) did not differ among the three groups. Whereas, pregnancy rate at 120 d pp for $Tr_1$ (65%) was higher (p<0.05) than that in $Tr_2$ (30%) or control (30%). The overall pregnancy rate was not significantly different (90, 90 and 75% for $Tr_1$, $Tr_2$ and control, respectively). Days open for cows in $Tr_1$ ($100.3{\pm}9$) was less (p<0.03) than that in $Tr_2$ ($130.9{\pm}9$) or control ($135.1{\pm}10$). Results indicate that using PRID device with Ovsynch program had significantly increased pregnancy rate and decreased days open compared to AI at detected estrus after synchronization with GnRH, PRID and PGF2$\alpha$ or synchronization with one injection of PGF2$\alpha$.

펜톤-유사 반응과 광-펜톤-유사 반응을 이용한 염료의 탈색 비교

  • 박영식;김동석
    • 한국환경과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.353-356
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    • 2006
  • 펜톤-유사 반응의 최척 철 입자 양과 $H_2O_2$ 주입 량은 각각 25 g/L, 60 mmol로 나타났고, 광-펜톤-유사 반응의 최적 철 입자 양과 $H_2O_2$ 양은 각각 0.25 g/L 와 0.625 mmol로 나타나 철 입자 양은 100배, $H_2O_2$ 양은 96배 차이나 펜톤-유사 반응의 경우 다량의 철 입자와 $H_2O_2$ 소비로 인해 RhB의 탈색반응에는 적절하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 UV를 함께 적용한 광-펜톤-유사 반응의 경우 철 입자 양과 $H_2O_2$ 양이 적어 적절한 것으로 사료되었다. RhB의 완전한 탈색을 위해서는 적절한 UV 등 전력이 필요하다고 사료되었다.

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rhGM-CSF(Leucogen)의 비감염성 상처 치유 효과에 관한 연구 (The healing effect of rhGM-CSF on uninfected wounds)

  • 한승규;김병수;김애리;서재홍;최철원;신상원;김열홍;김우경;김준석
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.32-35
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    • 2001
  • Background: rhGM-CSF has been shown to enhance the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells and to promote keratinocyte growth. This study was tried to evaluate the effect of rhGM-CSF dressing on the uninfected wounds. Methods: Thirty Sprague-dawley white mice(250-300g) were selected in this study. The number of wound with the diameter of 5 mm, was 3 in left and 3 in right at the symmetric sites, respectively. The site of rhGM-CSF dressing was decided by a randomization. rhGM-CSF($Leucogen^{(R)}$) was diluted in the distilled water($5{\mu}g/mL$). The experimental wound group was dressed by l mL of distilled water mixed with rhGM-CSF and control wound group was dressed by l mL of distilled water. The dressing was done, every 24 hours. The criteria of comparison were the duration of wound healing duration, histologic findings and the bacterial culture of wound sites. Results: The duration of wound healing was $10.3{\pm}1.7days$ in experimental group and $10.2{\pm}2.8days$ in control group, without significant difference. There was no specific difference of histologic findings between both groups. The pathogen was not found, at all. Conclusion: It seems to be that rhGM-CSF has no prominent effect on the uninfected wound healing in the mice without immune suppression.

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광전기촉매 공정과 전기/UV 공정을 이용한 Rhodamine B의 색 제거 (Decolorization of a Rhodamine B Using Photoelectrocatalytic and Electrolytic/UV Process)

  • 김동석;박영식
    • 한국환경과학회지
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1023-1032
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    • 2008
  • The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic and electrolytic/UV decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated in the photoelectrocatalytic and electrolytic/UV process with $TiO_2$ photoelectrode and DSA (dimensionally stable anode) electrode. Three types of $TiO_2$ photoelectrode were used. Thermal oxidation electrode (Th-$TiO_2$) was made by oxidation of titanium metal sheet; sol-gel electrode (5G-$TiO_2$) and powder electrode (P-$TiO_2$) were made by coating and then heating a layer of titania sol-gel and slurry $TiO_2$ on titanium sheet. DSA electrodes were Ti and Ru/Ti electrode. The relative performance for RhB decolorization of each of the photoelecoodes and DSA electrodes is: Ru/Ti > Ti > SG-$TiO_2$ > Th-$TiO_2$. It was observed that photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of RhB is similar to the sum of the photocatalytic and electrolytic decolorization. Therefore the synergetic effect was not showed in pthotoelectrocatalytic reaction. $Na_{2}SO_{4}$ and NaCl showed different decolorization effect between pthotoelectrocatalytic and electrolytic/UV reaction. In the presence of the NaCl, RhB decolorization of Ru/Ti DSA electrode was higher than that of the other photoelectrode and Ti electrode. Optimum current, NaCl dosage and UV lamp power of the electrolytic/UV process (using Ru/Ti electrode) were 0.75 A, 0.5 g/L and 16 W, respectively.