• Title, Summary, Keyword: G-Rh2

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Effects of Packaging Methods on Water Adsorption Rate and Shelf-life of Hot-air and Freeze Dried Garlic Slices (포장방법이 열풍 및 동결 건조마늘절편의 흡습속도와 Shelf-life 에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh, Ha-Young;Park, Hyung-Woo;Kang, Tong-Sam;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.380-384
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    • 1988
  • The coefficients of the hot-air and freeze dried garlic isotherms and the critical water activities of these were estimated to be 0.85-0.94 by the linear regression and 0.58-0.60 by the sensory evaluation and ${\Delta}E$ value. Water adsorption rate(K) of hot-air dried garlic packaged with $48{\mu}m$ low density polyethylene(LDPE) decreased from $0.12g\;H_2O/100g/day\;to\;0.093g\;H_2O$/100g/day with decreasing the package dimension from $0.051m^2\;to\;0.029m^2\;at\;40^{\circ}C$ and 75% RH, and that of freeze dried one decreased from $0.17g\;H_2O/100g/day\;to\;0.12g\;H_2O$/100g/day as the filling weight increased from 50g to 10g in the package of $0.051m^2$. Shelf-life of hot-air dried garlic packaged with $80{\mu}m$ LDPE were 99days at $40^{\circ}C,\;283day\;at\;30^{\circ}C\;and\;455\;days\;at\;15^{\circ}C$ in the 75% RH. The differences of water contents between predicted data with water vapor permeability of the conventional method and experimental data were 0-1.5% in the water content range of around 13-18%, but about 2 in the water content range of around 8-11%.

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High-level Production of Recombinant Human IFN-$\alpha2a$ with Co-expression of $tRNA^{Arg(AFF/AGA)}$ in High-cell-density Cultures of Escherichia coli

  • Shin, Chul-Soo;Hong, Min-Seon;Shin, Hang-Chel;Lee, Jeewon
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.301-305
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    • 2001
  • The co-expression of the arg U gene in a double-vector expression system of recombi-nant Escherichia coli BL22(DE3)[pET-IEN2a+pAC-argU] significantly enhanced the production level of reconminant human interferon -$\alpha$2a(rhIFN-$\alpha$2a) in high cell density cultures, compared to a recombinant E. coli culture containing only the single expression vector, pET-IEN2a. The dry cell mass concentration increased to almost 100 g/L, and more than 4 g/L of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a was accumu-lated in the culture broth. Evidently, the synthesis of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a was strongly dependent on the pre-induction growtih rate and more efficient at a higher specific growth rate. The additional sup-ply of tRN $A^{Arg(AGG/AGA)}$ enhanced the expression level of the rhIFN-$\alpha$2a gene in the early stage of the post-induction phase, yet thereafter the specific production rate of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a rapidly de-creased due to severe segregational instability of plasmid vector pET-IEN2a. It would appear that the plasmid instability with only occurred to pET-IEN2a in the double vector system, was re-lated to the effect of translational stress due to the over expression of rhIFN-$\alpha$2a.

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Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Interferon-gamma Produced by Escherichia coli (대장균이 생산한 재조합 인체 감마인터페론의 발현과 정제)

  • Park, Jung-Ryeol;Kim, Sung-Woo;Kim, Jae-Bum;Jung, Woo-Hyuk;Han, Myung-Wan;Jo, Young-Bae;Jung, Joon-Ki
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.204-211
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    • 2006
  • For the production of the recombinant human interferon-gamma(rhIFN-${\gamma}$) in Escherichia coli, human glucagon and ferritin heavy chain were used as fusion partners. Even though rhIFN-${\gamma}$ is expressed as an inclusion body form in E. coli because of strong hydrophobicity of itself, over 50% of fused rhIFN-${\gamma}$ was expressed as soluble form in E. coli $Origami^{TM}$(DE3) harboring pT7FH(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ which encodes ferritin heavy chain-fused rhIFN-${\gamma}$. In the case of using glucagon-ferritin heavy chain hybrid mutant as a fusion partner, 6X His-tag was additionally introduced to N-terminus of GFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ for enhancing purification yields of rhIFN-${\gamma}$. Fusion protein HGFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ with two 6X His-tag was more effectively bound to Ni-NTA agarose bead than GFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ with a 6X His-tag. rhIFN-${\gamma}$ was completely purified from enterokinase-treated HGFHM(HE)-IFN-${\gamma}$ by Ni-NTA affinity column. For high-level production of rhIFN-${\gamma}$, glucose was used as the sole carbon source with simple exponential feeding rate($2.4{\sim}7.2g/h$) in fed-batch process. The effective lactose concentration for the expression of the rhIFN-${\gamma}$ was $10{\sim}20mM$. Under the fed-batch culture conditions, rhIFN-${\gamma}$ production yield reached 11 g DCW/L for 6 hours after lactose induction.

Enhancement of Ginsenosides Conversion Yield by Steaming and Fermentation Process in Low Quality Fresh Ginseng (증숙 발효 공정에 의한 파삼의 진세노사이드 전환 수율 증진)

  • Choi, Woon Yong;Lim, Hye Won;Choi, Geun Pyo;Lee, Hyeon Yong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to enhance contents of low molecular ginsenoside using steaming and fermentation process in low quality fresh ginseng. For increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng, a steaming process was applied at $90^{\circ}C$ for 12 hr which was followed by fermentation process at Lactobacillus rhamnosus HK-9 incubated at $36^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. The contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Re and Rd were decreased with the steaming associated with fermentation process but ginsenoside Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK increased after process. It was found that under the steaming associated with fermentation process, low molecule ginsenosides such as Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK were increased as 3.231 mg/g, 2.585 mg/g and 1.955 m/g and 2.478 mg/g, respectively. In addition, concentration of benzo[${\alpha}$]pyrene in extracts of the low quality fresh ginseng treated by the complex process was 0.11 ppm but it was 0.22 ppm when it was treated with the steaming process. This result could be caused by that the most efficiently breakdown of 1,2-glucoside and 1,4-glucoside linkage to backbone of ginsenosides by steaming associated with fermentation process. This results indicate that steaming process and fermenration process can increase in contents of Rg2, Rg3, Rh2 and CK in low quality fresh ginseng.

AMP-activated protein kinase determines apoptotic sensitivity of cancer cells to ginsenoside-Rh2

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Yun, Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kang, Insug;Choe, Wonchae;Kim, Sung-Soo;Ha, Joohun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2014
  • Ginseng saponins exert various important pharmacological effects with regard to the control of many diseases, including cancer. In this study, the anticancer effect of ginsenosides on human cancer cells was investigated and compared. Among the tested compounds, ginsenoside-Rh2 displays the highest inhibitory effect on cell viability in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside-Rh2, a ginseng saponin isolated from the root of Panax ginseng, has been suggested to have potential as an anticancer agent, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we have shown that cancer cells have differential sensitivity to ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis, raising questions regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for the discrepant sensitivity to ginsenoside-Rh2. In this study, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a survival factor under ginsenoside-Rh2 treatment in cancer cells. Cancer cells with acute responsiveness of AMPK display a relative resistance to ginsenoside-Rh2, but cotreatment with AMPK inhibitor resulted in a marked increase of ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis. We also observed that p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) acts as another survival factor under ginsenoside-Rh2 treatment, but there was no signaling crosstalk between AMPK and p38 MAPK, suggesting that combination with inhibitor of AMPK or p38 MAPK can augment the anticancer potential of ginsenoside Rh2.

Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax ginseng, in inflammatory responses and diseases

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Yi, Young-Su;Kim, Mi-Yeon;Cho, Jae Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.435-443
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    • 2017
  • Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives-including ginsenoside (G)-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1-exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ and activator protein-1. This review discusses recent studies regarding molecular mechanisms by which ginsenosides play critical roles in inflammatory responses and diseases, and provides evidence showing their potential to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases.

Molecular Co-evolution of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormones and Their Receptors

  • Seong, Jae-Young;Kwon, Hyuk-Bang
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2007
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), synthesized in the hypothalamus, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Since molecular isoforms of GnRH and their receptors (GnRHR) have been isolated in a broad range of vertebrate species, GnRH and GnRHR provide an excellent model for understanding the molecular co-evolution of a peptide ligand-receptor pair. Vertebrate species possess multiple forms of GnRH, which have been created through evolutionary mechanisms such as gene/chromosome duplication, gene deletion and modification. Similar to GnRHs, GnRH receptors (GnRHR) have also been diversified evolutionarily. Comparative ligand-receptor interaction studies for non-mammalian and mammalian GnRHRs combined with mutational mapping studies of GnRHRs have aided the identification of domains or motifs responsible for ligand binding and receptor activation. Here we discuss the molecular basis of GnRH-GnRHR co-evolution, particularly the structure-function relationship regarding ligand selectivity and signal transduction of mammalian and non-mammalian GnRHRs.

Color Removal of Rhodamine B by Photoelectrochemical Process using Powder TiO$_2$ (분말 광촉매를 이용한 광전기화학 공정에서 Rhodamine B의 색 제거)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.823-830
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    • 2008
  • The feasibility study for the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine B(RhB) was performed in the slurry photoelectrochemical reactor with powder TiO$_2$. The photoelectrocatalytic process was consisted of powder TiO$_2$, Pt electrode and three 8 W UV-C lamps. The effects of operating conditions, such as current, electrolyte, air flow rate and electrode material were evaluated. The experimental results showed that optimum TiO$_2$ dosage and current in photoelectrocatalytic process were 0.4 g/L and 0.02 A, respectively. It was found that the RhB could be degraded more efficiently by this photoelectrocatalytic process than the sum of the two individual oxidation processes(photocatalytic and electrolytic process). It demonstrated a synergetic effect between the photo- and electrochemical catalysis. Photoelectrocatalytic process was affected to air flow rate and optimum air flow rate was 2 L/min. The electrode material and NaCl effect of decolorization of RhB were not significant within the experiment conditions.

Synthesis and Reaction Chemistry of Some Ferrocene-Containing Chelate Ligands with Dirhodium Acetate: X-ray Crystal Structure of $(\eta^1-(S,R)-CPFA)_2Rh_2(OAc)_4$

  • Kim, Eun-Jin;Kim, Tae-Jeong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.990-996
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    • 1994
  • New ferrocene-based chelate amines, $Fe[C_5H_4CH(Me)NMe_2]_2\;(3), \;Fe[C_5H-3(CH(Me)NMe_2)(PPh_2)-1,2]_2\;(4),\;(C_5H_5)Fe(C_5H_3(CH_2NMe_2)(CH(CN)NMe_2-1,2)\;(6),\;and\;(C_5H_5)Fe(C_5H_3(CH_2NMe_2)(CH(Me)NMe_2-1,2)$ (7) have been prepared. The reaction and the coordination chemistry of 4 and other related compounds (S,R)-(1-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-2-dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene (CPFA) and 1,1'-bis-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (BPPF) with $Rh_2(OAc)_4(MeOH)_2$ were investigated. The reaction of the chiral ligand (S,R)-CPFA forms a complex of the type (${\eta}^1$-(S,R)-CPFA-P)$_2Rh_2(OAc)_4$ (8) in which the ligand is coordinated to both rhodium centers in a monodentate fashion through phosphorus. In contrast, the bisphosphine analogues such as BPPF and 4 afford chelate complexes of the type (${\eta}^2-PP)Rh_2(OAc)_4$ (9 & 10) where both ligands act as a chelate bidentate to a single rhodium atom. All these complexes were characterized by microanalytical and spectroscopic techniques. In one case, the structure of 8 was determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystals are monoclinic, space group C2 (No. 5), with a=26.389 (3), b=12.942 (1), c=11.825 (1) A, ${\beta}$=111.22(1)$^{\circ}$, V=3964.7 (8) $A^3$, Z=4, and $D_{calc}$=1.58 g $cm^{-3}$. Two Rh(II) centers are bridged by four $AcO^-$ groups in the ${\eta}^1$ : ${\eta}^1$ mode across a Rh-Rh single bond, and octahedral coordination at Rh(1) and Rh(1') is completed by axially coordinating (S,R)-CPFA and a briding $AcO^-$, respectively.

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Effect of Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on Proliferation of Human Osteosarcoma Cell $U_2OS$

  • Deqiang Dou;Jie Ren;Yingjie Chen;Youwei Zhang;Xinsheng Yao
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.376-384
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    • 2002
  • Object To find out which of the 27 ginsenosides isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Mey that may inhibit the proliferation of human osteosaocoma cell line $U_2OS$. Methods Effects of each individual ginsenoside on the proliferation of $U_2OS$ cell were studied by determining the viability of cancer cells during culture with or without the presence of the test compound. DNA assay was determined by flow cytometry. Results Ginsonosides -Ro, $-Rh_l,\;-Rh_2,\;-F_1\;and\;-L_8$ at concentrations of 5 ,umol/L could obviously suppress the proliferation of $U_2OS$ cells while ginsenosides $-Rg_1,\;-F_3,$ -Rf, PPT and PT significantly inhibited the cancer cells. Flow cytometry revealed that ginsenosides $-Ro,-Rg_1-Rf,-F_1-Rh_2,PPT$ and PT induced cell cycle arrest at $G_0/G_1$ phase with obvious decrease of cell count at Sand $G_2+M$ phase, Moreover, ginsenosides $-Rf_1,-Rg_1,\;-F_1$ and PPT induced significantly high rates of cell death as compared with the control. Conclusion These data suggested that ginsenosides inhibited $U_2OS$ proliferation Via cell cycle arrest or induction of cell death.

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