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Effect of Timed Artificial Insemination Protocols on the Pregnancy Rate Per Insemination and Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cows and Korean Native Cattle under Heat Stress

  • Uhm, Hyun-Boem;Jeong, Jae-Kwan;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.235-241
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    • 2020
  • We aimed to determine the effect of timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocols on the pregnancy rate per insemination and pregnancy loss compared with AI performed at detected estrus in dairy cows and Korean Hanwoo cattle under heat stress. In dairy cattle, 1,250 sets of data that underwent AI during heat stress (temperature-humidity index ≥ 72) were categorized according to their TAI protocols or as controls: 1) PGF-36 h-estradiol benzoate (EB)-36 h-TAI (PG-EB group, n = 113); 2) GnRH-7 days-PGF-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI (Ovsynch group, n = 455); or 3) GnRH-6 days-Ovsynch (G6G group, n = 136). The remaining cows underwent AI at detected estrus (AIDE group, n = 546). The probability of pregnancy per AI 45 days after AI was higher (P < 0.01) in the PG-EB (odds ratio [OR]: 1.68), Ovsynch (OR: 1.48), and G6G (OR: 1.79) groups than in the AIDE group. However, the prevalence of pregnancy loss between 30 and 45 days after AI did not differ among the groups. In Hanwoo cattle, 617 sets of data inseminated artificially under heat stress were categorized into AIDE (n = 281), PG-EB (n = 194), and combined Ovsynch or G6G (n = 142) groups. The probability of pregnancy per AI 45 days after AI and the prevalence of pregnancy loss between 30 and 45 days after AI did not differ among the groups. Thus, implementation of a TAI protocol (PG-EB, Ovsynch, or G6G) in dairy cows under heat stress improves the pregnancy rate per AI versus AIDE, whereas there is no beneficial effect of TAI on the pregnancy rate of Hanwoo cattle under heat stress.

Utilization of Hypothalamic Hormones for Maturational Induction in Seawater Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (해면연어의 성숙을 유도하기 위한 시상하부호르몬의 이용)

  • Park, Woo-Dong;Lee, Cheul-Ho;Shon, Young-Chang
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.121-124
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    • 2007
  • Freshwater-adapted maturing chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) involuntarily captured by stationary nets in Yang-yang seashore areas were transferred to freshwater in an outdoor raceway tank at Yeongdong Inland Fisheries Research Institute, NFRDI, Yang-yang, Gangwon, Korea and kept over 1 day until the start of the experiments. The freshwater-adapted females were single-injected intraperitoneally with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, (GnRH-a: $70\;{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, BW) alone or combined with a dopamine receptor antagonist, pimozide($700\;{\mu}g/kg$ BW). Although gonadosomatic indices [GSI, (gonad weight/BW)${\times}100$] did not show significant changes in both 2004 and 2005, GSI of GnRH-a-injected fish during the 2005 trial slightly increased on the 5th and 7th days post-injection compared to those of vehicle treated fish. Hepatosomatic indices [HSI, (liver weight/BW)${\times}100$] of fish injected with GnRH-a alone and combined with pimozide decreased significantly on the 7th day post-injection in 2004(P<0.05). In 2005 trials, HSI was significantly reduced in GnRH-a treated fish on the 7th day post-injection (P<0.05). Pimozide-injected fish showed a pattern with increase of GSI and decrease of HSI, without significant differences. Taken together, these results suggest that at least in part hypothalamic hormones and dopamine receptor antagonist may induce sexual maturation in freshwater-adapted maturing chum salmon. It remains to evaluate these preliminary results by further researches.

The Effect of Menstration on GnRH Agonist Treatment for the Uterine Myoma (자궁근종의 성선자극호르몬분비호르몬 효능제 치료에 있어 생리의 영향)

  • Han, Soo-Kyung;Lee, Myung-Koo;Han, Song-Yi;Park, Mi-Sook;Lim, Sung-Cil
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.402-408
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of menstration among the influencing factors for the GnRH agonist (as G: depot goserelin 3.6 mg) therapy prior to the planned myomectomy for women who wanted to preserve their fertility. We reviewed total 48 patients. with the G therapy prior to the planned myomectomy from August 1st, 2005 to August 31st, 2006. The patients were classified by the G group (n=28) and the immediate surgery (as S) group (n=20). The G group (n=19) underwent the G therapy for 3 month courses, and then the efficacy was evaluated by menstruation and the myoma volumes. In the G group (n=19), therapy was effective, and the mean age was $32.4{\pm}6.5$ years. After the completion of G therapy, the mean volume of the myoma by ultrasonography was reduced to $85.2{\pm}71.2cm^3$ comparing of $430.6{\pm}248.8cm^3$ at first visit. The 11 patients had menstruation and the rest 8 patients with amenorrhea had less reduced volume of the myoma ($124.05{\pm}79.85cm^3\;v.s.\;329.41{\pm}234.0cm^3$ p<0.05). In the immediate S group, the myoma volumes by sonography was also checked for accuracy (${\alpha}=1.0$). As the result, the initial myoma volume had the positive correlations to the effectiveness with G therapy. However, the occurrence and frequency of the menstruation during the G therapy had a negative correlation. In conclusion, the use of G prior to the planned myomectomy was effective in reducing myoma volume and the menstruation.

Expression and Characterization of Human N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases and ${\alpha}$2,3-Sialyltransferase in Insect Cells for In Vitro Glycosylation of Recombinant Erythropoietin

  • Kim, Na-Young;Kim, Hyung-Gu;Kim, Yang-Hyun;Chung, In-Sik;Yang, Jai-Myung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.383-391
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    • 2008
  • The glycans linked to the insect cell-derived glycoproteins are known to differ from those expressed in mammalian cells, partly because of the low level or lack of glycosyltransferase activities. GnT II, GnT IV, GnT V, and ST3Gal IV, which play important roles in the synthesis of tetraantennarytype complex glycan structures in mammalian cells, were overexpressed in Trichoplusia ni cells by using a baculovirus expression vector. The glycosyltransferases, expressed as a fusion form with the IgG-binding domain, were secreted into the culture media and purified using IgG sepharose resin. The enzyme assay, performed using a pyridylaminated-sugar chain as an acceptor, indicated that the purified glycosyltransferases retained their enzyme activities. Human erythropoietin expressed in T. ni cells (rhEPO) was subjected to in vitro glycosylation by using recombinant glycosyltransferases and was converted into complex-type glycan with terminal sialic acid. The presence of Nacetylglucosamine, galactose, and sialic acid on the rhEPO moiety was detected by a lectin blot analysis, and the addition of galactose and sialic acid to rhEPO was confirmed by autoradiography using $UDP-^{14}C-Gal\;and\;CMP-^{14}C-Sia$ as donors. The in vitro glycosylated rhEPO was injected into mice, and the number of reticulocytes among the ed blood cells was counted using FACS. A significant increase in the number of reticulocytes was not observed in the mice injected with in vitro glycosylated rhEPO as compared with those injected with rhEPO.

Escherichia coli에서 발현된 재조합 인간 상피세포 증식인자의 정제 및 특성

  • 박세철;유광현
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.478-484
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    • 1996
  • Recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) was produced by E. coli BL21 harboring a plasmid pYHB101. The maximum production was 68.7 mg/l when the E. coli strain was cultured at 25$\circ$C for 48 hours in the modified MBL medium containing 10 g/l glucose with 1 mM IPTG induction at 2 hours after inoculation. The rhEGF was purified upto 267 folds by Amberlite XAD- 7 chromatography, ultrafiltration, and DEAE Sepharose fast flow ion exchange chromatography with an overall yield of 66.6%. The purified rhEGF was further separated into two fractions by HPLC. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the second fraction was Asn-Ser-Asp-Ser-Glu-Cys-Pro-Leu-Ser-His. The effect of rhEGF on the DNA synthesis was examined using in vitro biological assay based on the incorporation of 5'-bromo-2'- deoxy-uridine (BrdU). The purified rhEGF shows no difference with natural human epidermal growth factor (nhEGF) in N-terminal amino acids residues and biological activity. From the results, we concluded that rhEGF produced from E. coli harboring the plasmid pYHB101 was apparently the same as nhEGF.

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Bioavailability of Fermented Korean Red Ginseng

  • Lee, Hyun-Jung;Jung, Eun-Young;Lee, Hyun-Sun;Kim, Bong-Gwan;Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Yoon, Taek-Joon;Oh, Sung-Hoon;Suh, Hyung-Joo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2009
  • In an effort to improve ginsenoside bioavailability, the ginsenosides of fermented red ginseng were examined with respect to bioavailability and physiological activity. The results showed that the fermented red ginseng (FRG) had a high level of ginsenoside metabolites. The total ginsenoside contents in non-fermented red ginseng (NFRG) and FRG were 35715.2 ${\mu}g$/mL and 34822.9 ${\mu}g$/mL, respectively. However, RFG had a higher content (14914.3 ${\mu}g$/mL) of ginsenoside metabolites (Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, CK, Rh1, F2, and Rg2) compared to NFRG (5697.9 ${\mu}g$/mL). The skin permeability of RFG was higher than that of NFRG using Franz diffusion cells. Particularly, after 5 hr, the skin permeability of RFG was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of NFRG. Using everted instestinal sacs of rats, RFG showed a high transport level (10.3 mg of polyphenols/g sac) compared to NFRG (6.67 of mg of polyphenols/g sac) after 1 hr. After oral administration of NFRG and FRG to rats, serum concentrations were determined by HPLC. Peak concentrations of Rk1, Rh1, Rc, and Rg5 were approximately 1.64, 2.35, 1.13, and 1.25-fold higher, respectively, for FRG than for NFRG. Furthermore, Rk1, Rh1, and Rg5 increased more rapidly in the blood by the oral administration of FRG versus NFRG. FRG had dramatically improved bioavailability compared to NFRG as indicated by skin permeation, intestinal permeability, and ginsenoside levels in the blood. The significantly greater bioavailability of FRG may have been due to the transformation of its ginsenosides by fermentation to more easily absorbable forms (ginsenoside metabolites).

Comparison of Dye Removal Performance of Direct and Indirect Oxidation Electrode (직접 산화와 간접 산화용 전극의 Dye 제거 성능 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.963-968
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    • 2010
  • This study has carried out to evaluate the performance of direct and indirect oxidation electrode for the purpose of decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water. Four kinds of electrodes were used for comparison: Pt and JP202 (indirect oxidation electrode), Pb and boron doping diamond (BDD, direct oxidation electrode). The effect of applied current (0.5 ~ 2.5 A), electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl, HCl, $Na_2SO_4$ and $H_2SO_4$) and electrolyte concentration (0.5 ~ 2.5 g/L), solution pH (3 ~ 11) and initial RhB concentration (25 ~ 125 mg/L) were evaluated. Experimental results showed that RhB removal efficiency were increased with increase of current, NaCl dosage and decrease of the pH. However, the effect of operating parameter on the RhB removal were different with the electrode type. JP202 electrode was the best electrode from the point of view of performance and energy consumption. The order of removed RhB concentration per energy lie in: JP202>Pt>Pb>BDD.

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN THE HYPOPHYSIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO GnRH IN CYCLING BUFFALO (Bubalus bubalis)

  • Palta, P.;Madan, M.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.711-714
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    • 1996
  • The present study investigated the hypophysial responsiveness in terms of GnRH induced LH and FSH release in cycling buffalo during the tropical summer and winter climatic conditions (seasons). Peripheral plasma LH and FSH levels were measured at 1 hour before and 6 hours subsequent to the administration of GnRH (1 ug/kg body weight) or saline on Day 14 of oestrous cycle in 2 groups of buffalo (n = 6 each) during summer and winter seasons. Although GnRH induced LH peak concentrations did not differ during the two seasons, time to attain LH peak concentration was shorter (p < 0.05) and the area under LH peak was 39% higher (p < 0.05) during winter season in comparison to summer season. However, season had no effect on GnRH induced peak FSH concentration, time to attain peak FSH concentration and the area under FSH peak. Pretreatment basal LH and FSH levels did not differ during the two seasons. The present study suggests that the summer season adversely affects the GnRH stimulated release of LH in buffalo.

The Effect of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor on Cisplatin and Radiotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis in Mice (마우스에서 Cisplatin과 방사선조사로 유발된 구내염에 대한 재조합 표피성장인자의 효과)

  • Na, Jae-Boem;Kim, Hye-Jung;Chai, Gyu-Young;Lee, Sang-Wook;Lee, Kang-Kyoo;Chang, Ki-Churl;Choi, Byung-Ock;Jang, Hong-Seok;Jeong, Bea-Keon;Kang, Ki-Mun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: To study the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on oral mucositis induced by cisplatin and radiotherapy in a mouse model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four ICR mice were divided into three groups-the normal control group, the no rhEGF group (treatment with cisplatin and radiation) and the rhEGF group (treatment with cisplatin, radiation and rhEGF). A model of mucositis induced by cisplatin and radiotherapy was established by injecting mice with cisplatin (10 mg/kg) on day 1 and with radiation exposure (5 Gy/day) to the head and neck on days $1{\sim}5$. rhEGF was administered subcutaneously on days -1 to 0 (1 mg/kg/day) and on days 3 to 5 (1 mg/kg/day). Evaluation included body weight, oral intake, and histology. Results: For the comparison of the change of body weight between the rhEGF group and the no rhEGF group, a statistically significant difference was observed in the rhEGF group for the 5 days after day 3 of. the experiment. The rhEGF group and no rhEGF group had reduced food intake until day 5 of the experiment, and then the mice demonstrated increased food intake after day 13 of the of experiment. When the histological examination was conducted on day 7 after treatment with cisplatin and radiation, the rhEGF group showed a focal cellular reaction in the epidermal layer of the mucosa, while the no rhEGF group did not show inflammation of the oral mucosa. Conclusion: These findings suggest that rhEGF has a potential to reduce the oral mucositis burden in mice after treatment with cisplatin and radiation. The optimal dose, number and timing of the administration of rhEGF require further investigation.

Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of DA-3030 (recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) after Intravenous, Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Administrations to the Laboratory Animals. (DA-3030(recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor)의 정맥, 근육 또는 피하주사시 실험동물에서의 약물동력 학 및 조직 분포)

  • 이응두;심현주;이종진;이상득;강수형;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 1994
  • The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of DA-3030 (recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, rhG-CSF, recently manufactured by Dong-A research laboratory of Dong-A Pharmaceutical Company) were compared with reported data in the literature. After intravenous(i.v.) administration of DA-3030, at dose of 5, 10 and 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to rats, some pharmacokinetic parameters, such as terminal half-lives(1.05, 1.19 and 1.83 hr, respectively) and clearance (84.0, 54.8 and 45.5 mι/hr/kg, repectively), were dose-dependent. This could be due to the saturable metabolism of DA-3030 in rats. Similar results were also reported. After subcutaneous(s.c.) and intramuscular(i.m.) administrations of DA-3030, 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg to rats, the extent of bioavailability(absolute bioavailability) were incomplete; the values were 23.3 and 18.2% after s.c. and i.m. injections, respectively, due to the degradation of DA-3030 by protease. After 7-consecutive day i.v. administrations of DA-3030, 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/day, to rats, the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of DA-3030 were not significantly different from those in single administration. In mice and dogs at DA-3030 dose of 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, the plasma concentrations of DA-3030 were also declined rapidly with terminal half-lives of 1.31 and 1.15 hr, respectively. DA-3030 was highly concentrated in the kidney after i.v. administration of DA-3030, 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, to rats, and the results were similar to those obtained using radiolabelled rhG-CSF in the literature. Above data indicate that DA-3030 has similar properties to rhG-CSF manufactured by other companies in view of pharmacokinetics.

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