• Title/Summary/Keyword: Fur quality

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A study on the changes of the Screen quota system as a Film policy in Korea (한국의 영화정책과 스크린 쿼터제의 변천에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Hee-Moon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.982-991
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    • 2006
  • The screen quota system is one of the most controversial issues in the Korean film industry. There are two different points of view regarding the system. Some say it is highly effective to protect and nurture Korean movies. However, others argue that it hurts the duality of the Korean movies. The number of days, for which Korean movies have to play on local screens, has been reduced to 73, starting on July 1st, 2006. Actually, it is 50 percent fewer than the previous year. In facL Korea has implemented the screen quota. system two times. First, it was practiced from 1935 to 1945, during the Japanese colonial period. This was to regulate imported movies, especially American ones, as the Japanese government was to use movies for the political propaganda. In 1935, the number of foreign movies screened had to be less than three fourths of the total. And they gradually reduced the size by two thirds in 1936, and again by half in 1937. After the attack on Pearl Harbor when the Pacific War happened, Japan completely banned importing American movies in Korea. The reason why it regulated the imported foreign films is to increase the number of domestic movies, both Japanese and Korean. It was for making propaganda films fur carrying the war. The second practice of the screen quota is from 1967 to the present year. It was designed to boom the Korean film industry. However, the competitive power of Korean films has not been improved in spite of the practice of the system. Moreover, the film industry has gone through the depression. Korean film agencies have occupied the Korean film market thanks to the protection by government. The founding of the film agencies has been strongly regulated. So has importing foreign movies. Under the special protection like this, Korean film agencies have been enjoying the monopoly In the mean time, they have pursued income not by making quality movies but by importing foreign movies. As a result, cinema audiences turn away form Korean films and prefer foreign movies. Furthermore, the screen quota system hurts the relationship between film producers and distributors, imposing the duties only on theaters. In short, the screen quota system has satisfied neither film producers, theater runners, nor film goers. In other words. the excessive protection has weakened the competitive power of Korean film industry.

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Marine Bacteriological Quality and Dynamics in Tongyeong Coastal Area, Gyung-nam, Korea (통영연근해역의 해양세균학적 수질 및 동태에 관한 연구)

  • 최종덕
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.372-379
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    • 1999
  • A bacteriological study of sea water and oyster in Tongyeong coastal area was conducted to evaluate sanitary conditions of the bay and compliance of waters with the recommended bacteriological criteria fur the designated area of shellfish cultivation. The Samples were collected at 5 zone, 34 sampling stations(Fig. 1) established once a month from September 1997 to August 1998. During the study period, temperature ranged from 6.9 to 23.6$^{\circ}C$, transparency ranged from 2.6 to 6.2 m, chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.35 to 1.82 mg/ι, dissolved oxy-gen ranged from 5.0 to 9.9 mg/ι, dissolved nitrogen ranged from 1.60 to 8.17 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/ι, phosphate ranged from 0.14 to 1.21 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/ι, Chlorophyll-a ranged from 2.03 to 69.9 mg/㎥, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of sea water were ranged from <3.0~1,600 and <3.0~540, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of oysters were ranged from <18~16,000 and <18~2,200, respectively. The viable cell counts in oyster ranged from $1.5\times$10$^2$to 8.2$\times$10$^3$. The coliform stoup, fecal coliform, classification of coliform group with IMViC reactions and pathogenic vibrios were analyzed. 437 strains that were obtained from Tongyeoung coastal area seawater samples represented E. coli group 47.5%, C. freundii group 14.8%, K. aerogenes 10.9%, unknown 26.8%, respectively. During the study period, infectious bacteria such as Vibrio ohoEerae, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. were not detected from the samples, but detection ratios of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were 12~21% in summer months.

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Comparison of Egg Production among Crossbreds with Resistance to Fowl Typhoid in Egg Type Chickens (산란계에 있어서 가금티푸스 저항성 계통의 산란성 비교 연구)

  • 오봉국;한성욱;김기석;한경택
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2003
  • The objects of this study were to develop a new strain which has resistance to fowl typhoid, high performance in laying, and producing brown shell eggs favored by domestic consumers. Several White Leghorn (WL) breeds known as possessing genetic resistance to fowl typhoid and several brown shell egg breeds such as susceptible to the disease were used to produce the controlled strains with cross mating between the strains within the breeds and the experimental strains with crossbreeding between the breeds. The crossbred strains were Chungnong(CN) 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. The controlled strains were ISA brown CC, Hyline brown CC and Lohman brown CC. The survival rates were 99.95% for chicks of age 0∼l7 weeks and 91% for adult chickens of age 18∼72 weeks. There was no difference in survival rate between the crossbred and the controlled strains. The means of age of lst egg laying were 147 to 148 days and no difference was observed between the crossbred and the controlled. The egg Production rates of a9e 18∼72 weeks were 83.76% far the crossbred strains and 77.82% for the controlled strains, which is significantly higher in the crossbred than controlled strains by 6%. The numbers of the hen housed egg Production of age 18∼72 weeks were 292.33 eggs for the crossbred strains and 271.31 eggs fur the controlled strains. The difference of 21 eggs more produced by the crossbred than by the controlled was statistically significant. The mean egg weights of age 18∼72 weeks were 64.32g for the crossbred strains and 60.73g for the controlled strains, and the difference of 3.59g was statistically significant. The feed conversion rates during the age of 18 to 72 weeks were 2.297 for the crossbred strains and 2.454 for the controlled strains. The crossbreds were reduced feed consumption by 157g for 1kg of egg Production which was statistically significant. Haugh unit(H$.$u) at the age of 72 weeks were 82.20 for the crossbred strains and 77.82 for the controlled strains. The crossbred strains were superior quality by 4.38 H$.$u. There were no significant differences in the yolk color and the eggshell thickness between the crossbred strains and the controlled strains. The eggshell color of the crossbred strains was light brown which is the medium color of the white eggshell strains and the brown eggshell strains. The body weights at the ages of 8, 12, 18, 42 and 71 weeks were not different between the crossbred strains and the controlled strains.

Effects of Vitamin $K_1$ on the Developmental and Survival Rate of Porcine In Vitro Fertilized Embryos (Vitamin $K_1$의 첨가가 돼지 체외 수정란의 발달과 생존율에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Hum-Dai;Zhu, Yi-Chen;Park, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2014
  • The in vitro production of porcine embryos was essential to increase of blastocyst development rate and select of high quality blastocyst in early stage. There were a lot of reports about in vitro porcine embryo development, but there was no report about the selection of high quality embryos. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of vitamin $K_1$ (vit $K_1$) on the development and survival rate of porcine in vitro fertilized embryos. When vit $K_1$ was treated for 24 hr at day 1 in vitro culture, blastocyst development rate in the control group ($35.5{\pm}3.2%$) was significantly lower compared to $1.0{\mu}M$, $3.0{\mu}M$, or $6.0{\mu}M$ groups ($14.5{\pm}4.3$, 0.0, or 0.0%; p<0.05). The survival rates of blastocysts at day 8 in $1.0{\mu}M$, $3.0{\mu}M$ or $6.0{\mu}M$ of vit $K_1$ treated groups ($22.2{\pm}2.9$, 0.0 or 0.0%) were significantly lower than that of the control group ($31.8{\pm}2.6%$; p<0.05). We were added at $1.0{\mu}M$, $3.0{\mu}M$ or $6.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$ for different durations of time at day 1 in vitro culture. The development rate and survival rate in the group of $1.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$ for 6 hr was $26.5{\pm}2.9%$ and $47.2{\pm}2.8%$, respectively, which were differed significantly in the group of 12 hr (p<0.05). In the group of $3.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$, the blastocyst development in control group was $36.4{\pm}3.1%$ but, the survival rate $41.7{\pm}3.2%$ in the group of 3.0 hr was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In the group of $6.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$, the control group's the blastocyst development was $32.0{\pm}2.8%$ and the 0.5 hr supplement group's survival rates was $42.9{\pm}1.8%$ higher than other groups. We added vit $K_1$ at day 1, day 2, day 4 and day 6 of in vitro culture, on the based the results of supplemented concentration and duration. In the group of $1.0{\mu}M$ 6.0 hr addition, the blastocyst development rate of day 4 and the survival rate of day 2 were the highest in each group. In the groups of $3.0{\mu}M$ 3.0 hr addition or $6.0{\mu}M$ 0.5 hr addition, the blastocyst development ($59.5{\pm}4.1%$ and $50.0{\pm}3.6%$) and survival rates ($72.7{\pm}5.4%$ and $79.2{\pm}4.0%$) on day 4 were significantly higher than that of control and other experiment groups (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the number of cells in blastocysts that produced by vit $K_1$ supplementation was $53.4{\pm}5.8$, $49.4{\pm}3.8$ and $51.5{\pm}4.5$ respectively, which were significantly higher than that of $40.2{\pm}2.3$ in the control group (p<0.05). There was no difference of the number of apoptotic cells between control and experiment groups. In addition, gene expression of survival blastocyst, the Bax mRNA expression was similar between the control and the experiment groups. However, Bcl-xL mRNA expression's in the group of $6.0{\mu}M$ 0.5 hr on day 4 was highest among control and experiment groups (p<0.05). In this study suggested that the control of concentration, duration and time was effective on the survival and cell number of porcine blastocyst derived from in vitro. We are not know what the exact reasons of the effect of vit $K_1$ on embryo development and need to fur ther study. However, vit $K_1$ might be using the selection of high quality porcine blastocyst.

An Analytical Study on Stem Growth of Chamaecyparis obtusa (편백(扁栢)의 수간성장(樹幹成長)에 관(關)한 해석적(解析的) 연구(硏究))

  • An, Jong Man;Lee, Kwang Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.77 no.4
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    • pp.429-444
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    • 1988
  • Considering the recent trent toward the development of multiple-use of forest trees, investigations for comprehensive information on these young stands of Hinoki cypress are necessary for rational forest management. From this point of view, 83 sample trees were selected and cut down from 23-ear old stands of Hinoki cypress at Changsung-gun, Chonnam-do. Various stem growth factors of felled trees were measured and canonical correlaton analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were applied to investigate the stem growth characteristics, relationships among stem growth factors, and to get potential information and comprehensive information. The results are as follows ; Canonical correlation coefficient between stem volume and quality growth factor was 0.9877. Coefficient of canonical variates showed that DBH among diameter growth factors and height among height growth factors had important effects on stem volume. From the analysis of relationship between stem-volume and canonical variates, which were linearly combined DBH with height as one set, DBH had greater influence on volume growth than height. The 1st-2nd principal components here adopted to fit the effective value of 85% from the pincipal component analysis for 12 stem growth factors. The result showed that the 1st-2nd principal component had cumulative contribution rate of 88.10%. The 1st and the 2nd principal components were interpreted as "size factor" and "shape factor", respectively. From summed proportion of the efficient principal component fur each variate, information of variates except crown diameter, clear length and form height explained more than 87%. Two common factors were set by the eigen value obtained from SMC (squared multiple correlation) of diagonal elements of canonical matrix. There were 2 latent factors, $f_1$ and $f_2$. The former way interpreted as nature of diameter growth system. In inherent phenomenon of 12 growth factor, communalities except clear length and crown diameter had great explanatory poorer of 78.62-98.30%. Eighty three sample trees could he classified into 5 stem types as follows ; medium type within a radius of ${\pm}1$ standard deviation of factor scores, uniformity type in diameter and height growth in the 1st quadrant, slim type in the 2nd quadrant, dwarfish type in the 3rd quadrant, and fall-holed type in the 4 th quadrant.

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Correlations between the Capacity of In Vitro Fertilization and the Assays of Sperm Function and Characteristics in Frozen-thawed Bovine Spermatozoa (소 동결-융해 정자에 있어서 체외수정능력과 정자 기능 및 성상 분석법간의 상관관계)

  • Ryu, B.Y.;Chung, Y.C.;Kim, C.K.;Shin, H.A.;Han, J.H.;Kim, S.H.;Moon, S.Y.;Kim, H.R.;Choi, H.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.275-289
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    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro assessment of sperm fertilizing capacity of bulls and investigate the factors influencing sperm function and characteristics of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa. in vitro fertilization (IVF), the evaluation of motility and normal morphology, HOST (hypoosmotic swelling test), Ca-ionophore induced acrosome reaction, luminol and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence for the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the measurement of malondialdehyde formation for the analysis of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the evaluation of DNA fragmentation using the method of 747-mediated nick end labelling (TUNEL) by flow cytometry were performed in frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa. Correlations between the rates of fertilization, blastocyst formation after IVF and the values of respective assays were investigated. 1. IVF rate and blastocyst formation rate averaged 64.4% and 34.3% for spermatozoa from high -fertility bull group and averaged 18.5% and 6.2% for spermatozoa from low-fertility bull group, respectively. There were significantly different between two bull groups. Sperm motility and percentage acrosome reaction averaged 79.0% and 66.2% for spermatozoa from high-fertility bull group and averaged 40.7% and 22.9% for spermatozoa from low-fertility bull group, respectivitely. There were not different between two bull groups. 2. Luminol depenent chemiluminescence, LPO and DNA fragementation averaged 6.4, 2.0 nmol and 2.6% from spermatozoa from high-fertility bull group and averaged 6.5, 3.1 nmol and 7.4% for spermatozoa from low-fertility bull group, respectively. There were significantly different between two bull groups. There was no significant difference in lucigenin dependent chemiluminescence between two bull groups. 3. Fertilization rate was positively correlated with motility and the rate of Ca-ionophore induced acrosome reaction, but negatively correlated with the frequency of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the rate of LPO, and the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation. There was no correlation between fertilization rate and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa, normal morphology, and the frequency of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. 4. Blastocyst formation rate was positively correlated with the rate of Ca-ionophore induced acrosome reaction, but negatively correlated with the frequency of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the rate of LPO, and the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation. There was no correlation between blastocyst formation rate and motility, the percentage of swollen spermatozoa, normal morphology, and the frequency of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. In conclusion, these data suggest that ROS significantly impact semen quality. The assays of this study may provide a basis fur improving in vitro assessment of sperm fertilizing capacity.