• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fur quality

Search Result 234, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Marine Bacteriological Quality and Dynamics in Tongyeong Coastal Area, Gyung-nam, Korea (통영연근해역의 해양세균학적 수질 및 동태에 관한 연구)

  • 최종덕
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.372-379
    • /
    • 1999
  • A bacteriological study of sea water and oyster in Tongyeong coastal area was conducted to evaluate sanitary conditions of the bay and compliance of waters with the recommended bacteriological criteria fur the designated area of shellfish cultivation. The Samples were collected at 5 zone, 34 sampling stations(Fig. 1) established once a month from September 1997 to August 1998. During the study period, temperature ranged from 6.9 to 23.6$^{\circ}C$, transparency ranged from 2.6 to 6.2 m, chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.35 to 1.82 mg/ι, dissolved oxy-gen ranged from 5.0 to 9.9 mg/ι, dissolved nitrogen ranged from 1.60 to 8.17 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/ι, phosphate ranged from 0.14 to 1.21 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/ι, Chlorophyll-a ranged from 2.03 to 69.9 mg/㎥, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of sea water were ranged from <3.0~1,600 and <3.0~540, respectively. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of oysters were ranged from <18~16,000 and <18~2,200, respectively. The viable cell counts in oyster ranged from $1.5\times$10$^2$to 8.2$\times$10$^3$. The coliform stoup, fecal coliform, classification of coliform group with IMViC reactions and pathogenic vibrios were analyzed. 437 strains that were obtained from Tongyeoung coastal area seawater samples represented E. coli group 47.5%, C. freundii group 14.8%, K. aerogenes 10.9%, unknown 26.8%, respectively. During the study period, infectious bacteria such as Vibrio ohoEerae, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. were not detected from the samples, but detection ratios of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus were 12~21% in summer months.

  • PDF

Effects of Vitamin $K_1$ on the Developmental and Survival Rate of Porcine In Vitro Fertilized Embryos (Vitamin $K_1$의 첨가가 돼지 체외 수정란의 발달과 생존율에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Hum-Dai;Zhu, Yi-Chen;Park, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-81
    • /
    • 2014
  • The in vitro production of porcine embryos was essential to increase of blastocyst development rate and select of high quality blastocyst in early stage. There were a lot of reports about in vitro porcine embryo development, but there was no report about the selection of high quality embryos. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of vitamin $K_1$ (vit $K_1$) on the development and survival rate of porcine in vitro fertilized embryos. When vit $K_1$ was treated for 24 hr at day 1 in vitro culture, blastocyst development rate in the control group ($35.5{\pm}3.2%$) was significantly lower compared to $1.0{\mu}M$, $3.0{\mu}M$, or $6.0{\mu}M$ groups ($14.5{\pm}4.3$, 0.0, or 0.0%; p<0.05). The survival rates of blastocysts at day 8 in $1.0{\mu}M$, $3.0{\mu}M$ or $6.0{\mu}M$ of vit $K_1$ treated groups ($22.2{\pm}2.9$, 0.0 or 0.0%) were significantly lower than that of the control group ($31.8{\pm}2.6%$; p<0.05). We were added at $1.0{\mu}M$, $3.0{\mu}M$ or $6.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$ for different durations of time at day 1 in vitro culture. The development rate and survival rate in the group of $1.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$ for 6 hr was $26.5{\pm}2.9%$ and $47.2{\pm}2.8%$, respectively, which were differed significantly in the group of 12 hr (p<0.05). In the group of $3.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$, the blastocyst development in control group was $36.4{\pm}3.1%$ but, the survival rate $41.7{\pm}3.2%$ in the group of 3.0 hr was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In the group of $6.0{\mu}M$ vit $K_1$, the control group's the blastocyst development was $32.0{\pm}2.8%$ and the 0.5 hr supplement group's survival rates was $42.9{\pm}1.8%$ higher than other groups. We added vit $K_1$ at day 1, day 2, day 4 and day 6 of in vitro culture, on the based the results of supplemented concentration and duration. In the group of $1.0{\mu}M$ 6.0 hr addition, the blastocyst development rate of day 4 and the survival rate of day 2 were the highest in each group. In the groups of $3.0{\mu}M$ 3.0 hr addition or $6.0{\mu}M$ 0.5 hr addition, the blastocyst development ($59.5{\pm}4.1%$ and $50.0{\pm}3.6%$) and survival rates ($72.7{\pm}5.4%$ and $79.2{\pm}4.0%$) on day 4 were significantly higher than that of control and other experiment groups (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the number of cells in blastocysts that produced by vit $K_1$ supplementation was $53.4{\pm}5.8$, $49.4{\pm}3.8$ and $51.5{\pm}4.5$ respectively, which were significantly higher than that of $40.2{\pm}2.3$ in the control group (p<0.05). There was no difference of the number of apoptotic cells between control and experiment groups. In addition, gene expression of survival blastocyst, the Bax mRNA expression was similar between the control and the experiment groups. However, Bcl-xL mRNA expression's in the group of $6.0{\mu}M$ 0.5 hr on day 4 was highest among control and experiment groups (p<0.05). In this study suggested that the control of concentration, duration and time was effective on the survival and cell number of porcine blastocyst derived from in vitro. We are not know what the exact reasons of the effect of vit $K_1$ on embryo development and need to fur ther study. However, vit $K_1$ might be using the selection of high quality porcine blastocyst.

An Analytical Study on Stem Growth of Chamaecyparis obtusa (편백(扁栢)의 수간성장(樹幹成長)에 관(關)한 해석적(解析的) 연구(硏究))

  • An, Jong Man;Lee, Kwang Nam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.77 no.4
    • /
    • pp.429-444
    • /
    • 1988
  • Considering the recent trent toward the development of multiple-use of forest trees, investigations for comprehensive information on these young stands of Hinoki cypress are necessary for rational forest management. From this point of view, 83 sample trees were selected and cut down from 23-ear old stands of Hinoki cypress at Changsung-gun, Chonnam-do. Various stem growth factors of felled trees were measured and canonical correlaton analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were applied to investigate the stem growth characteristics, relationships among stem growth factors, and to get potential information and comprehensive information. The results are as follows ; Canonical correlation coefficient between stem volume and quality growth factor was 0.9877. Coefficient of canonical variates showed that DBH among diameter growth factors and height among height growth factors had important effects on stem volume. From the analysis of relationship between stem-volume and canonical variates, which were linearly combined DBH with height as one set, DBH had greater influence on volume growth than height. The 1st-2nd principal components here adopted to fit the effective value of 85% from the pincipal component analysis for 12 stem growth factors. The result showed that the 1st-2nd principal component had cumulative contribution rate of 88.10%. The 1st and the 2nd principal components were interpreted as "size factor" and "shape factor", respectively. From summed proportion of the efficient principal component fur each variate, information of variates except crown diameter, clear length and form height explained more than 87%. Two common factors were set by the eigen value obtained from SMC (squared multiple correlation) of diagonal elements of canonical matrix. There were 2 latent factors, $f_1$ and $f_2$. The former way interpreted as nature of diameter growth system. In inherent phenomenon of 12 growth factor, communalities except clear length and crown diameter had great explanatory poorer of 78.62-98.30%. Eighty three sample trees could he classified into 5 stem types as follows ; medium type within a radius of ${\pm}1$ standard deviation of factor scores, uniformity type in diameter and height growth in the 1st quadrant, slim type in the 2nd quadrant, dwarfish type in the 3rd quadrant, and fall-holed type in the 4 th quadrant.

  • PDF

Correlations between the Capacity of In Vitro Fertilization and the Assays of Sperm Function and Characteristics in Frozen-thawed Bovine Spermatozoa (소 동결-융해 정자에 있어서 체외수정능력과 정자 기능 및 성상 분석법간의 상관관계)

  • Ryu, B.Y.;Chung, Y.C.;Kim, C.K.;Shin, H.A.;Han, J.H.;Kim, S.H.;Moon, S.Y.;Kim, H.R.;Choi, H.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.275-289
    • /
    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro assessment of sperm fertilizing capacity of bulls and investigate the factors influencing sperm function and characteristics of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa. in vitro fertilization (IVF), the evaluation of motility and normal morphology, HOST (hypoosmotic swelling test), Ca-ionophore induced acrosome reaction, luminol and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence for the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the measurement of malondialdehyde formation for the analysis of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the evaluation of DNA fragmentation using the method of 747-mediated nick end labelling (TUNEL) by flow cytometry were performed in frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa. Correlations between the rates of fertilization, blastocyst formation after IVF and the values of respective assays were investigated. 1. IVF rate and blastocyst formation rate averaged 64.4% and 34.3% for spermatozoa from high -fertility bull group and averaged 18.5% and 6.2% for spermatozoa from low-fertility bull group, respectively. There were significantly different between two bull groups. Sperm motility and percentage acrosome reaction averaged 79.0% and 66.2% for spermatozoa from high-fertility bull group and averaged 40.7% and 22.9% for spermatozoa from low-fertility bull group, respectivitely. There were not different between two bull groups. 2. Luminol depenent chemiluminescence, LPO and DNA fragementation averaged 6.4, 2.0 nmol and 2.6% from spermatozoa from high-fertility bull group and averaged 6.5, 3.1 nmol and 7.4% for spermatozoa from low-fertility bull group, respectively. There were significantly different between two bull groups. There was no significant difference in lucigenin dependent chemiluminescence between two bull groups. 3. Fertilization rate was positively correlated with motility and the rate of Ca-ionophore induced acrosome reaction, but negatively correlated with the frequency of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the rate of LPO, and the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation. There was no correlation between fertilization rate and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa, normal morphology, and the frequency of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. 4. Blastocyst formation rate was positively correlated with the rate of Ca-ionophore induced acrosome reaction, but negatively correlated with the frequency of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the rate of LPO, and the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation. There was no correlation between blastocyst formation rate and motility, the percentage of swollen spermatozoa, normal morphology, and the frequency of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. In conclusion, these data suggest that ROS significantly impact semen quality. The assays of this study may provide a basis fur improving in vitro assessment of sperm fertilizing capacity.