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Ophiostomatoid Fungi in Pine Wilt Disease and Oak Wilt Disease in Korea

  • Kim, Seong Hwan
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2014
  • Pinewood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) is a serious pathogenic worm that quickly dry pine trees to death. Recently, PWN has been devastating huge amounts of conifer trees in Korea. As a first step to explore the association and ecological roles of fungi in PWN life cycle in Korea, in this study we first isolated and indentified fungi from PWN-infested Korean pine and Japanese black pine wood sampled in Jinju, Sacheon, Pocheon, Chuncheon, Gwangju, and Hoengseong in Korea. A total of 144 fungal isolates were obtained from Japanese black pine wood and 264 fungal isolates from Korean pine wood. Their morphology and nucleotide sequences of the ITS rDNA and ♌-tubulin gene were examined for species identification. Ophiostoma ips, Botrytis anthophila, Penicillium sp., Hypocrea lixii, Trichoderma atroviride, O. galeiforme, Fusarium proliferatum were identified from Japanese black pine wood. Leptographium koreanum, L. pini-densiflorae, Ophiostoma ips, Penicillium raistrick, Trichoderma sp. were isolated from Korean pine wood. O. ips and L. koreanum were the major species on the two different PWN-infected pine tree. The cultivation of PWN on fungal mat of the identified species did some enhance PWN reproduction. The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, is a serious pest of oak trees in Korea. In this study we investigated filamentous fungi present in the body of the beetle. Fourteen genera of filamentous fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were isolated. All the obtained genera were isolated in the mitosporic state. The identified fungi were classified in 11 distinct orders including the Ascomycota (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Microascales, Ophiostomatales, Pleosporales, and Sordiales) and Basidiomycota (Agaricales, Corticiales, Polyporales, and Russulales Xylariales). Within Ascomycota, 13 species were found. Meanwhile five species were found within Basidiomycota. The results showed the presence of diverse fungi in P. koryoensis. Among the isolated fungi, some were able to produce wood degrading enzymes. Further fungal isolation was performed with P. koryoensis infested Quercus mongolica trees sampled at Kumdan mountain in Hanam-Si, Gyeonggi province from June of 2009 to June of 2010. Penicillin spp. and Trichoderma spp. were the major species of mold fungi group. Pichia guilliermondii was the major species of mold yeast group. Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae was also isolated, but its isolation frequency was not high. Other species identified were Ambrosiella xylebori, Fusarium solani, Cryphonectria nitschke, Chaetomium globosum, and Gliocladium viride, Candida kashinagacola, C. maritima, C. vanderkliftii, Saccharomycopsis crataegensis.

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Diversity and Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Roots and Leaves of Stipa purpurea in an Alpine Steppe at Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

  • Yang, Xiaoyan;Jin, Hui;Xu, Lihong;Cui, Haiyan;Xin, Aiyi;Liu, Haoyue;Qin, Bo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1027-1036
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    • 2020
  • Stipa purpurea is a unique and dominant herbaceous plant species in the alpine steppe and meadows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). In this work, we analyzed the composition and diversity of the culturable endophytic fungi in S. purpurea according to morphological and molecular identification. Then, we investigated the bioactivities of these fungi against plant pathogenic fungi and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) deaminase activities. A total of 323 fungal isolates were first isolated from S. purpurea, and 33 fungal taxa were identified by internal transcribed spacer primers and grouped into Ascomycota. The diversity of endophytic fungi in S. purpurea was significantly higher in roots as compared to leaves. In addition, more than 40% of the endophytic fungi carried the gene encoding for the ACCD gene. The antibiosis assay demonstrated that 29, 35, 28, 37 and 34 isolates (43.9, 53.1, 42.4, 56.1, and 51.5%) were antagonistic to five plant pathogenic fungi, respectively. Our study provided the first assessment of the diversity of culture-depending endophytic fungi of S. purpurea, demonstrated the potential application of ACCD activity and antifungal activities with potential benefits to the host plant, and contributed to high biomass production and adaptation of S. purpurea to an adverse environment.

On the Cultural Characteristics and Wood-Decayedness of Wood-Decaying Fungi in Korea (목재부후균의 배양적 특성과 부후성에 관한 연구)

  • 윤정구;홍순우;백수봉
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 1981
  • In order to investigate early identification of species of the wood-decaying fungi in the the mycelial stage, the authors isolated of 41 species, 28 genus, 9 family at 8 locations in Korea and cultivated these isolates on the various kinds of solid media. After investigating such cultural characteristics as oxidase reactions with tannic and gallic acid, various morphological features of colony and growth grade, appeared on the various media, the authors obtained the following results : 1. The oxidase reactions with tannic and gallic acid in the PDTA, DTA, PDGA and DGA media are available for identificantion of the wood-decaying fungi. 2. The oxidase reactions with guaiacol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone in the PDGUA, PDPA and PDHA media are not so much available for identification of the wood-decaying fungi. 3. Morphological features of colonies such as mycelium color, floccose, floccose-powdery, mycelloid, powdery-mycelloid, velvet, radiate, contoured, rosulate and growth grade on the PDA, PSA and PXA media are useful for identification of wood-decaying fungi. 4. It is believed that early identification in species level of wood-decaying fungi using cultural characteristics in the mycelial stage is possible. 5. The key for the identification of 41 species of wood-decaying fungi is proposed by the cultural characteristics using several solid media.

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Inactivation of Indoor Airborne Fungi Using Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (저온 대기압 플라즈마의 실내공기 중 곰팡이 생장억제 효과)

  • Paik, Namwon;Heo, Sungmin;Lee, Ilyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.351-357
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate fungal contamination in a 31-year old university building in Seoul, Korea, and to study the inactivation of fungi using cold atmospheric pressure plasma(CAP). Methods: To investigate the fungal contamination in a university building, air samples were collected from five locations in the building, including two study rooms, a storage room, a laboratory, and a basement. The sampling was performed in a dry season(February to April) and in a wet season(July). To study the inactivation efficacy of fungi by CAP, airborne fungal concentrations were measured before and after the operation of the CAP generator. Results: Humidity was an important factor affecting fungal growth. The airborne fungal concentrations determined in the wet season(July) were significantly higher than those determined in the dry season(February to April). In the basement, the values determined in the dry and wet season were 319 and $3,403CFU/m^3$, respectively. The inactivation efficiency of fungi by CAP was 83-90% over five to nine days of operation. Conclusions: The university building was highly contaminated by airborne fungi, especially in summer. It is concluded that humidity is an important factor affecting fungal growth and CAP is a highly useful technique for inactivation of indoor airborne fungi.

Fundamental Studies on the Wood Decay(II) - Physiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of the White Rot Fungi in Korea - (목재부후(木材腐朽)의 기초적(基礎的) 연구(硏究)(II) - 주요(主要) 백색부후균(白色腐朽菌)의 부후(腐朽) 생리(生理) 및 물리(物理)·화학적특성(化學的特性) -)

  • Lee, Dong-Heub;Choi, Don-Ha;Yoon, Seung-Lak;Sohn, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 1992
  • Seven white rot fungi (Irpex lactenis, Coriolus hirsutus, Lopharia mirabilis, Schizopora paradoxa, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pycnoporus coccineus) native to Korea and two famous exotic lignin degradable white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) were investigated to clarify their physiological and physicochemical characteristics on white-rotted wood blocks. G. lucidum degraded wood blocks more seriously than those by exotic lignin-degrading fungi, C. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, but only slightly decreasecl the strength of wood which was compared to the weight loss, persumably on the account of its small use of cellulose when attacking wood. It is quite interesting to note that the holocellulose degradation rate of G. lucidum was also higher than any of the other tested fungi. The order of fungi, according to the lignin-decomposing rates, was G. lucidum>P. coccineus>C. versicolor>S. paradoxa>P. chrysosporium>L. mirabilis>P. ostreatus>C. hirsutus>I. lactenis. The lignin degradation of G. lucidum and P. coccineus which were collected in Korea was greater than that of C. versicolor and P. chrysosporium. If holocellulose degradation is not considered. G. lcidum has the merit of actual application in biomass conversion due to linin removal.

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Isolation of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Infection to the Pine Gall Midges, Thecodiplosis japonensis from the Forest Soil in Korea (삼림 토양으로부터 솔잎혹파리 감염 사상균의 분리)

  • 서종복;진병래;신상철;이범영;이창근;강석권
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.368-372
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    • 1995
  • To develop a microbial pesticide for the control of pine gall midges. Thecodiplosis japonensis, entomopathogenc fungi were isolated from 233 soil samples in the damaged region of Thecodiplosis japonenesis, and identified with Beauveria spp. 29 strains and Paecilomyces spp. 2 strains. The morphology of entomopathogenic fungi was observed by scanning electron miroscope. In addition, the toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi was observed by scanning electron microscope. In addition, the toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from soil samples was determined by bioassay against Thecodiplosis japonensis larvae. The result showed that toxicity of relatively pathogenic strains, Beauveria spp. SFB-168-2 was 82.9%, suggesting that Beauveria spp. SFB-168-2 is effective entomopathogenic fungi for the control of pine gall midges.

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Floral Studies on Korean Wood-rotting Fungi (I) -on the flora of ascomycetes and jelly fungi- (한국산(韓國産) 목재부후균류(木材腐朽菌類)의 분포상(分布相)에 대한 연구(硏究) (I) -자낭균류(子囊菌類) 목이류(木耳類)의 분포(分布)에 대하여-)

  • Jung, Hack-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 1993
  • The fungal flora of Korean wood-rotting fungi were studied for two years from March of 1990 to February of 1992. Fresh fungi were collected from national parks, some local areas, and several islands throughout the country. Fleshy ascomycetes and jelly fungi were examined through identification and literature studies. They were counted 52 species, 1 subspecies, and 1 forma among which, Hypoxylon and Femsjonia were confirmed as unrecorded genera and Hypoxylon punctulatum, Exidia recisa, and Femsjonia pezizaeformis as unrecorded species to Korea and are registered here with descriptions.

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Identification of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi from Pinus densiflora Seedlings at an Abandoned Coal Mining Spoils

  • Park, Sang-Hyeon;Jeong, Hyeon-Suk;Lee, Yoo-Mee;Eom, Ahn-Heum;Lee, Chang-Seok
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to identify native ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi colonizing Pinus densiflora for revegetation of abandoned coal mines in Korea. Seedlings of P. densiflora growing on coal mining spoils of a study site in Samcheok were collected. ECM roots were observed under stereomicroscope and their DNA were extracted from each root tip for a seedling for molecular identification. A PCR primer pair specific to fungi, ITS1F and ITS4, was used to amplify fungal DNA. Restriction enzymes, Alul and Hinfl were used for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Combined with RFLP profiles and sequence analysis, total twenty one taxa were identified from the ECM root tips. Basidiomycetous fungi including Thelephoraceae, Pezizales, Laccaria, Pisolithus and Ascomycetous fungi including ericoid mycorrhizal fungi were identified from this study. Results showed that the most frequently found in the study sites was a species in Thelephoraceae. A possible use of ECM fungi identified in this study for the revegetation of abandoned coal mines with P. densiflora was discussed.

Differences among Endophytic Fungal Communities Isolated from the Roots of Cephalanthera longibracteata Collected from Different Sites in Korea

  • Lee, Bong-Hyung;Kwon, Woo-Jin;Kim, Jin-Young;Park, Jin-Seo;Eom, Ahn-Heum
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.312-317
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    • 2017
  • Orchidaceous plants have symbiotic relationships with endophytic fungi, including mycorrhizal fungi, which play important roles in the seed germination and growth of the host plants. In this study, endophytic fungal communities isolated from the roots of Cephalanthera longibracteata collected from three different sites in Korea were analyzed, and it was determined whether fungal communities were preferentially correlated with the sites. The fungal isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA. In total, 30 species of endophytic fungi, including two species of mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the genus Tulasnella, were identified. Leptodontidium orchidicola showed the highest frequency and was isolated from all root samples. Species diversity and richness were not significantly different among sites. However, the community structure of the endophytic fungi significantly differed among sites, suggesting that the site characteristics affected the community composition of the endophytic fungi colonizing the roots of C. longibracteata. Our findings will aid in developing methods involving the use of symbiotic fungi for orchid conservation and restoration in native habitats.

Frequency of Blue Staining Fungi isolated from Pine Trees of Experimental Forests in Kangwon National University and Its Resistance to Fungicide, Woodguard

  • Pashenova, Natalia;Lee, Jong Kyu;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate the frequency of blue staining fungal species collected from pine trees, Experimental Forests of Kangwon National University in Korea based on their morphological characteristics. In addition the tolerance to fungicide, Woodguard, was assessed to get basic knowledges for preventing blue stain of wood. Totally Leptographium-type fungi were dominated by 79.3% among Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with scolityd bark beetles in pine trees. Leptographium-type Ds-isolates which have unusual morphology were collected as frequency of 17.0%. The most distinct differeneces of these Ds-isolates from L. procerum were the presence of roughened hyphae and flask-shaped conidiophores that have never been mentioned formerly for L. procerum, but since these Ds-isolates formed black concentric rings being a property of L. procerum, the Df-isolates were characterized as Leptographium-type fungi, which are the most common species with the highest frequency by 33.2% in this particular area. According to our experimental results, Leptographium-type Ds- and Df-isolates were very resistant to fungicide, Woodguard, therefore it was suggested that a new method for wood protection from the blue staining fungi should be developed. Exact identification of blue staining isolates collected from pine trees is keep going.