• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fungi

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Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

  • Magan, Naresh;Fragoeiro, Silvia;Bastos, Catarina
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.238-248
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    • 2010
  • This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered.

Identification of Fungus from Dog and Diagnosis using PCR (개에서 분리한 진균의 동정과 PCR을 이용한 진단)

  • 장화석;문영찬;이상원;김휘율;김태종
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to examine the mycological features of canine skin. A total of 50 dogs with skin lesions were examined for dermatology from October, 2000 to April, 2001. The isolation rates of dermatophytes, yeast, filamentous fungi and superficial fungi were 36.4%, 13.5%, 35.3% and 13.6%. The dermatophytes isolated in dogs were Microsporum canins and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were 75% and 25%. The yeast and superficial fungi isolated in dogs were Candida albicans, Rhodntorula minnata, Candida ceferrii and Malassezia spp. were 16.7%. 16.7%, 16.7% and 50%. The filamentous fungi by Aspergillus funigatus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp., Alternaria spp. were 12.5%, 12.5%, 50%, and 25%. In determine if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be applied for diagnosis of dermatophytes, yeast and filamentous fungi, control and clinical samples were tested. The size of specific PCR product in agarose gel was 340 bp for dermatophytes and 210 bp for yeast and filamentous fungi, respectively.

Antifungal Activity of Some Essential Oils and Their Major Constituents on 3 Plant Pathogenic Fungi (식물병원성 곰팡이에 대한 몇 가지 식물정유 및 주성분의 성장억제 효과)

  • Cho Hyun Ji;Shin Dongill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1003-1008
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    • 2004
  • 11 plant essential oils are screened in vitro for their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, which are causative agents of serious plant diseases. The radial growth of the test fungi were reduced in response to the oils. Among them, the essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum inhibited 3 tested fungi growth, strongly, followed by those of oregano and thyme. The major constituents of the three essential oils, cinnaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol were tested for their effects on the fungi. From the results obtained, cinnamaldehyde, the major constituents of C. zeylanicum bark esential oil, has potential to be developed as a biopesticide for controlling phytopathogenic fungi causing serious damages on the important crops cultivated in Korea.

Evaluation of White-rot Fungi for Biopulping of Wood

  • Kang, Kyu-Young;Sung, Jung-Suk;Kim, Dae-Young
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 2007
  • Ergosterol involves in fungal cell growth as a major component in fungal cell membranes. It can be an indicator that shows the fungal activity, and its content depends on the fungal strains, culture, growth conditions and so on. In this study, fungal activities and growth patterns of three white-rot fungi strains isolated in Korea were evaluated by determination of ergosterol contents during the incubation. Wood decay test and chemical analyses of wood were also performed to verify the relationship between fungal activity and wood degrading capacity of white-rot fungi for 60 days. In the results of experiments, it is considered that the test strains selectively degrade large amount of lignin in wood at the early stage of decay. Especially, Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed the best capability on selective degradation of lignin among the test fungi. It is suggested that the determination of ergosterol content in the fungal culture during the incubation is the simple and effective screening method of white-rot fungi for the application to biopulping of wood.

Evaluation of Anti Fungal Efficacy on Different Formaldehyde Level of Wood-Based Composite Panels (목질판상제품의 포름알데히드 방출등급과 항균성 평가)

  • Son, Dong Won;Park, Sang-Bum
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.257-262
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the susceptibility of wood-based composite panels exposed to mould and sap-stain fungi. Five wood deterioration fungi (three mould fungi, two sap stain fungi) were inoculated into two types of commercial wood-based composite panels (medium density fiberboard and particleboard), which have three class of formaldehyde emission. All wood-based composite panels were more or less susceptible to mould and sap stain fungi. The attacking mode of the fungi was highly dependent on formaldehyde emission. This study indicates that all wood-based composite panels, specially low formaldehyde emission class panels should be considered to prevent fungal deterioration when they are used for exterior and humid interior applications.

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Cultural Characteristics of Korean Ectomycorrhizal Fungi (한국산 외생균근균의 배양 특성)

  • Jeon, Sung-Min;Ka, Kang-Hyeon
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2015
  • Many ectomycorrhizal fungi provide delicious foods for humans as symbiotic fungi forming ectomycorrhizas on roots of trees. Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI) is focused on studying the pure culture, conservation, and fundamental characteristics of ectomycorrhizal fungi as well as their artificial cultivation. In this review, we described the cultural characteristics of many ectomycorrhizal fungi that are preserved in the cold room of KFRI. The aim of this article is to provide basic information that will be useful in investigating good forest resources for any researchers who are interested in this topic.

Isolation and Identification of Postharvest Spoilage Fungi from Mulberry Fruit in Korea

  • Kwon, O-Chul;Ju, Wan-Taek;Kim, Hyun-Bok;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Kim, Yong-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Spoilage fungi can reduce the shelf life of fresh fruits and cause economic losses by lowering quality. Especially, mulberry fruits have high sensitivity to fungal attack due to their high water content (> 70%) and soft texture. In addition, the surface of these fruits is prone to damage during harvesting and postharvest handling. However, any study on postharvest spoilage fungi in mulberry fruit has not been reported in Korea. This study aimed to examine the spoilage fungi occurring in mulberry fruits during storage after harvest. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we isolated postharvest spoilage fungi from mulberry fruits stored in refrigerator (fresh fruits) and deep-freezer (frozen fruits) and identified them. In the phylogenetic analysis based on comparisons of the ITS rDNA sequences, the 18 spoilage fungi isolated from mulberry fruits and the 25 reference sequences were largely divided into seven groups that were subsequently verified by high bootstrap analysis of 73 to 100. Alternaria spp. including A. alternate and A. tenuissima, were the most frequently isolated fungi among the spoilage isolates: its occurrence was the highest among the 18 isolates (38.9%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will be helpful for increasing the shelf life of mulberry fruits through the application of appropriate control measures against infection by spoilage fungi during storage.

Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol by Various White Rot Fungi (수질분해균(水質分解菌)에 의한 Pentachlorophenol의 미생물분해(微生物分解))

  • Choi, In-Gyu;Ahn, Sye-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 1998
  • In this research, 7 species of white rot fungi were used for determining the resistance against pentachlorophenol (PCP). Three fungi with good PCP resistance were selected for evaluating the biodegradability, and biodegradation mechanism by HPLC and GC/MS spectrometry. Among 7 fungi, there were significant differences on PCP resistance on 4 different PCP concentrations. In the concentrations of 50 and 100ppm ($\mu$g of PCP per g of 2% malt extract agar), most fungi were easily able to grow, and well suited to newly PCP-added condition, but in that of more than 250ppm, the mycelia growths of Ganoderma lucidum 20435, G. lucidum 20432, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Daldinia concentrica were significantly inhibited or even stopped by the addition of PCP to the culture. However, Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Inonotus cuticularis still kept growing at 250ppm, indicating the potential utilization of wood rot fungi to high concentrated PCP biodegradation. Particularly, P. chrysosporium even showed very rapid growth rate at more than 500ppm of PCP concentration. Three selected fungi based on the above results showed an excellent biodegradability against PCP. P. chrysosporium degraded PCP up to 84% on the first day of incubation, and during 7 days, most of added PCP were degraded. T. versicolor also showed more than 90% of biodegradability at 7th day, and even though the initial stage of degradation was very slow, I. cuticularis has been approached to 90% at 21 st day after incubation with dense growing pattern of mycelia. Therefore, the PCP biodegradability was definitely dependent on the rapid suitability of fungi to newly PCP-added condition. In addition, the PCP biodegradation by filtrates of P. chrysosporium, T. versicolor, and I. cuticularis was very minimal or limited, suggesting that the extracellular enzyme system may be not so significantly related to the PCP biodegradation. Among the biodegradation metabolites of PCP, the most abundant one was pentachloroanisole which resulted in a little weaker toxicity than PCP, and others were tetrachlorophenol, tetrachloro-hydroquinone, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid, suggesting that PCP may be biodegraded by several sequential reactions such as methylation, radical-induced oxidation, dechlorination, and hydroxylation.

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Safety Evaluation of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Industrial Doenjang Koji

  • Lee, Jin Hee;Jo, Eun Hye;Hong, Eun Jin;Kim, Kyung Min;Lee, Inhyung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1397-1404
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    • 2014
  • A few starters have been developed and used for doenjang fermentation but often without safety evaluation. Filamentous fungi were isolated from industrial doenjang koji, and their potential for mycotoxin production was evaluated. Two fungi were isolated; one was more dominantly present (90%). Both greenish (SNU-G) and whitish (SNU-W) fungi showed 97% and 95% internal transcribed spacer sequence identities to Aspergillus oryzae/flavus, respectively. However, the SmaI digestion pattern of their genomic DNA suggested that both belong to A. oryzae. Moreover, both fungi had morphological characteristics similar to that of A. oryzae. SNU-G and SNU-W did not form sclerotia, which is a typical characteristic of A. oryzae. Therefore, both fungi were identified to be A. oryzae. In aflatoxin gene cluster analysis, both fungi had norB-cypA genes similar to that of A. oryzae. Consistent with this, aflatoxins were not detected in SNU-G and SNU-W using ammonia vapor, TLC, and HPLC analyses. Both fungi seemed to have a whole cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) gene cluster based on PCR of the maoA, dmaT, and pks-nrps genes, which are key genes for CPA biosynthesis. However, CPA was not detected in TLC and HPLC analyses. Therefore, both fungi seem to be safe to use as doenjang koji starters and may be suitable fungal candidates for further development of starters for traditional doenjang fermentation.

Five New Wood Decay Fungi (Polyporales and Hymenochaetales) in Korea

  • Kim, Nam Kyu;Park, Jae Young;Park, Myung Soo;Lee, Hyun;Cho, Hae Jin;Eimes, John A.;Kim, Changmu;Lim, Young Woon
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.146-154
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    • 2016
  • The wood decay fungi are a diverse taxonomic group that plays a pivotal role in forest carbon cycling. Wood decay fungi use various enzymatic pathways to digest dead or living wood in order to obtain carbon and other nutrients and these enzymatic systems have been exploited for both industrial and medical applications. Over 600 wood decay fungi species have been described in Korea; however, the recent application of molecular markers has dramatically altered the taxonomy of many of these wood decay fungi at both the genus and species levels. By combining molecular methods, specifically sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, with traditional morphological characters, this study identified five new species records for Korea in five genera: Aurantiporus, Favolus, Neofavolus, Loweomyces, and Hymenochaetopsis. Three of these genera (Aurantiporus, Favolus, and Loweomyces) were previously unknown in Korea. The relatively simple morphology of the wood decay fungi often leads to ambiguous taxonomic assignment. Therefore, molecular markers are a necessary component of any taxonomic or evolutionary study of wood decay fungi. Our study highlights the need for a more robust and multifaceted approach in investigating new wood decay fungi in Korea.