• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fungi

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Fungi Colonizing Sapwood of Japanese Red Pine Logs in Storage

  • Kim, Jae-Jin;Ra, Jong-Bum;Son, Dae-Sun;Kim, Gyu-Hyeok
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 2001
  • The Korean sawmills have recently recognized the importance of prevention of fungal discoloration due to increased losses in revenue. Before establishing integrated control strategies of fungal discoloration, more complete knowledge about causal organisms is needed. As a first step, we initiated a through survey of fungi colonizing commercially important softwood(Pinus dens flora, Pinus koraiensis, and Pinus radiata) logs and lumber in Korea. In this paper we report results obtained from Japanese red pine(Pinus densiflora) log study. In summer 2000, fungi were isolated from Japanese red pine logs in storage, and identified based on their cultural and morphological characteristics. A total of 595 fungi were isolated, representing 21 genera and 30 species. Mold fungi, mostly Trichoderma species, were the most frequently isolating fungi, representing more than half of all isolates. Dematiaceous fungi represented approximately one fifth of the isolates, and Rhinocladiella atorvirens was the most abundant in all samples. Opiostoma species represented 7% of all isolates from cores planted on malt extract agar(MEA) and the incidence of these species doubled with the addition of streptomycin and cycloheximide to MEA. The results indicate that Japanese red pine sapwood is susceptible to colonization by a variety of fungal species. As a result, control strategies that concentrate on one fungus may have limited success because of interference from competing flora.

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A Review of Orchid Mycorrhizae in Korea

  • Lee, Sang-Sun
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2002
  • Orchids are evolutionally known to be the most advanced plants in the order Liliales, and comprise approximately 1,000 genera and 35,000 species world-wide. In Korea, more than 110 species of Orchidaceae have been reported to be cultivated or to be collected in the wild. Orchids aye mostly dependant on orchid mycorrhizae(OM) throughout or in part of their life cycle. The OM endomycorrhizae belonging to basidiomycetes or rarley ascomycetes are needed for orchid seed germination. Various fungi, including plant pathogenic, antagonistic and symbiotic fungi, were isolated from the roots of orchid native to Korea. The OM fungi collected from the roots of Cymbidium goeringii were three species of Rhizoctonia namely, R. repens (anamorph state of Tulsanella repens), R. endophytica (Ceratobasidium cornigerum), and an unidentified species (possibly an anamorph of T. calospora). These symbiotic fungi induced peloton in the cortical cells of orchid roots, and differed biologically and in 18s rDNA sequences from plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia species. Also, the mycorrhyzal fungi enhanced the orchid root absorption of nitrogen sources and minerals from the soil. The activity of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae in the roots caused prevention from pathogenic fungi. In nature, the peloton is observed in the cortical cells of Cymbidium goeriingii roots, indicating mycorrhizal colonization in the native orchid roots. On the other hand, pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium and/or Rhizoctonia species are mostly isolated from commercial orchid plants. These suggest that application of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi should be needed for orchid cultivation in nurseries and at the time of transplanting.

Assessment of Airborne Fungi Concentrations in Subway Stations in Seoul, Korea (서울시 일부 지하철 역사 내 공기 중 진균 농도에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Jun-Ho;Paik, Nam-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.478-485
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to assess airborne fungi concentrations during fall in eight subway stations in Seoul, Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate appropriate culture media and evaluate factors affecting airborne fungi concentrations. Results indicated that airborne fungi concentrations showed log-normal distribution. Thus, geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were calculated. The GM of airborne fungi concentrations cultured on malt extract agar (MEA) media was 466 $cfu/m^3$ (GSD 3.12; Range 113~4,172 $cfu/m^3$) and the GM of concentrations cultured on DG18 media was 242 $cfu/m^3$ (GSD 4.75; Range 49~6,093 $cfu/m^3$). Both of GM values exceeded 150 $cfu/m^3$, the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO). There was no significant difference between two fungi concentrations cultured on MEA and DG18 media, respectively. Two factors, such as relative humidity and depths of subway stations were significantly related to airborne fungi concentrations. It is recommended that special consideration should be given to deeper subway stations for improvement of indoor air quality.

Antifungal Metabolisms of Streptomyces rimosus against Sapstain and Mold Fungi(I) -Antifungal Efficacy of Secondary Metabolites- (목재변색균(木材變色菌) 및 표면오염균류(表面汚染菌類)에 대(對)한 Streptomyces rimosus의 항균대사(抗菌代謝) (I) -2차(次) 대사물질(代謝物質)의 항균효능(抗菌效能)-)

  • Kang, Kyu-Young;Lee, Dong-Heub;Oh, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of metabolites produced form Streptomyces rimosus in controlling the growth of sapwood - inhabiting fungi. In order to carry out this task, the following specific fungi were tested : sapstain fungi - Ceratocystis pilifera, Ceratocystis piceae, and Aureobasidium pullulans ; mold fungi - Trichoderma hazianum, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium cirtrinum, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the tests, the following observations can be drawn. 1. The conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi was completely inhibited leaving a clear zone around the paper disc treated with metabolites. The best inhibition was observed in A. pullulans plate and the least in T. viride. 2. Concentration of SB medium for the production of metabolites from St, rimosus affected antifungal activity of metabolites against sapwood - inhabiting fungi. Metabolites prepared from 1/3${\times}$SB medium showed the best activity and the least activity was observed in metabolites form 1/4${\times}$medium. 3. in vivo and in vitro test using wood blocks, treatment of pine sapwood blocks with metabolites also inhibited conidial germination and thus prevented discoloration. 4. Treatment with metabolites did not change the macroscopic structure of wood and did not cause the discoloration of the surface of wood by pigments produced form St. rimosus. In conclusion the results of this study indicate that antifungal metabloites of St, rimosus could be used for the biological control of sapstain and mold fungi.

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Characteristics of the Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi in Traditionally Fermented Korean Soybean Foodstuffs (전통 대두발효식품 중에 존재하는 Ochratoxin A 생성균주의 특성)

  • Kang, Sung-Chul;Shin, Heuyn-Kil;Kim, Jong-Bae;Kim, Chang-Han;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.572-577
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    • 1991
  • Fermented Korean soybean foodstuffs(12 samples of meju, 28 samples of doenjang and 28 samples of kanjang) which collected nation wide in Korea, were used to isolate of fungi. And the fungi producing ochratoxin A(OA) among isolated fungi were identified. Of total 222 fungi isolated in each samples, the production rate of OA was 17.7%(39/222). Four fungi out of 39 isolates which production OA showed a higher amount of ochratoxin A. From these results, four kinds of fungi producing large quantities of OA were Penicillium spp., Phialotubus microsporus, Eupenicillium lapidosum, and Paecilomyces variotti, respectively. Four fungi showed the optimum growth at water activity($a_{w}$) of 0.99, but production of OA was almost inhibited at $a_{w}$, of 0.85. Furthermore, three fungi except P. variotti showed the optimum growth at $30^{\circ}C$, while OA production inhibited at same temperature. The optimal pH for toxin production except P. variotti was 6.5. Also, toxin production was not greatly influenced by pH.

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Phyllosphere and Phylloplane Fungi of Banana Cultivated in Upper Egypt and their Cellulolytic Ability

  • El-Said, A.H.M.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2001
  • Seventy-three species and five varieties belonging to 36 genera were collected from leaf surfaces of banana plants on glucose and cellulose-Czapek's agar at $28^{\circ}C$. The results obtained from leaf surfaces(phyllosphere and phylloplane) were basically similar on the two types of media and the most common fungi were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Cochliobolus, Curvularia, Gibberella, Memnoniella, Mycosphaerella, Setosphaeria and Stachybotrys. The monthly counts of these fungi were irregularly fluctuated giving maxima at various months. Chaetomium globosum was in the top of fungi in producing both exo- and endo-$\beta$-l,4-glucanases among the 34 tested isolates obtained from leaves(phylloplane) on cellulose-Czapek's agar. Maximum production of these enzymes by C. globosum was 6 and 8 days after incubation at $25^{\circ}C$ with culture medium containing wheat bran as a carbon source and peptone as a nitrogen source and initially adjusted to pH 6.

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Antifungal Activity of Chaerophylline and Berberine Hydroxide Isolated from Corydalis Species

  • Tuli, Leepika;Jha, R.N.;Pandey, V.B.;Singh, U.P.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.100-103
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    • 2001
  • Chaerophylline and berberine hydroxide, both being alkaloids, isolated from Corydalis chaerophylla and C. longipes respectively were assayed against spore germination of some fungi, e.g. Alternaria solani, A. brassicola, A. brassicicola, Helminthosporium penniseti, Helminthosporium sp., Heterosporium sp., Curvularia penniseti, C. maculens and C. palliscens. While chaerophylline inhibited spore germination of most of the fungi at 1000 ppm, being also effective at 50, 100, 200 and 500 ppm, berberine hydroxide was significantly effective at much lower concentration, i.e., 400 ppm against several fungi. This compound was also effective against some fungi at 50, 100, 150, 200 ppm. There was 100% inhibition of spore germination in several fungi at highest concentration of both the compounds. Some of the fungi showed similar results even at lower concentrations.

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The Role of Rumen Fungi in Fibre Digestion - Review -

  • Ho, Y.W.;Abdullah, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.104-112
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    • 1999
  • Since the anaerobic rumen fungi were discovered in the rumen of a sheep over two decades ago, they have been reported in a wide range of herbivores fud on high fibre diets. The extensive colonisation and degradation of fibrous plant tissues by the fungi suggest that they have a role in fibre digestion. All rumen fungi studied so far are fibrolytic. They produce a range of hydrolytic enzymes, which include the cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases and phenolic acid esterases, to enable them to invade and degrade the lignocellulosic plant tissues. Although rumen fungi may not seem to be essential to general rumen function since they may be absent in animals fed on low fibre diets, they, nevertheless, could contribute to the digestion of high-fibre poor-quality forages.

Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Platypus koryoensis, the Insect Vector of Oak Wilt Disease in Korea

  • Suh, Dong-Yeon;Hyun, Min-Woo;Kim, Seong-Hwan;Seo, Sang-Tae;Kim, Kyung-Hee
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.313-316
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    • 2011
  • The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, is a serious pest of oak trees in Korea. In this study we investigated filamentous fungi present in the body of the beetle. Fourteen genera of filamentous fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were isolated. Among the isolated fungi, some were able to produce wood degrading enzymes. This is first report of fungi associated with P. koryoensis.

Endophytic Fungi as a Source of Biofuel Precursors

  • Santos-Fo, Florisvaldo C.;Fill, Taicia Pacheco;Nakamura, Joanita;Monteiro, Marcos Roberto;Rodrigues-Fo, Edson
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.728-733
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    • 2011
  • Endophytic fungi, isolated from a number of different species of tropical plants, were investigated for lipid biodiesel precursor production. The extracts produced from liquid cultures of these fungi were subjected to acidcatalyzed transesterification reactions with methanol producing methyl esters and then analyzed through chromatographic (GC-FID) and spectrometric techniques (MS, NMR $^1H$). The European Standard Method, EN 14103, was used for the quantification of methyl esters extracted from the fungi of the species and genera studied. Xylariaceous fungi exhibited the highest concentrations of methyl esters (91%), and hence may be a promising source for biofuel.