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Study on Characteristics of Chemical Properties and Microbial Flora of Organic Farming Soil in Korea (유기농 토양의 화학적 특성 및 미생물상 연구)

  • Park, Kwang-Lai;Suga, Yuko;Hong, Seung-Gil;Lee, Chorong;Ahn, Minsil;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Hashimoto, Tomoyoshi
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this study was to investigate the difference between organic-farming and conventional-farming soils relatives to soil chemical properties and microbial flora. Fifteen soil sampling sites were chosen from the certified organic upland farm, considered with its location, crop and application of organic compost types. Soil chemical properties were analyzed by standard methods established by National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration. For the soil chemical properties, the values of pH were ranged from 4.5 to 7.3. The values of electrical conductivity (EC) in the sampling sites were below 2 dS/m of convention cultivation soil. For analyzing the microbial flora, the bacillus(16S rDNA) and cladothricosis(18S rDNA) were analyzed by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) in the soil of 15 sampling sites. Cluster analysis of biodiversity index was performed by using pattern of DGGE. DGGE patterns and clustering analysis of bacterial DNA from soil extracts revealed that the bacterial community was differentiated between less than 5 years and more than 5 years depending on the cultivation history. But there was no consistent tendency between cultivation history and regional trend in the case of molds. Therefore, it would be very effective to analyze bacterial clusters of organically cultivated soils in long - term cultivated soil for more than 5 years.

Disinfection of Fusarium-infected Rice Seeds by Prochloraz and Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah;Lee, Young-yi;Lee, Ho-sun;Sung, Jung-sook;Lee, Seokyoung
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.25-25
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    • 2014
  • Three species of Fusarium, F. fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, are known to be associated with bakanae disease of rice [1, 2]. F. fujikuroi infects rice flowers and survive in endosperm and embryo of the seeds. Infected seed is an important source of primary inoculum of pathogens [3]. Seeds of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Boramchan) collected from bakanae-infected field were found to be 96% infected with Fusarium sp., 52% with F. fujikuroi, 42% with F. verticillioides, and 12% with F. proliferatum as determined by incubation method and species-specific PCR assays. F. fujikuroi was detected at lemma/palea, endosperm and embryo whereas F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were recovered only from lemma/palea by means of component plating test. Seed disinfection methods have been developed to control bakanae disease and prochloraz has been most widely used for rice seeds. Two chemicals formulated with prochloraz (PC 1) and prochloraz + hexaconazole (PC 2) that inhibit biosynthesis of ergosterol strongly reduced the incidence of Fusarium spp. on selective media to 4.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Disease symptoms of rice seedlings in nursery soil were alleviated by chemical treatment; seedlings with elongated leaves or wide angle between leaf and stem were strikingly reduced from 15.6 to 3.2% (PC 1) and 0 (PC 2), stem rots were reduced from 56.9 to 26.2% (PC 1) and 32.1% (PC 2), and normal seedling increased from 0.4 to 13.3% (PC 2). Prochloraz has some disadvantages and risks such as the occurrence of tolerant pathogens [4] and effects on the sterol synthesis in animals and humans [5]. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop new disinfection method that do not induce fungal tolerance and are safe to humans and animals. Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$), that is less toxic, produces no harmful byproducts, and has high oxidizing power, has been reported to be effective at disinfection of several phytopathogenic fungi including Colletotrichum spp. and Alternaria spp. [6]. Gaseous $ClO_2$ applied to rice seeds at a concentration of 20 ppm strongly suppressed mycelial growth of Fusarium fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. The incidence of Fusarium spp. in dry seed with 8.7% seed moisture content (SMC) tended to decrease as the concentration of $ClO_2$ increased from 20 to 40 ppm. Applying 40 ppm $ClO_2$ at 90% relative humidity, incidence was reduced to 5.3% and resulted in significant reduction of disease symptoms on MS media. In nursery soil, stem rot was reduced from 56.9 to 15.4% and the number of normal seedlings increased from 0.4 to 25.5%. With water-soaked seeds (33.1% SMC) holding moisture in the endosperm and embryo, the effectiveness of disinfection using $ClO_2$ increased, even when treated with only 20 ppm for four hours. This suggests that moisture was a key element for action of $ClO_2$. Removal of the palea and lemma from seeds significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium spp. to 3.0%. Seed germination appeared to decrease slightly by water-soaking at $30^{\circ}C$ because of increased SMC and by physical damage of embryos from hulling. These results indicate that the use of gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective as a means to disinfect rice seeds infected with Fusarium spp. and that moisture around the pathogens in the seed was an important factor for the action of $ClO_2$. Further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the best conditions for complete disinfection of Fusarium spp. that infect deep site of rice seeds.

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Characteristics of Suillus bovinus fairy rings and genets associated with thinning intensity in Pinus densiflora forests (소나무림에서 간벌강도에 따른 황소비단그물버섯(Suillus bovinus)의 균환과 genet 특성)

  • Park, Yong-Woo;Lee, Hwa-Yong;Koo, Chang-Duck
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2020
  • To study the fairy ring and genet characteristics of Suillus bovinus based on thinning intensity in Pinus densiflora forests, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis was performed on the fruiting bodies of the plant. In pine wood production forests, the thinning strengths applied were 34%, 45%, and 60%. As a result, the number of fruiting bodies in the 34% treatment area was 104, which was higher than that in the other treatment areas. In the 34% treatment area, fruiting bodies occurred in a circular shape, within a diameter of approximately 5 meters (m) of the trees. In the 45% treatment area, the fruiting bodies were randomly distributed between 6 to 7 m from the trees, while in the 60% treatment, fruiting bodies occurred in a narrow oval shape, 6 m from the trees. In the control area, two fruiting bodies were present around the root collar. Hybridity was confirmed in the SSR markers of Sb-CA1 and Sb-CA3. The fruiting bodies in the 34% treatment area had a He / Ho value lower than that in the 60% treatment area. In fruiting bodies of the 34% treatment area, a total of 20 genets were identified, with an average size of 14±11 ㎡; 60% of genets were formed by a single fruiting body. In fruiting bodies of the 45% treatment area, a total of 6 genets were identified and the average size was 11±12 ㎡; 50% of genets were formed by a single fruiting body. In fruiting bodies of the 60% treatment area, a total of 10 genets were identified, with an average size of 1.1±0.8 ㎡; 70% of genets were formed by a single fruiting body. Thus, the formation ratio of a new genet increases when the thinning intensity is increased.

The Study of Soil Chemical Properties and Soil Bacterial Communities on the Cultivation Systems of Cnidium officinale Makino (일천궁의 연작재배에 따른 토양 이화학성 및 토양세균군집 연구)

  • Kim, Kiyoon;Han, Kyeung Min;Kim, Hyun-Jun;Jeon, Kwon Seok;Kim, Chung Woo;Jung, Chung Ryul
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the soil chemical properties and soil bacterial community of the cropping system for Cnidium officinale Makino. METHODS AND RESULTS: The bacterial community was analyzed for the relative abundance and principal coordinated analysis (PCoA analysis) by using by Illumina Miseq sequencing. The correlation analysis between soil chemical properties and soil bacterial community were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation and DISTLM analysis. Soil bacterial community (phylum and class) showed two distinct clusters consisting of cluster 1 (first cropping) and cluster 2 (continuous cropping) from 2 different cultivation methods of Cnidium officinale Makino. PCoA and DISTLM analyses showed that soil pH and Ca significantly affected soil bacterial community in cultivation area of Cnidium officinale Makino. In addition, Spearman's rank correlation showed significant correlation between relative abundance (Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) and soil factors (soil pH and Ca). CONCLUSION: The results of this study were considered to be important for determining the correlation between soil properties and soil bacterial community of the cropping method for Cnidium officinale Makino. Furthermore, the results will be helpful to investigate the cause of continuous cropping injury of the Cnidium officinale Makino by examining the changes of soil properties and soil bacterial communities.

Antifungal Activity by Chitosan-Alginate Complex Beads with Plant Extracts and Bacillus cereus MP-310 (식물추출물과 Bacillus cereus MP-310을 포함한 키토산-알긴산 복합체 비드의 항균활성)

  • Kang, Ha-Rin;Song, Song-Su;Seo, Dong-Jun;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of Chitin and Chitosan
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the antifungal activity of chitosan-alginate complex beads (CABs), CABs combined with Cinnamon extract, Hinoki cypress oil, and Bacillus cereus MP-310 were used as an antifungal agents for four phytopathogens (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1, R. solani AG-2-1, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea). Antifungal activity was measured on four phytopathogens with four different treatments of chitosan-alginate complex beads on pH 3.6: Chitosan-alginate complex beads (CAB), chitosan-Cinnamon extracts-alginate beads (CCAB), chitosan-Hinoki cypress oil-alginate beads (CHAB), and chitosan-B. cereus MP-310 medium-alginate beads (CMAB). Mixtures of CABs combined with Cinnamon extracts, Hinoki cypress oil, and B. cereus medium inhibited mycelial growth of four phytopathogenic fungi on PDA plates. In particular, twenty CABs combined with Cinnamon extract and B. cereus MP-310 medium inhibited strongly by 80% and 79.2% for mycelial growth of R. solani AG-1, respectively, at 2 days after incubation on PDA plates. Antifungal activity was measured with four Type treatments of CABs on pH 5.0: Twenty CABs combined with Cinnamon extracts and B. cereus MP-310 medium inhibited strongly by 29.6% and 32.6% for mycelial growth of R. solani AG-1, respectively, at 2 days after incubation on PDA plates. Relatively, CABs adjusted as pH 3.6 inhibited strongly the mycelial growth of R. solani AG-1. These results suggest that the combination of CABs (CABs-Cinnamon, CABs-Hinoki cypress oil, and CABs-B. cereus MP-310) has a great potential as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the control of phytopathogens.

Studies on the Citric Acid Fermentation with Fungi (Part III) Citric Acid Fermentation with Selected Strains (사상균에 의한 구연산발효에 관한 연구 (제III보) 선정균에 의한 구연산발효)

  • 성낙계;김명찬;심기환;정덕화
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.181-191
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    • 1980
  • For the purpose of studies on the citric acid production, some experiments were carried out with isolated strains. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The optimal culture media of the strain M-80 in surface culture contained 140g of sucrose, 3.0g of (N $H_4$)$_2$S $O_4$, 1.5g of K $H_2$P $O_4$, 0.2g of MgS $O_4$.7$H_2O$, 3.0mg of F $e^{++}$, 1.0mg of Z $n^{++}$, 0.5N HCI to a pH of 5.0 and distilled water to 1.0 liter; and that of the strain M-315 in surface culture contained 140g of sucrose, 2.0g of N $H_4$N $O_3$, 1.0g of K $H_2$P $O_4$, 0.25g of MgS $O_4$. 7$H_2O$, 2.0mg of F $e^{++}$, 2.0mg of Z $n^{++}$, 0.05mg of C $u^{++}$, 0.5N HCI to a pH of 4.5 and distilled water to 1.0 liter. While that of the strain M-315 in submerged culture contained 140g of sucrose, 2.5g of N $H_4$N $O_3$, 1.5g of K $H_2$P $O_4$, 0.3g of MgS $O_4$. 7$H_2O$, 3.0mg of F $e^{++}$, 0.1mg of C $u^{++}$, 0.5N HCI to a pH of 4.5 and distilled water to 1.0 liter. The optimal temperature and size of inoculum were mostly 28-3$0^{\circ}C$, 10$^{7}$ -10$^{8}$ spores/50ml, respectively. 2) Through the course of citric acid production, the growth of strains had nearly been completed, pH value was rapidly decreased below 2.0 and the content of sugar was also reduced, while the accumulation of citric acid in media was remarkably begun in about 3-4 days. The yields of citric acid generally reached the maximum level in 8-10 days in surface or submerged fermentation process. 3) Methanol was effective citric acid production when they were added to fermentation media. In the case of surface culture, by addition of 2% (strain M-80), 3% (strain M-315), the yields of citric acid was increased 6.5%, 20.6%, respectively and 5.0% yield was increased by addition of 3% methanol in submerged culture media of the strain M-315. 4) Chromatography analysis of culture broth after fermentation under optimal culture conditions detected that the majority of acid in media was citric acid. 72.1mg/ml, 98.1mg/ml, of citric acid were determined in surface culture media by strains of M-80, M-315, and 59.8 mg/ml of citric acid was contained in the submerged culture media by the strain M-315. strain M-315.

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Studies on the Germination Characters of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Seed (고려인삼종자(高麗人蔘種子)의 발아특성(發芽特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Won, Jun Yeon;Jo, Jae Seong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.47-68
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    • 1988
  • This study was conducted to define the optimal conditions for embryo growth during seed stratification and for breaking dormancy as well as seed germination of stratified ginseng seeds. The experiments were also carried out to detect some materials which were expected to induce seed dormancy in the ginseng seeds. The results summarized as follows; 1. The growth of embryo during seed stratification was significantly inhibited by the existence of endocarp. The fastest embryo growth was resulted at $15^{\circ}C$ and an estimated optimal temperature for embryo growth was about $18^{\circ}C$. 2. There was no significant difference between the embryo growth and germination ratio of ginseng seeds which were sown in seed bed at Aug-5 without seed stratification and that of artificial seed stratification. 3. Embryo growth and germination ratio was significantly inhibited by high temperature treatment at $30^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours or respiration stress by immersing seeds in water for 10 days or more. 4. When the seed stratification was started at $10^{\circ}C$, growth of embryo in the ginseng seeds were almost stopped. But, when the seeds were stratified first at $20^{\circ}C$ for 50 days and next at $10^{\circ}C$ for 50 days, the embryo growth was significantly promoted compared with the embryo growth in the seeds which were stratified at $20^{\circ}C$ for 100 days. 5. The successive embryo growth after seed stratification was significantly accelerated at $10^{\circ}C$ but the seeds chilled at $5^{\circ}C$ for 100 days were resulted in the highest germination ratio as well as the shortest days for germination. 6. The successive embryo growth during chilling treatment and seed germination were significantly inhibited by immersing seeds in water just before chilling treatment or during chilling treatment and by interruption of chilling treatment with raising temperature to $20^{\circ}C$ for 20 days during chilling treatment. 7. The germination ratio of ginseng seeds which finished chilling treatment was highest at $10^{\circ}C$ and 62.5% was the estimated soil moisture for the best germination of ginseng seeds. The ginseng seeds were found to require high amount of oxygen for germination. 8. Only water soluble material in homogenized ginseng seeds showed a significant inhibiting effect on the seed germination of sesame, millet and soybean. Water soluble material dissolved from undehisced ginseng seeds showed stronger inhibiting effect on the seedling growth of sesame than material from dehisced ginseng seeds. Extraction temperature did not influence the inhibiting effect of the material dissolved from ginseng seeds on the seedling growth of sesame. 9. Water soluble materials dissolved from the berry pulps, leaves, fresh roots and dried roots also showed a significant inhibiting effect on the seedling growth of sesame. 10. Water soluble materials dissolved from the ginseng seeds, leaves and fresh roots showed a significant inhibiting effect on the germination of true fungi and the growth of spawn but the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria was not. 11. Among the water soluble materials dissolved from ginseng seeds, the materials of low molecular weight less than 3,000 were resulted a significant inhibiting effect on the seedling growth of sesame and the materials of high molecular weight also showed an inhibiting effect.

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Studies on a Factor Affecting Composts Maturity During Composting of SWine Manure (돈분 퇴비화 중 부숙도에 미치는 영향인자 구명)

  • Kim, T.I.;Song, J. I.;Yang, C.B.;Kim, M.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.261-272
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate indices affecting composts maturity for swine manure compost produced in a commercial composting facility with air-forced from the bottom. The composting was made of swine manure mixed with puffing rice hull(6: 4) and turned by escalating agitator twice a day. Composting samples were collected periodically during a 45-d composting cycle at that system, showing that indices of Ammonium-N to Nitrate-N ratio were sensitive indicators of composting quality. Pile temperature maintained more than 62$^{\circ}C$ and water contents decreased about 20% for 25days of composting. A great variety and high numbers of aerobic thermophilic heterotropic microbes playing critical roles in stability of composts have been examined in the final composts, sbowing that they were detected $10^8$ to $10^{10}$ $CFUg^{-1}$ in mesophilic bacteria, $10^3$ - $10^4$ in fungi and $10^6$ - $10^8$ in actinomycetes, respectively. The results of this study for detennining a factor affecting compost stability evaluations based on composting steps were as follows; 1. Ammonium-N concentrations were highest at the beginning of composting, reaching approximately 421mg/kg. However Ammonium-N concentrations were lower during curing, reaching approximately l04mg/kg just after 45 day. The ratio between $NH_4-N$ and $NO_3-N$ was above II at the beginning of composting and less than 2 at the final step(45 day). 2. Seed germination Index was dependent upon the compost phytotoxicity and its nutrition. The phytotocity caused the GI to low during the period of active composting(till 25 days of composting time) depending on the value of the undiluted. After 25 days of composting time, the GI was dependent upon compost nutrition. The Gennination index of the final step was calculated at over 80 without regard to treatments. 3. E4: E6 ratio in humic acid of composts was correlatively decreased from 8.86 to 6.76 during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, the E4: E6 was consistently decreased from 6.76 to 4.67($r^2$ of total composting period was 0.95). 4. Water soluble carbon had a tendency to increase from 0.54% to 0.78%during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, it was consistently decreased from 0.78% to 0.42%. Water soluble nitrogen increased from 0.22% to 0.32% during the period of 15 days after initial composting while decreased from 0.32% to 0.21% after 15days of composting. In consequence, the correlation coefficient($r^2$) between water soluble carbon and water soluble nitrogen was 0.12 during the period of active composting mule was 0.50 after 25 days of composting time

Brief Introduction of Research Progresses in Control and Biocontrol of Clubroot Disease in China

  • He, Yueqiu;Wu, Yixin;He, Pengfei;Li, Xinyu
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.45-46
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    • 2015
  • Clubroot disease of crucifers has occurred since 1957. It has spread to the whole China, especially in the southwest and nourtheast where it causes 30-80% loss in some fields. The disease has being expanded in the recent years as seeds are imported and the floating seedling system practices. For its effective control, the Ministry of Agriculture of China set up a program in 2010 and a research team led by Dr. Yueqiu HE, Yunnan Agricultural University. The team includes 20 main reseachers of 11 universities and 5 institutions. After 5 years, the team has made a lot of progresses in disease occurrence regulation, resources collection, resistance identification and breeding, biological agent exploration, formulation, chemicals evaluation, and control strategy. About 1200 collections of local and commercial crucifers were identified in the field and by artificiall inoculation in the laboratories, 10 resistant cultivars were breeded including 7 Chinese cabbages and 3 cabbages. More than 800 antagostic strains were isolated including bacteria, stretomyces and fungi. Around 100 chemicals were evaluated in the field and greenhouse based on its control effect, among them, 6 showed high control effect, especially fluazinam and cyazofamid could control about 80% the disease. However, fluzinam has negative effect on soil microbes. Clubroot disease could not be controlled by bioagents and chemicals once when the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infected its hosts and set up the parasitic relationship. We found the earlier the pathogent infected its host, the severer the disease was. Therefore, early control was the most effective. For Chinese cabbage, all controlling measures should be taken in the early 30 days because the new infection could not cause severe symptom after 30 days of seeding. For example, a biocontrol agent, Bacillus subtilis Strain XF-1 could control the disease 70%-85% averagely when it mixed with seedling substrate and was drenching 3 times after transplanting, i.e. immediately, 7 days, 14 days. XF-1 has been deeply researched in control mechanisms, its genome, and development and application of biocontrol formulate. It could produce antagonistic protein, enzyme, antibiotics and IAA, which promoted rhizogenesis and growth. Its The genome was sequenced by Illumina/Solexa Genome Analyzer to assembled into 20 scaffolds then the gaps between scaffolds were filled by long fragment PCR amplification to obtain complet genmone with 4,061,186 bp in size. The whole genome was found to have 43.8% GC, 108 tandem repeats with an average of 2.65 copies and 84 transposons. The CDSs were predicted as 3,853 in which 112 CDSs were predicted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport and catabolism. Among those, five NRPS/PKS giant gene clusters being responsible for the biosynthesis of polyketide (pksABCDEFHJLMNRS in size 72.9 kb), surfactin(srfABCD, 26.148 kb, bacilysin(bacABCDE 5.903 kb), bacillibactin(dhbABCEF, 11.774 kb) and fengycin(ppsABCDE, 37.799 kb) have high homolgous to fuction confirmed biosynthesis gene in other strain. Moreover, there are many of key regulatory genes for secondary metabolites from XF-1, such as comABPQKX Z, degQ, sfp, yczE, degU, ycxABCD and ywfG. were also predicted. Therefore, XF-1 has potential of biosynthesis for secondary metabolites surfactin, fengycin, bacillibactin, bacilysin and Bacillaene. Thirty two compounds were detected from cell extracts of XF-1 by MALDI-TOF-MS, including one Macrolactin (m/z 441.06), two fusaricidin (m/z 850.493 and 968.515), one circulocin (m/z 852.509), nine surfactin (m/z 1044.656~1102.652), five iturin (m/z 1096.631~1150.57) and forty fengycin (m/z 1449.79~1543.805). The top three compositions types (contening 56.67% of total extract) are surfactin, iturin and fengycin, in which the most abundant is the surfactin type composition 30.37% of total extract and in second place is the fengycin with 23.28% content with rich diversity of chemical structure, and the smallest one is the iturin with 3.02% content. Moreover, the same main compositions were detected in Bacillus sp.355 which is also a good effects biocontol bacterial for controlling the clubroot of crucifer. Wherefore those compounds surfactin, iturin and fengycin maybe the main active compositions of XF-1 against P. brassicae. Twenty one fengycin type compounds were evaluate by LC-ESI-MS/MS with antifungal activities, including fengycin A $C_{16{\sim}C19}$, fengycin B $C_{14{\sim}C17}$, fengycin C $C_{15{\sim}C18}$, fengycin D $C_{15{\sim}C18}$ and fengycin S $C_{15{\sim}C18}$. Furthermore, one novel compound was identified as Dehydroxyfengycin $C_{17}$ according its MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, which molecular weight is 1488.8480 Da and formula $C_{75}H_{116}N_{12}O_{19}$. The fengycin type compounds (FTCPs $250{\mu}g/mL$) were used to treat the resting spores of P. brassicae ($10^7/mL$) by detecting leakage of the cytoplasm components and cell destruction. After 12 h treatment, the absorbencies at 260 nm (A260) and at 280 nm (A280) increased gradually to approaching the maximum of absorbance, accompanying the collapse of P. brassicae resting spores, and nearly no complete cells were observed at 24 h treatment. The results suggested that the cells could be lyzed by the FTCPs of XF-1, and the diversity of FTCPs was mainly attributed to a mechanism of clubroot disease biocontrol. In the five selected medium MOLP, PSA, LB, Landy and LD, the most suitable for growth of strain medium is MOLP, and the least for strains longevity is the Landy sucrose medium. However, the lipopeptide highest yield is in Landy sucrose medium. The lipopeptides in five medium were analyzed with HPLC, and the results showed that lipopeptides component were same, while their contents from B. subtilis XF-1 fermented in five medium were different. We found that it is the lipopeptides content but ingredients of XF-1 could be impacted by medium and lacking of nutrition seems promoting lipopeptides secretion from XF-1. The volatile components with inhibition fungal Cylindrocarpon spp. activity which were collect in sealed vesel were detected with metheds of HS-SPME-GC-MS in eight biocontrol Bacillus species and four positive mutant strains of XF-1 mutagenized with chemical mutagens, respectively. They have same main volatile components including pyrazine, aldehydes, oxazolidinone and sulfide which are composed of 91.62% in XF-1, in which, the most abundant is the pyrazine type composition with 47.03%, and in second place is the aldehydes with 23.84%, and the third place is oxazolidinone with 15.68%, and the smallest ones is the sulfide with 5.07%.

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The Standing Crops and Soil-borne Microfungal Flora of Phyllostachys reticulata in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 왕대나무의 현존량(現存量)과 토양(土壤) 미세균류상(微細菌類相))

  • Kim, Kwan-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1979
  • This paper is to investigate the standing crops and microfungal flora in soil in Phyllostachys reticulata forests in both the Yesan area (A) and the Kwangsan area (B). The stand density of the bamboo revealed 17,250 shoots per ha in area A, and in area B 14,780 shoots which were 16.1% less in number than area A. In respect to the environmental factors between the two areas, the mean temperature during the growth period was $1.5{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ higher in area B than in area A, soil tempeature also was $1{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ higher in area B, and the total quantities of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and organic compounds contained in the soil of area B were also slightly higher than those of area A. In area B the quantities of dried leaf matter, humus, and vegetation in the bamboo forest were also larger than in area A. In addition, five more species of microfungi which playa role in the decomposition of the various organic materials in the bamboo forests were identified in area B: Mortierella elongata, Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium waksmani and Trichoderma lignorum. The atmospheric temperature in the inner portions of the bamboo forests was lower than the outside temperature, but the humidity was higher. The rates of relative illuminance were measured in area A at 4.19%, and in area B at 2.7%. These values revealed that the photosynthetic acitivity in the lower part of the bamboo was lost but it was considered that lower illuminance increased the microfungal activities in the vicinity of the surface soil. Since the productive structure of the bamboo showed that the maximum amount of photosynthesis was located in the upper portion of the bamboo in area B, it was considered to be an effective structure in maintaining the high productivity of the bamboo. The allometric relation between $D^2H$ and dry weight of stems(Ws), branches(Wb) and leaves(Wl) of the bamboo in area A were appoximated by log Ws=0.5262 log $D^2H$+1.9546; log Wb=0.6288 log $D^2H$+1.5723; log Wl=0.5181 log $D^2H$+1.8732, and those of the bamboo in area B were approximated by log Ws=0.5433 log $D^2H$+1.8610; log Wb=0.1630 log $D^2H$+2.3475; log Wl=0.4509 log $D^2H$+2.0041. From the above, the standing crops in area A were measured thus: Ws was 1,128. 83kg; Wb, 689.05kg; Wl, 926.69kg and Wl, 2,744.57kg per 10a. In area B, Ws was 1,206. 66kg; Wb, 679.92kg; Wl, 1,112.51kg and Wt, 2.999kg per l0a. Significant differences from the result of t-test were for $D^2H$ Ws, Wl and Wt between areas A and B. But no significant difference was found for Wb. In order to record as completely as possible the microfungal flora of the areas, every possible means was tried, and 158 strains of fungi were isolated, and of these, the microfungi of 55 species were identified. The dominant species were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium janthinellum, P. commune, Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, A. gigantus, A. fumigatus, Mortierella ramaniana, var. anguliFPora, Mucor hiemalis and Zygorhynchus moelleri. According to the above results, it was revealed that optimum soil, the increases of soil materials, more species of soil microfungi, and the atmospheric temperature during the growth period have made the bamboo flourish and bring more species and larger quantities of vegetation in the bamboo forests. The correlation between the standing crops and environmental factors in the bamboo forest is considered to be a complicated relationship of all the factors, but the stand density is thought to be the most important factor involved.

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