• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fungi

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First report of six Sordariomycetes fungi isolated from plant litter in freshwater ecosystems of Korea

  • Goh, Jaeduk;Mun, Hye Yeon;Jeon, Yu-Jeong;Chung, Namil;Park, Young-Hwan;Park, Sangkyu;Hwang, Hyejin;Cheon, Wonsu
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.103-116
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    • 2020
  • Freshwater ecosystems provide a complex environment for microorganisms. In this study, we isolated diverse fungal strains from plant litter in freshwaters. These strains were identified using molecular phylogenetic analyses of rDNA and/or other gene sequences (TUB, GAPDH, and EF1). In addition, we examined their morphological characteristics by microscopy and cultural characteristics on several media. We identified six previously unrecorded Sordariomycetes species in Korea, i.e., Colletotrichum godetiae, Discosia rubi, Robillarda sessilis, Monochaetia dimorphospora, Idriella lunata, and Phialemoniopsis endophytica. Of these, D. rubi and M. dimorphospora exhibited high extracellular amylase, lipase, and protease activities, suggesting that these fungal isolates might play an important role as decomposers in freshwater ecosystems. Plant litter could thus be a good source for isolating and investigating previously undocumented fungal species in freshwater environments.

Antimicrobial Active Substances from Entomopathogenic Fungi (Various Applications of Entomopathogenic Fungi)

  • Shin, Tae Young;Woo, Soo Dong;Kim, Jeong Jun
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.13-13
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    • 2016
  • Insects constitute the largest and most diverse group of animals in the world. They also serve as the hosts or nutrient sources for an immense assemblage of pathogens, parasites, and predators. More than 700 fungal species from 100 genera have adopted an entomopathogenic lifestyle. Although entomopathogenic fungi were studied as only biocontrol agents against a variety of pests in various countries, it has been recently focused their additional roles in nature. They are antagonists to/against plant pathogens, endophytes, and possibly even plant growth promoting agents. The potential antimicrobial effect against fungal plant pathogens by an isolate of entomopathogenic fungi including Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium spp., and Isaria fumosorosea have been reported since late 1990s, but wasn't reported pathogenicity of the isolate against pests. Later, a Canadian Lecanicillium sp. isolate and L. longisporium isolated from Vertalec$^{(R)}$ showed simultaneous control effect against both aphid and cucumber powder mildew. Therefore, the antimicrobial activities of 342 fungi isolates collected from various regions and conditions in Korea were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea using dual culture technique on agar plate. As a result, 186 isolates (54.4%) shown the antifungal activity against B. cinerea. The culture filtrates of selected fungi completely suppressed the growth of the microorganisms, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of antimicrobial substances in the culture filtrate. Mode of action of these fungi against insect involves the attachment of conidia to the insect cuticle, followed by germination, cuticle penetration, and internal dissemination throughout the insect. During infection process, secreted enzymes, proteinous toxins, and/or secondary metabolites secreted by entomopathogenic fungi can be used to overcome the host immune system, modify host behavior, and defend host resources. Recently, secondary metabolites isolated from entomopathogenic fungi have been reported as potential bioactive substances. Generally, most of bioactive substances produced by entomopathogenic fungi have reported low molecular weight (lower than 1,000 g/mol) as peptide and, in contrast the high molecular weight fungal bioactive substances are rare. Most substances based on entomopathogenic fungi were shown antimicrobial activity with narrow control ranges. In our study we analyzed the antimicrobial substances having antagonistic effects to B. cinerea. Antimicrobial substances in our fungal culture filtrates showed high thermostability, high stability to proteolytic enzymes, and hydrophilicity and their molecular weights were differed from substance. In conclusion, entomopathogenic fungi showed pathogenicity against insect pests and culture filtrate of the fungi also shown to antimicrobial activity. In the future, we can use the entomopathogenic fungi and its secondary metabolites to control both insect pest control and plant pathogenic fungi simultaneously.

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Decolorization of Blue-Stain by Dual Culture of Blue Staining and Basidial Fungi

  • Pashenova, Natalia;Lee, Jong-Kyu;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to understand the interaction between Ophiostomataceae and basidiomycetes fungi during cultures, and whether the basidiomycetes fungi inhibit the growth and decolorize dark pigments of blue staining fungi. The conjoint cultivation was studied on 2% malt extract agar. The ability of basidial cultures to decolorize dark pigments of ophiostomatoid fungi was the main characteristics estimated during this study. More than half of basidial cultures were characterized by deadlock interaction with blue staining fungi. In the dual cultures, where basidial partners were presented by Agaricus bisporus(64), Laetiporus sulphureus(L01/89), Trametes versicolor(09) and unknown fungus(02), antagonism was found at the phase of primary contact of colonies. Replacement interaction resulted usually in decreasing dark colour of substrate was observed for 11 basidial cultures that were belonging mainly to white-rot fungi. Among them Abortiporus biennis(123), Antrodiella hoehnelii(S28/91), Bjerkandera fumosa (137), and Gleophyllum odoratum(124) were characterized by the absence of deadlock-phase: they began to grow over dark colonies of their partners just after primary contact. Basidiomycetes did not affect strongly the pigments of Ceratocystis spp. and Leptographium sibirica isolates, but completely decolorized colonies of Ophiostoma ips and to a smaller degree Ophiostoma minus. Antrodiella hoehnelii(S28/91), Bjerkandera fumosa(137), Gleophyllum odoratum(124) and Trametes versicolor(B18/91) cultures were found to be the most active in decreasing dark color of blue staining fungi colonies. The cultures were recommended for further development as agents of biopulping of wood chips and bio-control of blue stain in woods.

Airborne Fungi Concentrations and Related Factors in the Home (가정 내 부유 진균의 농도와 관련 요인)

  • Cho, YongMin;Ryu, SeungHun;Choi, Min Seok;Seo, SungChul;Choung, Ji Tae;Choi, Jae Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.438-446
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was performed in order to determine airborne fungi levels in homes and find related factors that may affect airborne fungi concentration. Methods: Fifty homes were study subjects for measuring airborne fungi. For sampling airborne fungi, the impaction method on agar plates was used and samples were counted as colony forming units per cubic meter of air ($CFU/m^3$). In addition, information regarding housing characteristics and atopic disease in each home were collected via questionnaire. Results: The geometric means (GM) of airborne fungi concentrations in fifty living rooms and bedrooms were 68.03 and 62.93 $CFU/m^3$, respectively. The GM of airborne fungi concentration in atopy homes was 78.42 $CFU/m^3$. This was higher than non-atopy homes' 54.34 $CFU/m^3$ (p-value=0.051). In the results of the multiple regression analysis, outdoor airborne fungal concentration proved a strong effective factor on indoor airborne fungal concentration. Also, construction year, floor area of house, indoor smoking and frequency of ventilation were factors that showed a significant association with indoor airborne fungi concentration. Conclusions: The results of this study show that some housing and living characteristics may affect the development and increase of airborne fungi. In addition, exposure to airborne fungi may be a risk factor for the prevalence of childhood atopic diseases.

Interactions of Newly Isolated Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi with Korean Cymbidium kanran Hybrid 'Chungsu'

  • Lee, Jun-Ki;Lee, Sang-Sun;Eom, Ahn-Heum;Paek, Kee-Yoeup
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 2003
  • Two fungal isolates obtained from roots of Cymbidium goeriingii in Jeju island were confirmed to be symbiotic with orchid plantlets, and were compared with other orchid mycorrhizal(OM) fungi previously isolated. The two isolates differed in their peloton structures formed in the roots of Cymbidium kanran hybrid 'Chungsu' and in responses of orchid plant. These two isolates differed from the additionally tested OM fungi in some features, and from root damaging species of Rhizoctonia and Fusarium as based on cluster analysis after PCR-RAPD with the primers, Bioneer-28 and OPO-2. With this simple and fast technique, it was possible to distinguish OM fungi from the plant root pathogenic fungi based on calculation of their polymorphic bands. This technique can therefore be helpful to distinguish the OM fungi from the root pathogens. Particularly, the new isolates are considered as new resource of symbiotic fungi for horticultural industries.

Lignicolous fungi on Ulmus americana L. (Ulmus americana L. 목재에서 발견된 곰팡이)

  • 심정자
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.91-106
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    • 1969
  • From a review of the literature it was found that 96 species of fungi have been reported as occurring on the wood of Ulmus americana L., the Amercan elm. In an intensive study of the fungi growing on one American elm log, 60 species were found. Only one had been reported previously on American elm. A second fungus proved to be a hyperparasite of a slime mold. Three members of the Fungi Imperfecti could not be identified and is believed that they may constitute new taxa. In the past, Nasidiomycetes constituted the main group of fungi on American elm wood according to the literature. The Fungi Imperfecti were the largest group in this study in that over half of the species found are imperfect fungi. All of the species encountered in the study were illustrated.

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Zoosporic Fungi Isolated From Four Egyptian Lakes and the Uptake of Radioactive Waste

  • Mahmoud, Yehia A.G.;Zeid, Alaa M. Abou
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.76-81
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    • 2002
  • Aquatic fungi from four brackish water lakes; Edku, Burullus and Manzala lakes which are located at the northern region of Egypt and Qarun lake that located in El-Fayoum city are reported in this manuscript. Twenty-nine fungal species which belong to 19 genera of aquatic fungi were recovered from water samples collected from the studied lakes. The most frequently isolated fungal species were Chytridium conferrop, Allomyces throughout and Rhizoclosmatium globosum. Thraustochytrium amoeboidum and Leptolegniella exoosporus have a moderately occurrence frequency. The maximum fungal count of recovered aquatic fungi was recorded in Burrullus lake followed by EdKu, Manzala and Qarun lakes. This study was extended to test the ability of six selected aquatic fungi(Brevilegniella keratinophila, Blastocladiella cystogena, Chytridium conferrop, Entophlyctis variabilis, Schizochytrium mangrovei and Thraustochytrium rosin), to uptake the radionuclide from their culture medium as a step to biologically treat the waste water or solution with radio-cesium and radio-cobalt. Fifty seven of Cs-137 and 35% of Co-60 could be removed from liquid waste by the selected aquatic fungi.

Preliminary Approaches On Decolorization of Blue-Stained Wood Chips By Basidial Fungi

  • Pashenova, N.V.;Hop, Pham Thi Bich;Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2003
  • Interaction between wood-destroying basidiomycetes and blue stain fungi were studied during conjoint cultivation on 2% malt extract agar. The ability of basidial cultures to decolourise dark pigments of ophiostomatoid fungi was the main characteristics estimated during this investigation. Antrodiella hoehnelii(S28/91), Bjerkandera fumosa(137), Gleophyllum odoratum(124), Trametes versicolor (B18/91) cultures were found to be the most active in decreasing dark colour of blue stain fungi colonies. The cultures were recommended for further development as agents of biopulping and control of blue stain fungi in wood chips.

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Distribution of Rhizosphere and Endosphere Fungi on the First-Class Endangered Plant Cypripedium japonicum

  • Gang, Geun-Hye;Cho, Gyeongjun;Kwak, Youn-Sig;Park, Eun-Hee
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.97-100
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    • 2017
  • Endangered native plant habitats and populations are rapidly disappearing because of climate and environmental changes. As a representative, the abundance of the first-class endangered wild plant, Cypripedium japonicum, has been rapidly decreasing in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of rhizosphere and endophytic fungi on C. japonicum in its native habitat. A total of 440 rhizosphere and 79 endosphere fungi isolates were isolated and identified on the basis of their molecular characteristics. Sixty-five genera and 119 fungi species were identified in this study. The genus Trichoderma showed the highest abundance among both rhizosphere and endosphere fungi. Mortierella, Hypocrea, and Penicillium spp. were also relatively dominant species on C. japonicum. The community structures of rhizosphere and endosphere fungi were similar, but endosphere fungi showed greater diversity.

PCR-based Identification of Aflatoxigenic Fungi Associated with Iranian Saffron

  • Noorbakhsh, Reihaneh;Bahrami, Ahmad Reza;Mortazavi, Seyed Ali;Forghani, Bita;Bahreini, Maesoomeh
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1038-1041
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    • 2009
  • Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the aflatoxigenic fungi in suitable conditions. Saffron, Crocus sativus, is the most expensive spice in the world. Saffron is normally contaminated with soil and hand microflora during harvest and post-harvest operations. In this study, rapid assessment of aflatoxigenic fungi in saffron was accomplished using polymerase chain reaction. In total, 37 market samples were assayed in order to isolate aflatoxin-producing fungi. The 18.9% of the total samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi. Our results also show that most of the isolated fungi were saprophytes which are normally originated from soil during harvest and postharvest process.