• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fungi

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Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in red pine seedlings

  • Seo, Il-Won;Lee, Jong-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.89.1-89
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    • 2003
  • Disease suppression by ectomycorrhizal(ECM) fungi has been demonstrated on red pine seedlings. Culturing of pathogenic fungi on petri plates containing culture filtrates of ECM fungi showed that culture filtrates of the ECM fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum may inhibit the mycelial growth of all tested soil-borne plant pathogenic(SBPP) fungi upto 60%, In order to examine the effects of ECM fungi on SBPP fungi and on red pine seedlings, both symbiotic and pathogenic fungi were inoculated into the soil with red pine seedlings by three inoculation methods; pre-inoculation of SBPP fungi 10 days before inoculation of ECM fungi, simultaneous inoculation of both fungi, post-inoculation of SBPP fungi 60 days after inoculation of ECM fungi. Seedling mortality, seedling growth, and ectomycorrhizal formation by the combined treatments were examined and compared. Pine seedlings were dead by the pre-inoculation of pathogenic fungi, except Rhizina undulate which required 9-12 days, within 6 days after inoculation. Among pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium oxysporum was the most pathogenic with the mortality of 44%. However, no dead seedlings were shown by simultaneous inoculation of both fungi or pre-inoculation of ECM fungi. In addition, pine seedlings treated by simultaneous or post-inoculation of SBPP fungi were relatively higher than those treated by pre-inoculation in diameter at root crown and the number of ectomycorrhizal roots. There were no significant differences among inoculation methods in root length and dry weight of treated seedlings. It means that ECM fungi somehow play a role in protecting primary roots of red pine seedlings against invasion by the SBPP fungi.

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Biodiversities and Fungal Resources of Mt.Daedun Provincial Park (대둔산 도립공원의 균류다양성과 균류자원)

  • Cho, Duck-Hyun;Kim, Jong-Moon
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.119-120
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    • 2003
  • Many fungi were collected at Mt. Daedun Provincial Park between the periods from March 2001 to October 2002 and they were identified. According to the results, the fungi diversity included 2 division, 3 subdivisions, 5 classes, 4 subclasses, 12 orders, 35 families, 75 genera and 153 species. Among them Ileodictyon is unrecorded genus and Ileodictyon gracile, Mycena flosum-nivium and Tricholoma lascivum are newly to Korea. Dominant family are Tricholomataceae, Russulaceae and Polyporaceae;genus Amanita and species Collybia confluens and Russula emetica In useful fungi and ecological resources, edible fungi included 51 species; culture fungi 10; poisonous fungi 18: medicinal fungi 17: anticancer fungi 22: ectomycorrhizal fungi 26 and wood rotting fungi 51, In geographical distributions of Chonbuk areas, same species are 50 spcies of Jeongup ; 56 of Mt.Manduck : 84 of Mt.Jiri : 28 of Pyonsan national park : 59 of Cheonju arboretum and 51 of Mt,Sunun.

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Populations of Fungi and Bacteria Associated with Samples of Stored Rice in Korea

  • Oh, Ji-Yeon;Jee, Sam-Nyu;Nam, Young-Woo;Lee, Ho-Joung;Ryoo, Mun-Il;Kim, Ki-Deok
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.36-38
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    • 2007
  • Stored rice was collected from rice processing complexes of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation of 11 regions in Korea to evaluate the occurrence of fungi and bacteria and to identify the predominant fungi and bacteria to the genus levels. Most rice samples generally produced the higher levels of fungi and bacteria than white rice. The occurrence of fungi and bacteria varied in various locations of Korea. Among fungi observed, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were dominant in the samples and Aspergillus spp. were observed more frequently than Penicillium spp. Predominant bacteria from rice and white rice samples tentatively belonged to the Genus Bacillus, Pectobacterium, Pantoea, and Microbacterium according to BIOLOG and FAME analyses. The results of this study showed that rice in Korea was contaminated in a relatively high level by two dominant storage fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. In addition, occurrence of mycotoxins in rice by the fungi could be possible and thus it is necessary to control the storage fungi.

Observation of Soft-Rot Wood Degradation Caused by Higher Ascomyceteous fungi

  • Lee, Yang-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2000
  • The capability of higher ascomyceteous fungi to cause typical soft-rot decay for wood under laboratory conditions is reviewed and discussed. Fungi tested were extremely active in the decomposition of timbers. Scanning electron micrographs illustrated typical soft-rot decay pattern of higher wood decay ascomycetes, with the exception of H. trugodes that caused white-rot decay. Most of the fungi tested could be grouped as soft-rot fungi that showed typical soft-rot type II. Hypha confined primarily to the resin canals in softwoods or vessel elements in hardwoods and spread tracheid to tracheid via pits of cell wall to cell wall with mechanical force.

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Enzymatic Characteristics for Xylanase Activity of Tremella fuciformis and its Symbiotic Fungi (흰목이버섯 및 공생균이 분비하는 Xylanase 효소적 특성)

  • Chang, Hyun-You;Kim, Gwang-Po;Hong, In-Pyo;Kim, Han-Kyoung;Chung, Jong-Cheon;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 1997
  • Effects of cultural conditions on the production of xylanase by Tremella fuciformis, symbiotic fungi and mixed fungi were investigated. The optimum carbon source for high production of xylanase by T. fuciformis, symbiotic fungi and mixed fungi was xylose. The optimum nitrogen source for both T. fuciformis and symbiotic fungi was $KNO_3$, whereas mixed fungi was $(NH_4)_2SO_4$. The optimum culture period for high production of xylanase was 5 days for both T. fuciformis and mixed fungi, and 6 days for symbiotic fungi, respectively. The optimum temperature for T. fuciformis and symbiotic fungi was $40^{\circ}C$, and the corresponding value for mixed fungi was $45^{\circ}C$. Xylanase activity was high at pH 6 for T. fuciformis and symbiotic fungi, and pH 7 for mixed fungi. Except $Hg^{2+}$ and $Pb^{2+}$, metal ions in T. fuciformis inhibited the activity of xylanase, and, thermal stability of xylanase in T. fuciformis, symbiotic fungi and mixed fungi maintained 80% of activity until $50^{\circ}C$. The Michaelis constant (Km) of xylan was $6.25{\times}10^{-5}\;M$ in T. fuciformis, $5.6{\times}10^{-2}\;M$ in symbiotic fungi, $5.2{\times}10^{-2}\;M$ in mixed fungi.

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Prevalence and Transmission of Seed-Borne Fungi of Maize Grown in a Farm of Korea

  • Basak, A.B.;Lee, Min-Woong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2002
  • Seed-borne fungi of some maize cultivars/lines grown during the months from May to September of 2001, collected from Dongguk University farm, Go Young City, IL Sang Gu, Korea were detected by blotter method. In all six fungi namely Alternaria alternata(Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. and Ustilago zeae Unger. were found to associated with maize seeds. Prevalence of seed-borne fungi also varied. The highest percentages of seed-borne fungi were recorded with Fusarium moniliforme and the lowest in Penicillium sp. Transmission of all seed-borne pathogens from seeds to seedlings were also detected by test tube seedling symptom test. Among the seed-borne fungi, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium sp. produced distinct seed rot and seedling infection symptoms. All the transmitted seed-borne fungi might be caused primary source of infection to the maize crop.

Study on Selective Media for Isolation of Entomopathogenic Fungi

  • Shin, Tae-Young;Choi, Jae-Bang;Bae, Sung-Min;Koo, Hyun-Na;Woo, Soo-Dong
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2010
  • To determine the optimal isolation conditions of the entomopathogenic fungi from soil, we compared their growth characteristics with non-entomopathogenic fungi on agar media containing various concentrations of cooper (II) chloride ($CuCl_2$) or dodine. The result showed that dodine medium is more selective, and the optimal concentration of dodine is determined with $50{\mu}g$/ml. We could isolate several putative entomopathogenic fungi from soil using this, and identify them using ITS analysis. As a result, 64% fungi were identified as typical entomopathogenic fungi. This selective medium may be useful to the rapid and simple isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil.

Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Fungi in a Partial Area of Seoul City (서울시 일부 지역의 대기 중 부유 진균의 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Ki-Youn;Kim, Dae-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.407-414
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This study was performed to assess based on field investigation the distribution characteristics of airborne fungi in an area of Seongdong-gu, Seoul. Methods: Three sites, a living area, forest and traffic site, were selected for evaluation of monthly level of outdoor airborne fungi. An on-site survey was executed between January 2009 and December 2009. During the experimental period, air sampling was performed every month in the afternoon (2:00 pm-5:00 pm) using a cascade impactor. Results: Outdoor airborne fungi measured in Seoul, Korea over one year showed a concentration range from 850CFU $m^{-3}$ to 15,200CFU $m^{-3}$. The mean respirable fraction of outdoor airborne fungi was 67% compared to total concentration. Regardless of measurement site, there was no significant concentration difference in outdoor airborne fungi between periods of yellow dust and non-yellow dust (p>0.05). There was no significant correlation relationship between outdoor airborne fungi and atmospheric factors such as temperature and relative humidity. The predominant genera of airborne fungi identified were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium. Conclusion: Monthly levels of outdoor airborne fungi were highest in April and November and lowest in August. In seasonal concentration distribution, the autumn showed the highest level of outdoor airborne fungi, followed by spring, summer and winter. In regional concentration distribution, the highest level of outdoor airborne fungi was generally found in the forest, followed by the living area and traffic site.

Restriction Analyses of PCR Amplified Partial SSU Ribosomal DNA to Distinguish Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Other Fungi Colonizing Plant Roots

  • Lee, Jae-Koo;Tae, Moon-Sung;Eom, Ahn-Heum;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2003
  • Roots of Glycine max and Miscanthus sinensis and soil samples were collected from various field sites at Goesan, Chungbuk in Korea. Microscopic observations of the roots indicated high colonization rates of both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) and other fungi. The partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes were amplified with the genomic DNA extracted from their roots by nested polymerase chain reaction(PCR) with universal primer NS1 and fungal specific primers AML Restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP) was analyzed using the combinations of three restriction enzymes, HinfI, AluI and AsuC21. Nucleotides sequence analysis revealed that ten sequences from Miscanthus sinensis and one sequence from Glycine max were close to those of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Also, 33% of total clones amplified with NS31-AM1 primers from M. sinensis and 97% from G. max were close to Fusarium oxysporum or other pathogenic fungi, and they were successfully distinguished from AME Results suggested that these techniques could help to distinguish arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from root pathogenic fungi in the plant roots. Especially, DNA amplified by these primers showed distinct polymorphisms between AMF and plant pathogenic species of Fusarium when digested with AsuC21.

Factors Influencing Airborne Concentration of Fungi, Bacteria and Gram Negative Bacteria in Kindergarten Classroom (유치원 교실에서 공기 중 박테리아와 곰팡이 발생에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Park Donguk;Jo Kyunga;Yoon Chungsik;Han Inyoung;Park Dooyong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.440-448
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    • 2004
  • Airborne bacteria, gram negative bacteria (GNB) and fungi were measured in 70 class of 17 kindergartens. The objective of this study is to identify the factors influencing airborne concentrations of bacteria, GNB and fungi using multiple regression analysis. The average concentrations of bacteria and fungi exceeded $1,000\;CFU/m^3$. The average of GNB was $3.7{\times}10^2\;CFU/m^3$. This results indicated that air of kindergartens was contaminated with microbes such as bacteria and fungi. ANOVA test found that the concentrations of bacteria, GNB and fungi were significantly different by the characteristics of weather (rain, after rain, sunny) sampling date (July, August, September and October), the location of sampling site (ground level and basement) and the location of toilet (inside class, nearby class and away class). Multiple regression tests concluded that sampling date, the scale of city where kindergartens are located, the location of sampling site and ventilation efficiency can significantly affect the airborne concentration of bacteria, GNB and fungi. Most of these factors could be related moisture. Environmental factors that can cause the increment of moisture should be controlled in order to reduce airborne concentration of bacteria, GNB and fungi. Legal actions concerning prohibition on the presence of toilet inside class and ventilation criteria should be taken.