• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fukushima

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The Fukushima Nuclear Accident and Environmental Risk: A Survey of Fukushima Residents

  • Miyawaki, Takeshi;Sasaoka, Shinya
    • Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2017
  • The Fukushima nuclear accident caused by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami on March 11, 2011 has seriously impacted the environment surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. While all the residents near the plant were evacuated from the area deemed uninhabitable after the accident, residents of the neighboring area outside of the evacuation zone still seem to live in fear of invisible radiation. To understand Fukushima residents' thinking about the environmental risks that accompany a nuclear disaster, we utilize a poll of the residents of Fukushima conducted in 2013. Based on the survey data, we reveal factors that seem to strongly affect their knowledge and concerns about nuclear power plants. The results of the multivariate analysis show the importance of the following two factors: (1) confidence in mass media, and (2) trust in institutions in charge of administering the accident, especially the central government, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, and Tokyo Electric Power Company. We conclude that the more people trust mass media and particular institutions, the more likely it is that they are have an elevated sense of anxiety and fear of the presence of nuclear plants.

SEVERE ACCIDENT ISSUES RAISED BY THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND IMPROVEMENTS SUGGESTED

  • Song, Jin Ho;Kim, Tae Woon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2014
  • This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accident management measures at the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plants seem to be not fully effective, limitations of current severe accident management strategy are discussed to identify the areas for the potential improvements including core cooling strategy, containment venting, hydrogen control, depressurization of primary system, and proper indication of event progression. The gap between the Fukushima accident event progression and current understanding of severe accident phenomenology including the core damage, reactor vessel failure, containment failure, and hydrogen explosion are discussed. Adequacy of current safety goals are also discussed in view of the socio-economic impact of the Fukushima accident. As a conclusion, it is suggested that an investigation on a coherent integrated safety principle for the severe accident and development of innovative mitigation features is necessary for robust and resilient nuclear power system.

Analysis of Fukushima Accident in Resilience Engineering Perspective Using the FRAM (Functional Resonance Analysis Method)

  • Lee, Dong Yeon;Lee, Hyun-Chul
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.301-315
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the combination of function variability that has affected the development of the Fukushima accident and to identify potential risks of the emergency response system that directly related the Fukushima accident using the functional resonance analysis method. Background: From a traditional perspective (safety-1), safety management is implemented in a way that finds and solves the direct cause of the accident. In the Resilience engineering (safety-2), perspective, accidents or adverse outcomes are considered to emergent from the variability of performance rather than a linear causal relationship. The FRAM is a method of modeling system functions and finding potential risks in the system. Method: This study used the FRAM to analyze the accident response of the Fukushima case. In order to identify the accident response system of the Fukushima, we investigated the existing Fukushima accident reports and analyzed the nuclear power plant structure report. Based on these results, we modeled the accident response system of Fukushima accident. Through the FRAM model, we analyzed the variability of the system functions and identified the risks that the combinations of variability might cause. Results: Through the retrospective analysis, we identified the effect of the combinations of variability of system functions on the accident development process. In this study, we present two instantiations. In addition, we conducted the prospective analysis to identify the potential risks of accident response system of the Fukushima that were not reported in actual Fukushima accident. Conclusion: This study suggested that how the variability of the functions of system connected and contributed to the expansion of the accident. The FRAM can be used to reduce the risk of system-wide hazards through analyzing the combination of variability of system functions, identifying the potential risks related to safety. Application: The FRAM will be a systematic method of analysis for in-depth risk management.

Estimation of long-term effective doses for residents in the regions of Japan following Fukushima accident

  • Kim, Sora;Min, Byung-Il;Park, Kihyun;Yang, Byung-Mo;Kim, Jiyoon;Suh, Kyung-Suk
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.837-842
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    • 2019
  • A large amount of radioactive material was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in 2011 and dispersed into the environment. Though seven years have passed since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, some parts of Japan are still under the influence of radionuclide contamination, especially Fukushima Prefecture and prefectures neighboring Fukushima Prefecture. The long-term effective doses and the contributions of each exposure pathway (5 exposure pathways) and radionuclide ($^{131}I$, $^{134}Cs$, and $^{137}Cs$) were evaluated for people living in the regions of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures in Japan using a developed dose assessment code system with Japanese specific input data. The results estimated in this study were compared with data from previously published reports. Groundshine and ingestion were predicted to contribute most significantly to the total long-term dose for all regions. The contributions of each exposure pathway and radionuclide show different patterns for certain regions of Japan.

Surgical Outcomes of Cervical Myelopathy in Patients with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy: A 5-Year Follow-Up

  • Watanabe, Kazuyuki;Otani, Koji;Nikaido, Takuya;Kato, Kinshi;Kobayashi, Hiroshi;Yabuki, Shoji;Kikuchi, Shin-ichi;Konno, Shin-ichi
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.928-934
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    • 2017
  • Study Design: Observational cohort study. Purpose: To assess the surgical outcomes of posterior decompression and fusion for cervical myelopathy in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy. Overview of Literature: Patients with athetoid cerebral palsy demonstrate involuntary movements and develop severe cervical spondylosis with kyphosis. In these patients, surgery is often performed at an early age because of myelopathy. A few studies have reported about the long-term outcomes of surgical treatment; however, they contain insufficient information. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, 13 patients with cervical myelopathy due to athetoid cerebral palsy underwent posterior fusion surgery and were included in this study. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, neck disability index (NDI), C2-7 angle on radiography, and need for additional surgical treatment were examined at 1 and 5 years postoperatively. Results: The mean C2-7 angle was $-10.5^{\circ}{\pm}21.1^{\circ}$ preoperatively and was corrected to $-2.9^{\circ}{\pm}13.5^{\circ}$ immediately postoperatively. This improvement was maintained for 5 years. The JOA score was $9.5{\pm}2.5$ preoperatively and $12.2{\pm}1.7$ at the 5-year follow-up. NDI was $17{\pm}6.9$ preoperatively and $16{\pm}7.5$ at the 5-year follow-up. Patient satisfaction with surgery on a 100-point scale was $62.2{\pm}22.5$ at the 5-year follow-up. Three patients needed additional surgery for loosening of screws. These results demonstrate good surgical outcomes for posterior fusion at 5 years. Conclusions: Posterior decompression and fusion should be considered a viable option for cervical myelopathy in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy.

Post-Fukushima Reforms within the Japanese Nuclear Power Sector

  • Han, Heejin;Chin, Olivia Ying Lin;Tan, Rou Jing;Koh, Clarissa Cai Lin;Kemal, Mohammad
    • STI Policy Review
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.119-134
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    • 2013
  • The Fukushima nuclear incident of 2011 served as an external shock that prompted Japan to reform its nuclear energy sector. The collusive relationship between the regulators within the Japanese government and the regulated power industry, as well as the lack of institutional independence of the regulatory agency, had derailed Japanese efforts to reform the sector for decades. The Fukushima crisis exposed these deeply-entrenched flaws in the system, causing public distrust and anger toward the government and the nuclear power sector. This paper discusses the institutional reform measures the Japanese government introduced in the wake of the Fukushima crisis to recover public confidence and revamp the sector to prevent future disasters. The paper also discusses the challenges the Japanese government faces on its road to a successful implementation of nuclear sector reforms.

News Analysis of the Fukushima Accident: Lack of Information Disclosure, Radiation Fears and Accountability Issues

  • Lazic, Dragana
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.19-34
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    • 2013
  • Previous research assessed media reporting on nuclear accidents and risks, whilst studies about the Fukushima accident focused on the impact of the Internet on coverage of the incident. However, little research has addressed news framing or comparisons of the perceptions of journalists in relation to reporting nuclear accidents. The aim of this study is to apply framing analysis to news content in The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, and USA Today about the Fukushima accident. It explores the question of how journalists view reporting on complex events. Content analysis of these three newspapers shows that conflict, responsibility, and economic consequences were the most frequently used frames. According to the journalists interviewed, the biggest problem was the inability to assess information due to contrary positions held by experts. It is argued that the Fukushima accident was framed as a conflict of experts and officials' opinions, utility and government officials' responsibility, and economic consequences for the United States. Adherence to professional norms of objectivity and impartiality was signified as the best approaches to risk reporting.