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Synthesis and Phase Relations of Potassium-Beta-Aluminas in the Ternary System K2O-MgO-Al2O3 (K2O-MgO-Al2O3 3성분계에서 K+-β/β"-Al2O3의 합성 및 상관계)

  • Ham, Choul-Hwan;Lim, Sung-Ki;Lee, Chung-Kee;Yoo, Seung-Eul
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.1086-1091
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    • 1999
  • $K^+-{\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ in the ternary system $K_2O-MgO-Al_2O_3$ was directly synthesized by solid state reaction. The phase formation and phase relation were carefully investigated in relation to starting composition, calcining temperature and time, and dispersion medium. The optimal synthetic condition was also examined for the formation of ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase with a maximum fraction. As a composition range, the mole ratio of $K_2O$ to $Al_2O_3$ was changed from 1:5 to 1:6.2 and the amount of MgO used as a stabilizer was varied from 4.2 wt % to 6.3 wt %. The calcining temperature was selected between $1000^{\circ}C$ and $1500^{\circ}C$. At $1000^{\circ}C$, the ${\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phases began to form resulted from the combining of ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ and $KAlO_2$ and increased with temperature rising. All of ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ phase disappeared to be homogenized to the ${\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase at $1200^{\circ}C$. Near the temperature at $1300^{\circ}C$, the fraction of ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase showed a maximum value with the composition of $K_{1.67}Mg_{0.67}Al_{10.33}O_{17}$. At temperatures above $1300^{\circ}C$, the fraction of ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase decreased gradually owing to $K_2O$ loss caused by a high potassium vapor pressure, and the appropriate calcining time was about 5 hours. Acetone was more effective than distilled water as a dispersion medium for milling and mixing.

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Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2008 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2008년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Choi, Chang-Ho;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Kwon, Yong-Il;Choi, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.715-732
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    • 2009
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2008. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends in thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed in the categories of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, new and renewable energy, and fire. Well-developed CFD technologies were widely applied in developing facilities and their systems. New research topics include fire, fuel cell, and solar energy. Research was mainly focused on flow distribution and optimization in the fields of fluid machinery and piping. Topics related to the development of fans and compressors had been popular, but were no longer investigated widely. Research papers on micro heat exchangers using nanofluids and micro pumps were also not presented during this period. There were some studies on thermal reliability and performance in the fields of new and renewable energy. Numerical simulations of smoke ventilation and the spread of fire were the main topics in the field of fire. (2) Research works on heat transfer presented in 2008 have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, industrial heat exchangers, and ground heat exchangers. Research on heat transfer characteristics included thermal transport in cryogenic vessels, dish solar collectors, radiative thermal reflectors, variable conductance heat pipes, and flow condensation and evaporation of refrigerants. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, examined are research on micro-channel plate heat exchangers, liquid cooled cold plates, fin-tube heat exchangers, and frost behavior of heat exchanger fins. Measurements on ground thermal conductivity and on the thermal diffusion characteristics of ground heat exchangers were reported. (3) In the field of refrigeration, many studies were presented on simultaneous heating and cooling heat pump systems. Switching between various operation modes and optimizing the refrigerant charge were considered in this research. Studies of heat pump systems using unutilized energy sources such as sewage water and river water were reported. Evaporative cooling was studied both theoretically and experimentally as a potential alternative to the conventional methods. (4) Research papers on building facilities have been reviewed and divided into studies on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and air cleaning, ventilation, automatic control of heat sources with piping systems, and sound reduction in hydraulic turbine dynamo rooms. In particular, considered were efficient and effective uses of energy resulting in reduced environmental pollution and operating costs. (5) In the field of building environments, many studies focused on health and comfort. Ventilation. system performance was considered to be important in improving indoor air conditions. Due to high oil prices, various tests were planned to examine building energy consumption and to cut life cycle costs.