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Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2014 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2014년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.380-394
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    • 2015
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2014. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the flow inside building rooms, and smoke control on fire. Research issues dealing with duct and pipe were reduced, but flows inside building rooms, and smoke controls were newly added in thermal and fluid engineering research area. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results for thermal contact resistance measurement of metal interface, a fan coil with an oval-type heat exchanger, fouling characteristics of plate heat exchangers, effect of rib pitch in a two wall divergent channel, semi-empirical analysis in vertical mesoscale tubes, an integrated drying machine, microscale surface wrinkles, brazed plate heat exchangers, numerical analysis in printed circuit heat exchanger. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, non-uniform air flow, PCM applied thermal storage wall system, a new wavy cylindrical shape capsule, and HFC32/HFC152a mixtures on enhanced tubes, were actively studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on solar water storage tank, effective design on the inserting part of refrigerator door gasket, impact of different boundary conditions in generating g-function, various construction of SCW type ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for closed cooling water heat recovery were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried out in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration and modelling and controls including energy recoveries from industrial boilers and vehicles, improvement of dehumidification systems, novel defrost systems, fault diagnosis and optimum controls for heat pump systems. It is particularly notable that a substantial number of studies were dedicated for the development of air-conditioning and power recovery systems for electric vehicles in this year. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, seventeen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the evaluation of work noise in tunnel construction and the simulation and development of a light-shelf system. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving of office building applied with window blind and phase change material(PCM), a method of existing building energy simulation using energy audit data, the estimation of thermal consumption unit of apartment building and its case studies, dynamic window performance, a writing method of energy consumption report and energy estimation of apartment building using district heating system. The remained studies were related to the improvement of architectural engineering education system for plant engineering industry, estimating cooling and heating degree days for variable base temperature, a prediction method of underground temperature, the comfort control algorithm of car air conditioner, the smoke control performance evaluation of high-rise building, evaluation of thermal energy systems of bio safety laboratory and a development of measuring device of solar heat gain coefficient of fenestration system.

Synthesis of Pt-Sn/Carbon Electrodes by Reduction Method for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (환원법에 의한 직접 메탄올 연료전지(DMFC)용 Pt-Sn/Carbon 전극제조)

  • Jung, So-Mi;Shin, Ju-Kyung;Kim, Kwan-Sung;Baeck, Sung-Hyeon;Tak, Yong-Sug
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.537-541
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    • 2010
  • Pt-Sn with various ratios was supported on carbon black after pretreatment in an acidic solution by a reduction method. The Pt/Sn ratio was controlled by varying the concentration of each component in the solution, and the influence of the composition on the electrocatalytic activities was investigated. The crystallinity of the synthesized materials was investigated by XRD (X-ray Diffraction), and the oxidation states of both the platinum and tin were determined by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy)-EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) was utilized to examine the morphology and composition of the synthesized electrode, and the particle size of the Pt-Sn was analyzed by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction was evaluated in a 0.5 M $H_2SO_4$ solution using a rotating disk electrode system. The activity and stability were found to be strongly dependent on the electrode composition (Pt/Sn ratio). The catalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation were also measured using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a mixture of 0.5 M $H_2SO_4$ and 0.5 M $CH_3OH$ aqueous solution. The addition of proper amount of Sn was found to significantly improve both catalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation.

Analysis of the Phase Formation and the Sinterability of K+-β/β"-Al2O3 at High Temperatures (≥1600 ℃) (K+-β/β"-Al2O3의 고온 상관계와 소결성 분석)

  • Jang, Min-Ho;Kim, Seung-Gyun;Kim, Seok-Jun;Haw, Jung-Rim;Lim, Sung-Ki
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2009
  • In order to analyze the high temperature phase formation and the sinterability of super ionic conductor $K^+-{\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ which is commonly used as a solid oxide electrolyte, the pure $K^+-{\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ powder in the ternary system $K_2O-LiO_2-Al_2O_3$ was synthesized by solid state reaction and formed to tube and disk using slip casting method and cold isostatic pressing (CIP), respectively. The slip casting was conducted in an alumina mold with the slurry containing 40 wt% of solid contents and the CIP was carried out under 20 MPa. The samples were sintered at $1600^{\circ}C$, $1700^{\circ}C$ and $1750^{\circ}C$, respectively, and their phase formation and the sintering density were investigated according to the forming method. The samples produced by CIP showed far higher ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ fraction as compared with those by slip casting. On the other hand, the samples by slip casting showed slightly higher sintering density. The relative density reached to about 83% at $1750^{\circ}C$ and for 1 h, independent of the forming method. In the case of 90 min socking time, the density was decreased owing to the exaggerated grain growth and the pores by $K_2O$ evaporation.

Acoustic images of the submarine fan system of the northern Kumano Basin obtained during the experimental dives of the Deep Sea AUV URASHIMA (심해 자율무인잠수정 우라시마의 잠항시험에서 취득된 북 구마노 분지 해저 선상지 시스템의 음향 영상)

  • Kasaya, Takafumi;Kanamatsu, Toshiya;Sawa, Takao;Kinosita, Masataka;Tukioka, Satoshi;Yamamoto, Fujio
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.80-87
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    • 2011
  • Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) present the important advantage of being able to approach the seafloor more closely than surface vessel surveys can. To collect bathymetric data, bottom material information, and sub-surface images, multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar (SSS) and subbottom profiler (SBP) equipment mounted on an AUV are powerful tools. The 3000m class AUV URASHIMA was developed by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). After finishing the engineering development and examination phase of a fuel-cell system used for the vehicle's power supply system, a renovated lithium-ion battery power system was installed in URASHIMA. The AUV was redeployed from its prior engineering tasks to scientific use. Various scientific instruments were loaded on the vehicle, and experimental dives for science-oriented missions conducted from 2006. During the experimental cruise of 2007, high-resolution acoustic images were obtained by SSS and SBP on the URASHIMA around the northern Kumano Basin off Japan's Kii Peninsula. The map of backscatter intensity data revealed many debris objects, and SBP images revealed the subsurface structure around the north-eastern end of our study area. These features suggest a structure related to the formation of the latest submarine fan. However, a strong reflection layer exists below ~20 ms below the seafloor in the south-western area, which we interpret as a denudation feature, now covered with younger surface sediments. We continue to improve the vehicle's performance, and expect that many fruitful results will be obtained using URASHIMA.

Characteristics of $CO_{2}$ Absorption and Degradation of Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions in $CO_{2}$ and $CO_{2}-O_{2}$ System ($CO_{2}$$CO_{2}-O_{2}$ 시스템에서 알카놀아민류 흡수제를 이용한 $CO_{2}$ 흡수 및 흡수제 열화 특성)

  • Choi, Won-Joon;Lee, Jong-Seop;Han, Keun-Hee;Min, Byoung-Moo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2011
  • Amine can undergo irreversible reactions by $O_{2}$ and high temperature in amine scrubbing process and these phenomena are called "degradation". Degradation causes not only a loss of valuable amine, but also operational problems such as foaming, corrosion and fouling. In this study, using various chemical absorbents(MEA; monoethanolamine, AMP; 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, DAM; 1,8-diamino-p-menthane), we examined the following variable. I) loading ratio of $CO_{2}$ at $50^{\circ}C$ and $120^{\circ}C$, ii) concentration variation and initial degradation rate constant of absorbent in $CO_{2}$ and $CO_{2}/O_{2}$ system, and iii) effect of degradation by $O_{2}$. The $CO_{2}$ loading of 20 wt% DAM was 400% and 270% higher than that of 20 wt% MEA and AMP at 50, respectively and was the largest the difference of $CO_{2}$ loading between absorption $(50^{\circ}C)$ and regeneration $(120^{\circ}C)$ condition. The initial degradation rate constant of 20 wt% DAM was $2.254{\times}10^{-4}cycle^{-1}$ which was slower than that of MEA $(2.761{\times}10^{-4}cycle^{-1})$ and AMP $(2.461{\times}10^{-4}cycle^{-1})$ in $CO_{2}$ system. Also, it was increased 30% by $O_{2}$ that effects on the degradation by $O_{2}$ was less than 100% increased. these degradation reactions was able to identify by formation of new peak in GC and FT-IR spectrum analysis.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2011 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2011년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Choi, Jong-Min;Paik, Yong-Kyoo;Kim, Su-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.521-537
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    • 2012
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2011. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends of thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of fluid machinery and fluid flow, thermodynamic cycle, and new and renewable energy. Various topics were presented in the field of fluid machinery and fluid flow. Research issues mainly focused on the rankine cycle in the field of thermodynamic cycle. In the new and renewable energy area, researches were presented on geothermal energy, fuel cell, biogas, reformer, solar water heating system, and metane hydration. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, nanofluids and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included heat transfer above liquid helium surface in a cryostat, methane hydrate formation, heat and mass transfer in a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, thermoelectric air-cooling system, heat transfer in multiple slot impinging jet, and heat transfer enhancement by protrusion-in-dimples. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on pool boiling of water in low-fin and turbo-B surfaces, pool boiling of R245a, convective boiling two-phase flow in trapezoidal microchannels, condensing of FC-72 on pin-finned surfaces, and natural circulation vertical evaporator were actively performed. In the area of nanofluids, thermal characteristics of heat pipes using water-based MWCNT nanofluids and the thermal conductivity and viscosity were measured. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on fin-tube heat exchangers for waste gas heat recovery and Chevron type plate heat exchanger were implemented. (3) Refrigeration systems with alternative refrigerants such as $CO_2$, hydrocarbons, and mixed refrigerants were studied. Heating performance improvement of heat pump systems were tried applying supplementary components such as a refrigerant heater or a solar collector. The effects of frost growth were studied on the operation characteristic of refrigeration systems and the energy performance of various defrost methods were evaluated. The current situation of the domestic cold storage facilities was analyzed and the future demand was predicted. (4) In building mechanical system fields, a variety of studies were conducted to achieve effective consumption of heat and maximize efficiency of heat in buildings. Various researches were performed to maximize performance of mechanical devices and optimize the operation of HVAC systems. (5) In the fields of architectural environment and energy, diverse purposes of studies were conducted such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy. In particular, renewable energy and building energy-related researches have mainly been studied as reflecting the global interests. In addition, various researches have been performed for reducing cooling load in a building using spot exhaust air, natural ventilation and energy efficiency systems.

Synthesis and Phase Relations of Potassium-Beta-Aluminas in the Ternary System K2O-MgO-Al2O3 (K2O-MgO-Al2O3 3성분계에서 K+-β/β"-Al2O3의 합성 및 상관계)

  • Ham, Choul-Hwan;Lim, Sung-Ki;Lee, Chung-Kee;Yoo, Seung-Eul
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.1086-1091
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    • 1999
  • $K^+-{\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ in the ternary system $K_2O-MgO-Al_2O_3$ was directly synthesized by solid state reaction. The phase formation and phase relation were carefully investigated in relation to starting composition, calcining temperature and time, and dispersion medium. The optimal synthetic condition was also examined for the formation of ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase with a maximum fraction. As a composition range, the mole ratio of $K_2O$ to $Al_2O_3$ was changed from 1:5 to 1:6.2 and the amount of MgO used as a stabilizer was varied from 4.2 wt % to 6.3 wt %. The calcining temperature was selected between $1000^{\circ}C$ and $1500^{\circ}C$. At $1000^{\circ}C$, the ${\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phases began to form resulted from the combining of ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ and $KAlO_2$ and increased with temperature rising. All of ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ phase disappeared to be homogenized to the ${\beta}/{\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase at $1200^{\circ}C$. Near the temperature at $1300^{\circ}C$, the fraction of ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase showed a maximum value with the composition of $K_{1.67}Mg_{0.67}Al_{10.33}O_{17}$. At temperatures above $1300^{\circ}C$, the fraction of ${\beta}"-Al_2O_3$ phase decreased gradually owing to $K_2O$ loss caused by a high potassium vapor pressure, and the appropriate calcining time was about 5 hours. Acetone was more effective than distilled water as a dispersion medium for milling and mixing.

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Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2008 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2008년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Choi, Chang-Ho;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Kwon, Yong-Il;Choi, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.715-732
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    • 2009
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2008. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends in thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed in the categories of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, new and renewable energy, and fire. Well-developed CFD technologies were widely applied in developing facilities and their systems. New research topics include fire, fuel cell, and solar energy. Research was mainly focused on flow distribution and optimization in the fields of fluid machinery and piping. Topics related to the development of fans and compressors had been popular, but were no longer investigated widely. Research papers on micro heat exchangers using nanofluids and micro pumps were also not presented during this period. There were some studies on thermal reliability and performance in the fields of new and renewable energy. Numerical simulations of smoke ventilation and the spread of fire were the main topics in the field of fire. (2) Research works on heat transfer presented in 2008 have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, industrial heat exchangers, and ground heat exchangers. Research on heat transfer characteristics included thermal transport in cryogenic vessels, dish solar collectors, radiative thermal reflectors, variable conductance heat pipes, and flow condensation and evaporation of refrigerants. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, examined are research on micro-channel plate heat exchangers, liquid cooled cold plates, fin-tube heat exchangers, and frost behavior of heat exchanger fins. Measurements on ground thermal conductivity and on the thermal diffusion characteristics of ground heat exchangers were reported. (3) In the field of refrigeration, many studies were presented on simultaneous heating and cooling heat pump systems. Switching between various operation modes and optimizing the refrigerant charge were considered in this research. Studies of heat pump systems using unutilized energy sources such as sewage water and river water were reported. Evaporative cooling was studied both theoretically and experimentally as a potential alternative to the conventional methods. (4) Research papers on building facilities have been reviewed and divided into studies on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and air cleaning, ventilation, automatic control of heat sources with piping systems, and sound reduction in hydraulic turbine dynamo rooms. In particular, considered were efficient and effective uses of energy resulting in reduced environmental pollution and operating costs. (5) In the field of building environments, many studies focused on health and comfort. Ventilation. system performance was considered to be important in improving indoor air conditions. Due to high oil prices, various tests were planned to examine building energy consumption and to cut life cycle costs.