• Title, Summary, Keyword: Friction heating time

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Optimization for Friction Welding of AZ31 Mg Alloy by Design of Experiments (실험계획법에 의한 AZ31마그네슘합금의 마찰접합시 최적공정설계)

  • Kang, Dae-Min;Kwak, Jae-Seob;Choi, Jong-Whan;Park, Kyeong-Do
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2011
  • Magnesium alloy has been known as lightweight material in automobile and electronic industry with aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and plastic material. Friction welding is useful to join different kinds of metals and nonferrous metals they are difficult to be joined by such as gas welding, resistance welding and electronic beam welding. In this study, friction welding was performed to investigate optimization process of Mg alloy with a 20mm diameter solid bar. For that, the orthogonal array $(L_{9}(3^{4}))$ was used that contained four factors and each factor had three levels. Control factors were heating pressure, heating time, upsetting pressure and upsetting time. Also tensile tests were carried out to measure mechanical properties for welded conditions. The levels of heating pressure and upsetting pressure used were 15, 25, 35MPa, and 30, 50, 70MPa, respectively. In addition those of heating time and upsetting time were 0.5, 1, 1.5 sec and 3, 4, 5 sec., respectively, rotating speed of 2000rpm. From the experimental results, optimization condition was estimated as follows; heating pressure=35MPa, upsetting pressure=70MPa, heating time=1.5sec, upsetting time=3sec.

Study on Friction Welding of Torsion Bar Material(1) -Optimization of Friction Welding Technique- (토션 바재의 마찰용접에 관한 연구(I) -마찰용접기술의 최적화에 대하여-)

  • 오세규;이종두
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1990
  • The friction welding has more technical and economic advantages than the other welding processes. As this welding process has the characteristics such as curtailment of production time, materials, cost reduction, etc., it has been widely used in production of various mechanical components which have complex shapes. So, this paper deals with optimizing the friction welding conditions and analyzing various mechanical properties of the friction welded joints of torsion bar material SUP9A bar to bar. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1) The quantitative relation between heating time($t_{1}$, sec) and total upset(U, mm)can be obtained. The empirical formula obtained is ; U = 3.29$t_{1}$ + 1.6 2) The tensile strength($\sigma_{t}$, kgf/$mm^{2}$) of friction welding joints as post weld heat treated(PWHT) depends upon heating time($t_{1}$, sec) quantitatively and the empirical formula obtained is ; $\sigma$= -5.1$t_{1}\;^{2}$+44.90$t_{1}$+45.2 3) It is certain that the optimum condition for friction welded joints of SUP9A steel bars of diameter 14.5mm is, considering on various properties such as tensile strength, torsional strength, impact energy and strain of the joints after PWTH ; n = 2000rpm, $P_{1}$=8kgf/$mm^{2}$, $P_{2}$=20kgf/$mm^{2}$, $t_{1}$=4sec, $t_{2}$=3sec 4) The tensile strength, torsional strength and hardness were increased with the increased with the increasing carbon equivalent, but toughness was decreased.

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Evaluation on Dynamic Behavior of Friction Welded Joints in Alloy718 to SCM440 using Acoustic Emission Technique (Alloy718/SCM440 마찰용접재의 AE에 의한 동적 거동평가)

  • Kim, Dong-Gyu;Kong, Yu-Sik;Lee, Jin-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.491-497
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    • 2019
  • Dissimilar friction welding were produced using 15 mm diameter solid bar in superalloy(Alloy718) to chrome molybdenum steel(SCM440) to investigate their mechanical properties. Consequently, optimal welding conditions were n=2000 rpm, HP=60 MPa, UP=120 MPa, HT=10 sec and UT=10 sec when the metal loss(Mo) is 3.5 mm. Acoustic Emission(AE) technique was applied to analyze the dissimilar friction welding of Alloy718 and SCM440. The relationship between the AE parameters and dissimilar friction welding of both material was discussed. In the case of heating time of 6 sec, 10 sec, 14 sec and 20 sec, 5 AE events per 0.5 seconds and energy about $2.7{\times}10^{10}$ were exhibited in heating time. In upsetting time, resulting in various numbers of events per second and very low energy. The frequency range of the signal generated during the heating time was about 200 kHz. However, the upsetting time resulted in a wide range of signals from very low frequency to high frequency of 500 kHz due to rapid plasticity of the material.

Mechanical Property and Process Variables Optimization of Tube-to-Tube Friction Welding for Steel Pipe with 36 mm External Diameter (외경 36mm 강관의 관대관 마찰용접 특성과 공정 변수 최적화)

  • Kong, Yu-Sik;Park, Young Whan
    • Journal of Power System Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2014
  • Friction welding is a very useful joining process to weld metals which have axially symmetric cross section. In this paper, for the friction welding with tube-to-tube shape, the feasibility of industry application was determined using analyzing mechanical properties of weld and optimized welding variables was suggested. In order to accomplish this object, rotating speed, friction heating pressure, and friction heating time were selected as the major process variables and the experiment was performed in three levels of each parameter. Weld characteristic was investigated in terms of weld shape and metal loss, and 7mm of metal loss was regarded as the optimal metal loss. By tensile test, tensile strength and yielding strength was measured and fracture was occurred at base metal. In order to optimize the welding condition, fitness function was defined with respect to metal loss and yielding strength and the fitness values for each welding condition could be calculated in experimental range. Consequently, we set the optimal welding condition as the point which had maximum value of fitness function. As the result of this paper the optimal welding variables could be suggested as rotating speed was 1300 rpm, friction heating pressure was 15 MPa, and friction heating time was 10 sec.

Friction Welding and AE Characteristics of Magnesium Alloy for Lightweight Ocean Vehicle (해양차량 경량화용 마그네슘합금의 마찰용접 및 AE 특성)

  • Kong, Yu-Sik;Lee, Jin-Kyung;Kang, Dae-Min
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, friction welded joints were constructed to investigate the mechanical properties of welded 15-mm diameter solid bars of Mg alloy (AZ31B). The main friction welding parameters were selected to endure reliable quality welds on the basis of visual examination, tensile tests, impact energy test, Vickers hardness surveys of the bonds in the area and heat affected zone (HAZ), and macrostructure investigations. The study reached the following conclusions. The tensile strength of the friction welded materials (271 MPa) was increased to about 100% of the AZ31B base metal (274 MPa) under the condition of a heating time of 1 s. The metal loss increased lineally with an increase in the heating time. The following optimal friction welding conditions were determined: rotating speed (n) = 2000 rpm, heating pressure (HP) = 35 MPa, upsetting pressure (UP) = 70 MPa, heating time (HT) = 1 s, and upsetting time (UT) = 5 s, for a metal loss (Mo) of 10.2 mm. The hardness distribution of the base metal (BM) showed HV55. All of the BM parts showed levels of hardness that were approximately similar to friction welded materials. The weld interface of the friction welded parts was strongly mixed, which showed a well-combined structure of macro-particles without particle growth or any defects. In addition, an acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to derive the optimum condition for friction welding the Mg alloy nondestructively. The AE count and energy parameters were useful for evaluating the relationship between the tensile strength and AE parameters based on the friction welding conditions.

Study on Real-Time Weld Quality Evaluation by Acoustic Emission for Production of Drills by Friction Weldiing (마찰용접에 의한 드릴 생산에서의 AE에 의한 실시간 품질평가에 관한 연구)

  • 오세규;윤인진;오정환;오명석
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 1993
  • A study off riction welding of high speed steel(SKH 51) bar for blade side to carbon steel(STC 3)bar for shank side was carried out experimentally through tensile test, hardness test, microstructure, and acoustic emission (AE) test. So, this paper deals with optimizing the welding conditions and the real-time quality (strength) evaluation of friction weleded joints by acoustic emission technique. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) For friction welded joints of SKH 51to STC 3 steel bars, the total upset (U) increases linearly with an increase of heating time (t sub(1)). (2) The determined optimum welding conditions are heating time (t sub(1)) 7-9 sec, upsetting time (t sub(2)) 5 sec, heating pressure(P sub(1)) 12 kg sub(f)mm supper(2), upsetting pressure (P sub(2)) 15 kg sub(f) mm supper(2) and rotating speed (n) 2, 000 rpm, resulting in a computed relationship between the tensile strength of the joint .sigma. (kg sub(f) mm supper(2)) and the heating time t sub(1) (sec) as the following. sigma.=2.39t sub(1)

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Mechanical Properties of Friction Joint of AZ31Mg Alloy (AZ31마그네슘합금의 마찰접합특성)

  • Kong, Y.S.;Chun, B.K.;Kang, D.M.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2010
  • Magnesium alloy has been known as lightweight material in automobile and electronic industry with aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and plastic material. Friction welding is useful to join various metals and nonferrous metals that are difficult to join by such as gas welding, resistance welding and electronic beam welding. In this study, friction joining was performed to investigate mechanical properties of Mg alloy with 20mm diameter solid bar. Also the optimal joining conditions for its application were determined on the basis of tensile test, and hardness survey. The joining parameters were chosen as heating pressure, heating time, upsetting pressure, and upsetting time. Heating and upsetting pressure were executed under the range of 10~40MPa and 20~80MPa, respectively. From the experimental results, optimal joining conditions were determined as follows; rotating speed=2000rpm, heating pressure=35MPa, upsetting pressure=70MPa, heating time=1sec, upsetting time=5sec. Also the hardness of jointed boundary showed as HV50 which was similar to that of base metal at the optimal condition, and it was supposed that zone of HAZ was 8mm. Finally two materials were strongly mixed at interface part to show a well-combined microstructure without particle growth or any defect.

Friction Welding of Cr-Mo Steel Bars for Hydraulic of Pneumatic Valve Spools and AE Evaluation (유공압 밸브스풀용 Cr-Mo 강봉의 동종재 마찰용접과 AE평가)

  • ;;Oh, S. K.;Jang, H. K.
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to optimize friction welding conditions of Cr-Mo steel bars used for hydraulic of pneumatic valve spools and to realize the real-time evaluation of weld quality by acoustic emission method. SNCM220, SCM435, SCAM645, and SCM415 steel bars were tested to find optimum conditions of friction welding. Auantitative equations which exhibit the relations of tensile strength, elongation, reduction of area and energy absorption with friction heating time were obtained by the experiment. Acoustic emission was also performed in the friction weldig process, and the real-time evaluation was enabled to find the optimum range of weld strength. Finally, the strength and toughness of welded joints were interpreted by the sem analysis of tensile fracture surfaces.

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A Study on Friction Welding of Localized SPS5 Spring Steel (국산 SPS5 스프링강의 마찰용접에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, S.U.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.803-808
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    • 2000
  • This thesis studied whether friction welding of SPSS, localized torsion bar material could be accomplished or not. And then optimum welding conditions were examined and leaded through tensile, impact, torsion and hardness test after postweld heat treatment of the actual field condition. Obtained results were as follows; Linear relationship was existed between heating time and total upset, and a quadratic equation model could be made between tensile strength and heating time. Optimum welding conditions with fine structure were as follows in case total upset(U)=8.5mm; the number of rotations(n)=2,000 rpm, heating pressure($p_1$)=80MPa, upset pressure($p_2$)=200MPa, heating time($t_1$)=4sec, upset time($t_2$)=3 sec.

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Study on Friction Welding of SUS431 and SCM21 for External Shaft of Ship (선외기 샤프트용 재료의 마찰용접에 관한 연구)

  • 오세규;이종환;배명주;오명석
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.38-48
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    • 1993
  • A study on friction welding of stainless steel bar(SUS431) to chrome molybdenum steel bar(SCM21) was accomplished experimentally through analysis for relations among friction welding conditions, tension test, hardness test, microstructure test and acoustic emission test. The results obtained are summarized as follows ; 1. Through friction welding of SUS431 bar to SCM21 bar, the optimum welding condition by considering on strength and toughness was found to be the range of heating time of 3-5 sec when the number of rotating speed of 2000rpm, heating pressure of 10kg/$mm^2$, and upsetting time of 4 sec. 2. Quantitative ralationship was identified between heating time($T_1$, sec) and tensile strength (${\sigma},\;kgf/mm^2$) of the friction welded joint and the relation equation is $\sigma$=52.62$T_1{^{0.06}}$. 3. Through AE test, quantitative relationship was confirmed between heating time($T_1$, sec) and total AE(N, counts) during welding, and the relation is computed as follows ; N=30413.6$e^{0.06T1}$. 4. It was confirmed that the quantitative ralationship exists between the tensile strength of the welded joints and AE cumulative counts. And the relation is computed as the following ; ${\sigma}$=16.37(ln N)- 116.4. 5. When ONZ=36500-41500 counts by $OT_1Z$=3~5sec, it was identified by experiment that the range of welded joint tensile strength is 55.6-57.7kgf/$mm^2$/ whose joint efficiency is more than 100%, and it was experimentally confirmed that the real-time nondestructive quality(strength) evaluation for the friction welded joints could be possible by acoustic emission technique.

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