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Differentiation of Deboned Fresh Chicken Thigh Meat from the Frozen-Thawed One Processed with Different Deboning Conditions

  • Bae, Young Sik;Lee, Jae Cheong;Jung, Samooel;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Jeon, Seung Yeop;Park, Do Hee;Lee, Soo-Kee;Jo, Cheorun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of three deboned categories of chicken thigh meat: one which was slaughtered and deboned in the same plant (fresh); one which was slaughtered, deboned, frozen, and thawed in the same plant (frozen-thawed); and the last which was slaughtered in a plant, deboned in a different plant, but then transferred to the original plant (fresh-outside). Surface color, drip loss, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, sensory evaluation, and total aerobic bacterial counts of the chicken samples were determined. Moreover, the torrymeter was used to measure the differences in freshness of the chicken meat. The surface color and the TBARS values did not show significant differences among the three categories. However, the total aerobic bacterial counts of fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat were significantly higher than the fresh chicken meat on the first storage day, and the drip loss of frozen-thawed chicken meat was significantly higher than the fresh-outside and fresh chicken meat. In addition, the sensory evaluation of frozen-thawed chicken meat was significantly lower than the fresh-outside and fresh chicken meat. Torrymeter values were higher in fresh chicken meat than fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat during the storage period. These results indicate that the quality of frozen-thawed chicken meat is comparatively lower than the fresh chicken meat, and the torrymeter values can accurately differentiate the fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat from the fresh ones.

Instrumental Methods for Differentiation of Frozen-thawed from Fresh Broiler Breast Fillets

  • Jung, Samooel;Lee, Jae-Cheong;Jung, Yeon-Kuk;Kim, Min-Kyu;Son, Hwa-Young;Jo, Cheo-Run
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2011
  • To differentiate between frozen-thawed and fresh broiler breast fillets, different methods such as optical microscopy and measurement of drip loss, pH, torrymeter and K-value were performed. A total of 10 samples of fresh and frozen-thawed breast fillets were stored in a refrigerator ($4^{\circ}C$) for 5 d. Optical microscopy of the frozen-thawed breast fillets found structural changes caused by ice crystals, which may have significantly increased drip loss compared to fresh breast fillet. The pH and K-value could not be distinguished between the two breast fillets during storage. However, the torrymeter values of the fresh and frozen-thawed breast fillets were significantly different (p<0.05). The results indicate that both optical microscopy and torrymeter measurement can be effective methods for differentiating between fresh and frozen-thawed breast fillets. However, optical microscopy may be difficult to implement in the marketplace since it requires much time and effort. Thus, the determination of the torrymeter value is the easiest and most rapid instrumental method among those tested for the differentiation of frozen-thawed chicken breast fillet from fresh one.

Studies on the Improvement of Embryo Transfer Efficiency in Korean Cattle II. Effect of Recipient Conditions on Pregnancy Rate after Embryo Transfer (한우에서 수정란 이식의 효율 증진에 관한 연구 II. 수란우의 조건이 이식 후 수태율에 미치는 영향)

  • 김흥률;김덕임;박노형;김창근;정영채;윤종택;전광주
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to establish an effective system for embryo transfer techniques by analyzing several factors affecting in-vivo embryo transfer in Korean cattle. Embryos produced in-vivo were transferred into a total of 301 recipients The results obtained in studies on the factors affacting pregnancy rate after embryo transfer by condition of recipients were as follows ; 1. The pregnancy rate by age and parity of recipients showed high in 5~8 and over 12 years old(72.7~73.9%), and 3rd~4th parity(82.1%) for fresh embryos(P<0.05). The pregnancy rate did not differ by age and parity of recipients in frozen embryos. The pregnancy rate of frozen embryos tended to be similar to that of fresh embryos(38.5% and 25.0~36.7%). 2. The number of observation for normal estrus cycles of recipients did not differ In pregnancy rate between one and 2 times in fresh embryos(64.9%, 69.8%). The pregnancy rate by transferred frozen embryos showed significantly higher after 2 times of observation(P<0.05, 16.3%, 37.5%). The pregnancy rate by days open did not differ between fresh and frozen embryos. But the pregnancy rate was slightly higher in 12 months and 6 months of days open for fresh and frozen embryos, respectively(70.1~71.1% and 24.5%, respectively). 3. The pregnancy rate of transferred fresh and frozen embryos into right and left side of uterine horn did not differ(62.1% : 65.9% 25.0% : 24.3%, respectively). The pregnancy rate by the grade of CL was not different in fresh embryos, but the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the grade A than B for frozen embryos(P<0.01, 43.2%, 16.2%).

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Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rates Following Non-surgical Embryo Transfer in Cow (소의 비외과적 수정란이식에 있어서 수태율에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Hwang Woo-Suk;Cho Choong-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1988
  • An observational study was conducted to evaluate the effect of anterior pituitary gonadtropin on super-ovulation in donors, embryo quality, development stage of embryo, transfer location, corpus luteum quality of recipient, ease of transfer and induced versus natural estrus on pregnancy rates. The data were collected from 451 non-surgical transfers of fresh and frozen bovine embryos. 1. The average number of CL, formed in ovaries which were stimulated with follicular stimulating hormone, and/or APG, were 11. 1${\pm}$1.21, 12.3${\pm}$1.84, respectively. The numbers of embryos recovered were 8.2${\pm}$1.35, 8.7${\pm}$ 1.39, and the numbers of transferable embryos were 6.4${\pm}$0.98. 6.6${\pm}$1.01. respectively. 2 There was no effect of spontaneous versus prostaglandin-induced estrus of recipients on pregnany rates of either fresh (61.5% vs. 59.5%) or previously frozen(54.5% vs. 58.5%) embryos. 3. There were significant differences(p<0.05) in pregnancy rates for embryo grade 1(63.6%), grade 2 (45.4%) and grade 3 (30.4%) in fresh group and for grade-1 (60.5%), grade-2 (47.8%) and grade-3 (18.1%) in previously frozen embryos. 4. The recipients transfered with embryo morulae were found to have a lower (p<0.05) pregnancy rates than those transfered with embryos of blastocyst in be th fresh and previously frozen embryos. 5. There was no significant difference between transfer locations in pregnancy rates using both fresh and frozen embryos. 6. Attempts to select recipients for high pregnancy rates on the basis of corpus luteum (CL) quality were performed. CL were classified into 3 quality grades, on the basis of size and prominence. Quality grades 1 and 2 group had higher (p<0.05) pregnancy rates than grade-3 group using both fresh and frozen embryos. 7 Ease of transfer was ranked to a scale of one to three on the basis of increasing difficulty (time required). Transfers ranted as ease score 1 and 2 had significantly higher (P<0.05) pregnancy pregnancy rates (45.8%, 66.6%) than ease score 3 (27.7%, 31.8%) using both fresh and frozen embryos respectively.

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Ribose-induced Maillard Reaction as an Analytical Method for Detection of Adulteration and Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-thawed Minced Veal

  • Akbarabadi, Masoumeh;Mohsenzadeh, Mohammad;Housaindokht, Mohammad-Reza
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.350-361
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    • 2020
  • Quality control of meat products is one of the main concerns of consumers, governmental control authorities, and retailers. The purpose of this study was to employ ribose-induced Maillard reaction in detection of meat adulteration and differentiation of fresh-chilled from frozen-thawed minced veal. The browning intensity was assessed through measuring the absorbance at 420 nm with a spectrophotometer as well as the direct analysis of the color and pH. The results showed that CIE b*, CIE a*, and A420* values in the extract of fresh-chilled veal were significantly (p<0.05) higher than frozen-thawed samples. The extract of frozen meat samples stored at -18℃ became significantly darker and more yellowish compared to -4℃. The results showed that the A420* value in the frozen-thawed veal stored at -4℃ and -18℃ was reduced by approximately 17.22±3.53% and 11.68±2.49%, respectively, compared with fresh-chilled veal. The findings also showed that the storage temperature of minced veal and the heating time in this reaction had a significant effect on all tested variables (p<0.0001). The proposed method can be considered as an easy, quick, and inexpensive test for differentiating between the fresh-chilled and frozen-thawed minced veal.

Possibility of Instrumental Differentiation of Duck Breast Meat with Different Processing and Storage Conditions (가공 및 저장 방법이 다른 오리 가슴육의 기계적 판별)

  • Sung, Sang Hyun;Bae, Young Sik;Oh, Suk Hwan;Lee, Jae Cheong;Kim, Hyun Joo;Jo, Cheorun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2013
  • The possibility of instrumental differentiation of duck breast meat treated with different processing and storage conditions was investigated for industrial application. Duck breast meats, which were 1) refrigerated (fresh) after slaughter, 2) fresh but applied the torching process for the removal of remaining feathers (fresh-torched), and 3) frozen and thawed (frozen-thawed), were prepared and the torrymeter value and other quality factors were assessed. The torrymeter values of both duck breast meat and skin showed the lowest in frozen-thawed sample during the whole storage period. The drip loss of frozen-thawed sample was higher than those of fresh or fresh-torched ones. The number of total aerobic bacteria was lower in fresh-torched than fresh but both were not different from frozen-thawed at day 1 while no difference found thereafter. Sensory score of frozen-thawed sample was the lowest. The correlation analysis among the torrymeter value and quality factors of duck breast meat revealed that the torrymeter value is closely related with the total aerobic bacterial number, lipid oxidation, drip loss, and storage period but not with color. The results indicate that once the duck breast meat was frozen then thawed, drip loss and sensory quality can be affected and the torrymeter value can differentiate frozen-thawed from fresh and freshtorched duck breast meat.

Nonsurgical transfer of fresh and frozen embryos of dairy cattle (젖소의 신성수정란의 동결수정란의 비외과적 이식에 관하여)

  • Kim, Ill-hwa;Son, Dong-soo;Lee, Kwang-won;Chang, In-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 1992
  • Sixty Four fresh and 142 frozen embryos of dairy cattle were transferred to synchronized dairy, beef or Korean Native Cattle nonsurgically at National Animal Breeding Institute from 1985 to 1990. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. The pregnancy rate of fresh embryos(39.1%) was higher than that of frozen embryos(32.4%) and average pregnancy rate was 34.5%. 2. The pregnancy rate of grade 1 embryos was higher than that of grade 2 embryos for both fresh(41.3% vs 33.3%) and frozen embryos(35.4% vs 25.6%). 3. The pregnancy rate according to development stage of fresh embryos was increased with maturity as 29.2%, 33.3%, 50.0% and 54.5% for morula, early blastocyst, blastocyst and expanded blastocyst, respectively. For frozen embryos, the pregnancy rate of blastocyst(44.4%) was higher than those of morula(31.3%) and early blastocyst(28.0%). 4. The pregnancy rate according go recipient-donor synchrony for fresh embryos was higher when the recipients exhibited estrus 1 day earlier than the donors(43.8%) than when the recipients exhibited estrus 1 day later than the donors(38.1%) or when the recipients and donors exhibited estrus at the same time(37.0%). For forzen embryos, the pregnancy rate was decreased when the recipients and donors exhibited estrus at the same time(37.9%), when the recipients exhibited estrus 1 day later than the donors(32.0%) and when the recipients exhibited estrus 1 day earlier than the donors(23.5%), in sequence. 5. The pregnancy rate of heifers was higher than that of cows for both fresh(50.5% vs 37.9%) and frozen embryos(39.7% vs 25.7%). 6. The pregnancy rate according to recipient breed for fresh embryos was higher in dairy cattle(42.1%) and beef cattle(40.%) than in Korean Native Cattle(33.3%). For frozen embryos, the pregnancy rate was decreased beef cattle(39.1%), dairy cattle(30.3%) and Korean Native Cattle(14.3%), in sequence. 7. The pregnancy rate according to equilibrium steps of glycerol and freezing rate was higher when transferred after 3-steps equilibrium and freezing by the rate of $0.3^{\circ}C$/min from $-6^{\circ}C$ to $-35^{\circ}C$ and $0.1^{\circ}C$/min to $-38^{\circ}C$(39.4%) than when transferred after 6-steps equilibrium and freezing by the rate of $0.5^{\circ}C/min$ from $-6^{\circ}C$ to $-30^{\circ}C$(30.3%).

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Studies on In Vitro Culture, Freezing and Transfer of Korean Native Cattle Embryos Fertilized In Vitro III. Transfer of Korean Native Cattle Embryos Fertilized In Vitro (한우 체외수정란의 체외배양, 동결보존 및 이식에 관한 연구 III. 한우 체외수정란의 이식)

  • 김일화;손동수;이호준;이동원;서국현;이광원;장인호
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 1996
  • The present study was carried out to obtain the pregnancy and delivery rate following transfer of fresh and frozen-thawed Korean native cattle(KNC) blastocysts(1~4 em-bryos / head) produced in vitro to Holstein recipients. The pregnancy rate of fresh and frozen-thawed KNC blastocysts produced in vitro was 50%(7 /14 heads) and 38.5%(5 /13 heads), respectively. The pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed KNC blastocysts produced in vitro frozen using 1.5M ethylene glycol and 1.4M glycerol for cryoprotectant was 33.3%(2 /6 heads) and 42.9 %(3 /7 heads), respectively. Seven calves including 2 sets of twin were born fiom 5 pregnant recipients receiving eleven fresh blastocysts. Three pregnant recipients were aborted among four pregnant recipients receiving twelve frozen-thawed blastocysts and one calf was born from the rest of one pregnant recipient.

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Optimum Conditions for Keeping the Fresh Quality of Shiitake(Lentinus erodes) by Low-temperature and Frozen Storage (생표고의 저온 및 냉동저장시 선도유지의 최적화)

  • 이기순;이주찬
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was hocused on the improvement of postharvest management of fresh shiitake to increase the marketing duration. the respiration rate of fresh shiitake at 2$0^{\circ}C$ was ranged from 395mg to 551mg CO2/kg/hr depending on the cultural condition. The rapid precooling is considered as one of the most important postharsvest management to remain shiitake quality. The optimum temperature for precooling and storage was -3$^{\circ}C$ because the occurrence of physical damage on frozen tissue at below -5$^{\circ}C$. Frozen storage at -3$^{\circ}C$ had benefits to minimize weight loss, browning induction at gill tissue and consumption of stored materials where as storage at $0^{\circ}C$ appeared not to be adequite for the extension of marking duration. Frozen shiitake was succesefully thawed when exposed to RH 40-50% at below 1$0^{\circ}C$.

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Toxicity of Pufferfish in Korea 3. Comparison in the toxicity of fresh and frozen pufferfish Tikifugu vermicularis radiatus (Gukmeri-bok) (한국산 복어의 독성 3. 선어와 냉동어 국매리복의 독성차이)

  • JEON Joong-Kyun;ARAKAWA Osamu;NOGUCHI Tamao
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.176-178
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    • 2000
  • The toxicity of muscle in pufferfish, Tikifugu vermicularis radiatus is known to be weak. However, no food poisoning has reported in this species although market consumption has been relatively high in Korea, especially on western coastal area. It presumes that there could be different toxicity in fish muscle of fresh and frozen specimens. In this regard, the frequency of toxic fish, the toxicity level in fresh and frozen fish as well as highest toxicity ann average toxicity were investigated. From the results, weak toxicity was detected in frozen fish muscle whereas no toxicity was measured in fresh fish. According to this, it is suggested that the toxicity of frozen and fresh fish must be tested simultaneously when tonicity of pufferfish is investigated. The above results implicate that toxicity of pufferfish may be due to the phsyical treatment such as freezing or thawing process.

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