• Title, Summary, Keyword: Franz cell

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Permeation Characteristics of Transdermal Preparations Containing Artemisiae Capillaris Herba in Franz Diffusion Cell (Franz Diffusion Cell을 이용한 인진호 함유 경피제의 피부투과 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Nam;Park, Kyo-Hyun;Kim, Bae-Hwan;Jeong, Gil-Saeng
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2018
  • Artemisiae Capillaris Herba is a dried aerial part of Asteraceae capillaris Thunb.(Compositae), which has been used in Korean traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It has a variety of pharmacological activities and has been evaluated for potential as an active ingredient in cosmeceutical products. In the cosmetics industry, animal experiments is besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like demand of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Therefore, various alternatives to animal experiments have been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the skin permeation characteristics of chlorogenic acid and dimethyleculetin, which are constituent of Artemisiae Capillaris Herba by using Franz diffusion cell. As a result, skin permeability was characterized by flux(penetration rates) and $K_p$(permeability coefficient) value, chlorogenic acid had lower flux and $K_p$ than dimethylesculetin. According to the definitions of Marzulli, chlorogenic acid and dimethylesculetin would be classified as 'Moderate' and 'Very fast' respectively. In conclusion, skin permeation characteristics of chlorogenic acid and dimethylesculetin were confirmed through Franz diffusion cell, and suggests the direction of alternative method for skin permeation of natural compounds.

Permeation Characteristics of Hazardous Substances in Tattoo Dye using Franz Diffusion Cells (Franz Diffusion Cell을 이용한 문신용 염료 내 유해물질의 피부 투과특성 연구)

  • Park, Kyo-Hyun;Jung, Se-Hoon;Shin, Ho-Sang;Kim, Bae-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the exposure risk to tattoo components by analyzing skin absorption using the in vitro method. Tattoos are commonly used for cosmetic purposes, and the skin of not only the operator but of the people who are undergoing the cosmetic procedure is continuously exposed to hazardous chemicals. Methods: Skin permeation risk determination was conducted by the in vitro Franz diffusion cell method according to the ingredient types of tattoo dyes, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), non-volatile organic compounds and heavy metals, using hairless mouse full skin and human cadaver epidermis. Results: The major components with good skin penetration for each type of tattoo dye ingredient were clarified. Among the tatto dye ingredients, 1,2-Dichlorobenzene, Zn, Al, Pb and Ti showed good skin penetration. Most of the skin transmission rates were higher in hairless mouse full skin than in human cadaver epidermis. Conclusion: A possible exposure risk to hazardous substances in tattoo dyes was confirmed from this study. These results are expected to provide a positive contribution to the establishment of management regulations for tattoo dyes.

The Study on the Skin Penetration of Cosmetic Ingredient with in vivo Raman Spectroscopy and in vitro Franz Cell (라만 분광 피부 측정기를 이용한 기능성 화장품 성분의 in vivo 피부 투과 측정 및 in vitro 비교 평가 연구)

  • Jeon, Serim;Han, Min-Hee;Chung, Dae-Kyun;Hwang, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2014
  • At present, there are few research papers on skin penetration of cosmeceutical ingredients. What is worse is that in vivo studies are hard to find. In this study, we measured skin epidermal penetration of cosmeceutical ingredients using in vivo Raman spectroscopy and compared with the results obtained from experiments using in vitro franz cell. Results showed that ascorbyl-2-glucoside, retinol, retinyl palmitate, and kojic acid were good for penetration ratio in measurement in vitro and retinol, vitamin C, and arbutin were good in measurement in vivo. Among them, retinol was best in skin penetration in vivo experiment using Raman spectroscopy and ascorbyl-2-glucoside was best in skin penetration in vitro experiment using Franz cell system. It is estimated that the differences were originated from the experimental procedures of two different methods; in vivo Raman experiment can be sensitive to the effect of epidermis and dermis as characteristics of matter by estimating the stratum corneum and in vitro measurement is evaluation of material to penetrate skin of hairless mouse. However, most penetration barrier is the stratum corneum, thus it is important to examine movement of material in the stratum corneum. We expect that these results provided useful information for many cosmetic related research.

Kinetic Characterization of Swelling of Liquid Crystalline Phases of Glyceryl Monooleate

  • Lee, Jae-Hwi;Choi, Sung-Up;Yoon, Mi-Kyeong;Choi, Young-Wook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.880-885
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    • 2003
  • Research in this paper focuses on the kinetic evaluation of swelling of the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate (GMO). Swelling of the lamellar and cubic liquid crystalline phases of GMO was studied using two in vitro methods, a total immersion method and a Franz cell method. The swelling of the lamellar phase and GMO having 0 %w/w initial water content was temperature dependent. The swelling ratio was greater at $20^{\circ}^C than 37^{\circ}^C$ . The water uptake increased dramatically with decreasing initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases. The swelling rates obtained using the Franz cell method with a moist nylon membrane to mimic buccal drug delivery situation were slower than the total immersion method. The swelling was studied by employing first-order and second-order swelling kinetics. The swelling of the liquid crystalline phases of GMO could be described by second-order swelling kinetics. The initial stage of the swelling (t < 4 h) followed the square root of time relationship, indicating that this model is also suitable for describing the water uptake by the liquid crystalline matrices. These results obtained from the current study demonstrate that the swelling strongly depends on temperature, the initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases and the methodology employed for measuring the swelling of GMO.

A Permeation Characteristics Study of Water- or Oil-soluble Substances through Condition Setting for the In Vitro Skin Absorption Method (피부흡수 대체시험법의 조건설정을 통한 수용성, 지용성 물질의 투과 특성 연구)

  • Seo, Ji-Eun;Lee, Jinho;Kim, Bae-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.77-86
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare permeation characteristics in three skin types using oil-soluble benzoic acid and water-soluble caffeine after method condition optimization based on OECD guideline 428. Methods: A Franz diffusion cell, a reliable alternative method for skin permeation, was used. One-milliliter samples were taken and immediately replaced with fresh solution in the receptor chamber at regular time intervals (1, 2, 4, 7, 10 and 24 hr). The amount of test substances was measured by LC-MS/MS. Results: The permeation rate increased dose-dependently, and the permeation orders were $KeraSkin^{TM}$ > hairless mouse full skin > human cadaver epidermis for skin types, and benzoic acid solution > caffeine solution > benzoic acid cream > caffeine cream for type of test materials. Conclusion: According to the definitions of Marzulli, benzoic acid and caffeine would be classified as 'fast' and 'moderate' compared with the permeation of other chemical species. The setting conditions and permeation characteristics performed in this study are expected to contribute to future permeation studies.

Effect of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Encapsulation of Nano-Emulsified Fish Oil on Their Digestibility Ex Vivo and Skin Permeability In Vitro

  • Jung, Eun Young;Hong, Ki Bae;Son, Heung Soo;Suh, Hyung Joo;Park, Yooheon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 2016
  • Omega-3 rich fish oils are extremely labile, thus requiring control of oxidation and off flavor development. A recently proposed emulsification method, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, was found to be a plausible method to enhance the characteristics of bioactive ingredients, especially lipids. The present work was designed to test the possibility of enhancing the uptake and utilization of omega-3 fatty acids present in fish oil. The bioavailability of nano-emulsified fish oil was monitored in terms of intestinal absorption as well as skin permeability by using the everted intestinal sac model and Franz cell model. The skin permeability and intestinal absorption characteristics was significantly improved by LbL emulsification with lecithin/chitosan/low methoxypectin. Multilayer encapsulation along with nano-emulsification can be a useful method to deliver biologically active lipids and related components, such as fish oil. The protective effect of this tool from lipid oxidation still needs to be verified.

Intensity-Dependent Photovoltaic Effect of InAs/InGaAs Dot-in-a-Well Solar Cells (인듐비소/인듐갈륨비소 양자우물내 양자점 태양전지에서 광기전력 효과의 광세기 의존성 연구)

  • Choe, Yu Ho;Kim, Jong Su;Lee, Sang Jun
    • New Physics: Sae Mulli
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    • v.67 no.6
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    • pp.659-664
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the effect of the intensity of the excitation light on photo-voltage was investigated by using photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR). From the light intensity-dependent PR, we observed Franz-Keldysh oscillations (FKOs) in the region above the band-gap energy (Eg) of GaAs due to the p-n junction field. The variation in the photo-voltage with the light intensity was shown to be affected by the density of photo-generated carriers and the effect of quantum confinement. Moreover, variation in the photovoltaic effect according to temperature confirmed to have been caused by the change of the carrier-generation efficiency.

Physical Characterizations and In Vitro Skin Permeation of Elastic Liposomes for Transdermal Delivery of Polygonum aviculare L. Extract (마디풀 추출물의 경피 전달을 위한 탄성 리포좀의 물리적 특성 및 In Vitro 피부 투과 연구)

  • Han, Saet Byeol;Kwon, Soon Sik;Jeong, Yoo Min;Kong, Bong Ju;Yu, Eun Ryeong;Park, Soo Nam
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.694-701
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    • 2014
  • In this study, Polygomun aviculare L. (P. aviculare L.) extract loaded elastic liposomes (ELPs) were investigated to enhance the transdermal delivery of P. aviculare L. extract composed of various flavonoids. ELPs were composed of egg phospholipids (PC) and edge activator ($Tego^{(R)}$ care 450) and the physical properties and in vitro permeation studies of ELPs were performed. Particle size ranged from 148.1 to 262.2 nm and deformability index was recorded as 11.5~25.4. Loading efficiency was from 53.1 to 66.3%. In vitro skin permeation studies using Franz diffusion cell demonstrated that ELP-4 having ratio of 85:15 for PC to $Tego^{(R)}$ care 450 exhibited the higher skin permeability than ELP-1, the general liposome without $Tego^{(R)}$ care 450. It was visually seen by fluorescence image restoration microscopy. The findings suggest that ELP-4 selected as the optimal formulation could be used as useful formulation for transdermal delivery of the extract.

A Release Test for Gels Containing Ketoprofen (겔제제로부터 케토프로펜의 방출특성 시험법)

  • Kim, Ho-Jeong;Yun, Mi-Ok;Lee, Su-Jung;Choi, Hyun-Chul;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, In-Wha;Shim, Chang-Koo;Kang, Shin-Jung
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.103-106
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    • 2002
  • A method that describes the determination of the in vitro release of ketoprofen from gels was suggested. The experimental system of the method consists of a Franz diffusion cell, which contains a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer as a receptor medium, and a $70\;{\mu}m$ mesh woven nylon membrane as a diffusion barrier. Under the given condition of the system, the diffusion of ketoprofen across the membrane was rapid enough that the apparent release profile of ketoprofen obtained from the present method could represent the release of the drug from gel preparations. The release of ketoprofen in the present method was reproducible, and the rate increased in proportion to the concentration of ketoprofen in the gel. These suggest that the present method is applicable to the quality evaluation of gel preparations containing ketoprofen.

In Vitro Study of Transdermal Delivery System for Caffein in Slim Patch Type (Slim Patch Type을 이용한 카페인의 경피흡수에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Soo;Kwon, Dong-Hwan;Lim, Do-Hyeong;Kim, Gu-Seo;Kang, Chin-Yang
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and optimize permeability of slim patch type as a transdermal delivery system of caffein. Slim patch type was formulated and tested in modified Franz diffusion cell across cellulose membrane and hairless mouse skin in pH 5.8 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The effect of $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ and drug concentration on permeation at four model, 1,2% $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ with $0.12\;mg/cm^2$ caffein and 0.12, $1.2\;mg/cm^2$ caffein with 2% $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ through hairless mouse skin was studied in vitro. The release of caffein from slim patch with various loading was fitted by the Higuchi's diffusion equation. The result showed that chemical $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ produced a large and significant increase of permeation. The effect of 2% $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ on permeation of caffein was greater about 10-fold greater than 1% $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ in first 60 minutes. The effect of drug concentration, however, was lower than that produced by chemical $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$. Within the tested system, the most efficient combination for caffein slim patch type was $0.12\;mg/cm^2$ caffein with 2% $Pharmsolv^{\circledR},$ although $1.2\;mg/cm^2$ caffein with 2% $Pharmsolv^{\circledR}$ showed highest amounts permeation, because permeated percentages were significantly lower about $1/4{\sim}1/5$ times.