• Title, Summary, Keyword: Formulation changes

Search Result 214, Processing Time 0.067 seconds

Experimental studies of Glycine max Merr. (black bean), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Oryza sativa L. (rice bran) extracts on the effects of hair growth activity and physical properties (검은콩, 밀, 쌀겨 추출물이 모발의 성장과 물리적 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Hye-Yoon;Kim, Su-Na;Kang, Byung-Ha;Lee, John-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.167-173
    • /
    • 2010
  • Objects : Glycine max Merr. (black bean), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Oryza sativa L. (rice bran) have been widely used for treatment of relaxion of smooth muscle, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and alopecia in Korean Traditional Medicine. In this research, we examined the effect of the extracts, obtained from EtOH extracts of 3 kinds of traditional plants, on hair growing activity of the DP6 and C3H10T1 cell and physical properties. Materials and Methods : On the basis of previous studies, three traditional plants were selected and we extracted them with ethanol. We evaluated their hairy dermal papillar cell proliferation activity and mouse mesenchymal stem cell in vitro model. Also, 3 herbal extracts were added to the normal shampoo formulation in ranges of 0.1% and we validated tensile properties and physical changes using aged hair. In this research, we compared the tensile strength, shine and color appearance between the hair (general formulation) and the hair after applying shampoo with natural extracts. To analyze the luster and color image, we use the SAMBA hardware and software made by Bossa Nova Technologies. Results : In the comparative test for tensile characteristic between the hair treated general formulation(control) and the hair applying special formulation including 3 kinds of extracts, tensile distance and energy of the latter are larger than control on average. The shine and color appearance were also increased after using shampoo including natural extracts(shine : 10.9%, color appearance: 24.12%). We observed the enhancement of hair growth activity in the DP6 and C3H10T1 cell. Especially black bean extracts had the most powerful effect in the dermal papillar cell proliferation. Conclusion : These experiments suggest that extracts of Glycine max Merr. (black bean), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Oryza sativa L. (rice bran) stimulate the hair growth activity and can improve physical activities of aged hair. Shampoo product, which contains 3 kinds of natural extracts, would be used for the treatment for aged hair.

Application of Modelling Stress-Strain Relations (Part II) -A Trend of Parameters- (응력-변형률 관계 정식화의 적용성(II) -파라메타의 경향성-)

  • Park, Choon-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
    • /
    • v.29 no.10
    • /
    • pp.19-27
    • /
    • 2013
  • Tatsuoka and Shibuya (1991) suggest a new single formulation applicable not only to a wide range of geo-materials from soft clay to soft rock, but also to a wide range of strain levels from $10^{-6}$ to $10^{-2}$. We have carried out the plain strain compression test employing 7 kinds of research standard sand specimens and 2 kinds of glass beads, which have been used at world-renowned research institutes. With the result applied to Tatsuoka and Shibuya's newly suggested formulation, we studied a trend of parameters. In conclusion, as the value of confining pressure increases, the value of $C_1(X={\infty})$ becomes greater but there are hardly any changes in the value of $C_2(X={\infty})$. The value of $C_1(X={\infty})$ also becomes greater as the ${\delta}$ value increases, regardless of sand types. However, the values of $C_2(X={\infty})$ and $C_2$(X=Xe) do not show any significant changes when there are changes in the value of ${\delta}$, while the values of ${\alpha}$ and ${\beta}$ tend to decrease as the ${\delta}$ value decreases.

A Study on the Changes in and Characteristics of Informatization Policies in Korea: Focusing on the Actor-Network (한국 정보화정책의 변천과 특징 - 행위자 연결망을 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Saeeok
    • Informatization Policy
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.23-43
    • /
    • 2010
  • Informatization in Korea has undergone significant changes. So far, most studies on informatization policies have been carried out just on the basis of their structural or functional backgrounds. However, actually, informatization policies have changed dynamically as a lot number of people and organizations have participated in their formulation and implementation. So, this study approaches them with an actor-network view that is distinct from but contains a chronological perspective, which other studies have overlooked so far. This approach allows us to have a clear picture of the changes in and to look into the characteristic of informatization policies from the Chun Doo Hwan government to the Lee Myung-bak government. Consequently, on the basis of the actor-network view, it is found that information and communication technologies, knowledge, and professionalism have dominated the characteristics and streams of informatization policies and brought about changes.

  • PDF

Toward Stochastic Dynamic Traffic Assignment Model: Development and Application Experiences (Stochastic Dynamic Assignment 모형의 개발과 활용)

  • 이인원;정란희
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.67-86
    • /
    • 1993
  • A formulation of dynamic traffic assignment between multiple origins and single destination was first introduced in 1987 by Merchant and Nemhauser, and then expanded for multiple destination in the late 1980's (Carey, 1987). Based on behavioral choice theory which provides proper demand elasticities with respect to changes in policy variables, traffic phenomena can be analysed more realistically, especially in peak periods. However, algorithms for these models are not well developed so far(working with only small toy network) and solutions of these models are not unique. In this paper, a new model is developed which keeps the simplicity of static models, but provides the sensitivity of dynamic models with changes of O-D flows over time. It can be viewed as a joint departure time and route choice model, in the given time periods(6-7, 7-8, 8-9 and 9-10 am). Standard multinomial logit model has been used for simulating the choice behavior of destination, mode, route and departure time within a framework of the incremental network assignment model. The model developed is workable in a PC 386 with 175 traffic zones and 3581 links of Seoul and tested for evaluating the exclusive use of Namsan tunnel for HOV and the left-turn prohibition. Model's performance results and their statistical significance are also presented.

  • PDF

An Experimental Study on the Effect of the Air Temperature on the Air-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient and the Friction Factor of a Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger (외기 온도 변화가 핀-관 열교환기의 공기측 열전달계수와 마찰계수에 미치는 영향에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Nae-Hyun;Cho, Honggi
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.149-158
    • /
    • 2017
  • In general, the air-side j and f factors of evaporators or condensers are obtained through single-design tests performed under air-dry and wet-bulb temperatures. Considering that the indoor or outdoor air temperatures vary significantly during the operation of an air conditioner, it is necessary to confirm that the experimentally-obtained j and f factors are widely applicable under variable air conditions. In this study, a series of tests were conducted on a two-row slit-finned heat exchanger to confirm the applicability. The results showed that, for the dry-surface condition, the changes of the tube-side water temperature, water-flow rate, and air temperature had virtually no effect on the air-side j and f factors. For the wet condition, however, the f factor was significantly affected by these changes; contrarily, the j factor is relatively independent regarding this change. The formulation of the possible reasoning is in consideration of the condensation behavior underneath the tube. The wet-surface j and f factors are larger than those of the dry surface, with a larger amount for the f factor.

Effect of Oral Administration of Processed Sulphur on Hepatotoxicity (법제 유황 경구투여가 간독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, In-Sun;Youn, Dae-Hwan;Yoo, Hwa-Seung
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.898-906
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Processed Sulphur on Hepatotoxicity. Processed Sulphur was administered orally to rats for 28 days. We measured the body and liver weight index, heamtological and biomedical parameters. We also observed the histopathological changes of liver in rats. No significant differences in body weight, liver weight index, heamtological and biomedical parameters and histopathological changes of hepatocyte between control and Processed Sulphur fed group were found. Our data indicate that hepatotoxicity was not caused by oral medication of Processed Sulphur up to 60mg/200g/day for 28 days in rats. Therefore, Processed Sulphur appears to be safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in rats is established at 60mg/200g/day. The data could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch clinical trial on standardized formulation of mineral extracts.

Changes in the Earth's Spin Rotation due to the Atmospheric Effects and Reduction in Glaciers

  • Na, Sung-Ho;Cho, Jungho;Kim, Tu-Hwan;Seo, Kiweon;Youm, Kookhyoun;Yoo, Sung-Moon;Choi, Byungkyu;Yoon, Hasu
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.4
    • /
    • pp.295-304
    • /
    • 2016
  • The atmosphere strongly affects the Earth's spin rotation in wide range of timescale from daily to annual. Its dominant role in the seasonal perturbations of both the pole position and spinning rate of the Earth is once again confirmed by a comparison of two recent data sets; i) the Earth orientation parameter and ii) the global atmospheric state. The atmospheric semi-diurnal tide has been known to be a source of the Earth's spin acceleration, and its magnitude is re-estimated by using an enhanced formulation and an up-dated empirical atmospheric S2 tide model. During the last twenty years, an unusual eastward drift of the Earth's pole has been observed. The change in the Earth's inertia tensor due to glacier mass redistribution is directly assessed, and the recent eastward movement of the pole is ascribed to this change. Furthermore, the associated changes in the length of day and UT1 are estimated.

Shear locking-free earthquake analysis of thick and thin plates using Mindlin's theory

  • Ozdemir, Y.I.;Ayvaz, Y.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.373-385
    • /
    • 2009
  • The purpose of this paper is to study shear locking-free parametric earthquake analysis of thick and thin plates using Mindlin's theory, to determine the effects of the thickness/span ratio, the aspect ratio and the boundary conditions on the linear responses of thick and thin plates subjected to earthquake excitations. In the analysis, finite element method is used for spatial integration and the Newmark-${\beta}$ method is used for the time integration. Finite element formulation of the equations of the thick plate theory is derived by using higher order displacement shape functions. A computer program using finite element method is coded in C++ to analyze the plates clamped or simply supported along all four edges. In the analysis, 17-noded finite element is used. Graphs are presented that should help engineers in the design of thick plates subjected to earthquake excitations. It is concluded that 17-noded finite element can be effectively used in the earthquake analysis of thick and thin plates. It is also concluded that, in general, the changes in the thickness/span ratio are more effective on the maximum responses considered in this study than the changes in the aspect ratio.

Using fourth order element for free vibration parametric analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundation

  • Ozdemir, Y.I.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
    • /
    • v.65 no.3
    • /
    • pp.213-222
    • /
    • 2018
  • The purpose of this paper is to study free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on Winkler foundation using Mindlin's theory with shear locking free fourth order finite element, to determine the effects of the thickness/span ratio, the aspect ratio, subgrade reaction modulus and the boundary conditions on the frequency paramerets of thick plates subjected to free vibration. In the analysis, finite element method is used for spatial integration. Finite element formulation of the equations of the thick plate theory is derived by using higher order displacement shape functions. A computer program using finite element method is coded in C++ to analyze the plates free, clamped or simply supported along all four edges. In the analysis, 17-noded finite element is used. Graphs are presented that should help engineers in the design of thick plates subjected to earthquake excitations. It is concluded that 17-noded finite element can be effectively used in the free vibration analysis of thick plates. It is also concluded that, in general, the changes in the thickness/span ratio are more effective on the maximum responses considered in this study than the changes in the aspect ratio.

Dynamic behaviour of thick plates resting on Winkler foundation with fourth order element

  • Ozdemir, Yaprak I.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.359-368
    • /
    • 2019
  • This paper focuses on the study of dynamic analysis of thick plates resting on Winkler foundation. The governing equation is derived from Mindlin's theory. This study is a parametric analysis of the reflections of the thickness / span ratio, the aspect ratio and the boundary conditions on the earthquake excitations are studied. In the analysis, finite element method is used for spatial integration and the Newmark-${\beta}$ method is used for the time integration. While using finite element method, a new element is used. This element is 17-noded and it's formulation is derived from using higher order displacement shape functions. C++ program is used for the analyses. Graphs are presented to help engineers in the design of thick plates subjected to earthquake excitations. It is concluded that the 17-noded finite element is used in the earthquake analysis of thick plates. It is shown that the changes in the aspect ratio are more effective than the changes in the aspect ratio. The center displacements of the reinforced concrete thick clamped plates for b/a=1, and t/a=0.2, and for b/a=2, and t/a=0.2, reached their absolute maximum values of 0.00244 mm at 3.48 s, and of 0.00444 mm at 3.48 s, respectively.