• Title, Summary, Keyword: Formulation changes

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Identification of Claim Elements for Design Build Projects using FMEA Method (FMEA 기법을 이용한 설계시공일괄방식 주요 클레임 요인 도출)

  • Yoon, Seokmin;Hyun, Changtaek;Han, Sangwon;Cha, Yongwoon
    • Journal of KIBIM
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2015
  • Design-build projects were devised to enhance the design technologies of the domestic construction industry and the efficiency of public works, contributing greatly to the development of construction technologies. However, as various stages of the process, such as formulation of basic plans and design documents, and deliberations proceed, claims, including changes in the requirements of clients, and design changes occur. These claims result in the delay in construction and an increase in construction costs. In this regard, this study attempted to identify main claims that delay construction and increase the costs of design-build projects, prevent claims in the future, and improve the efficiency of project implementation.

Thermomechanical deformation in porous generalized thermoelastic body with variable material properties

  • Kumar, Rajneesh;Devi, Savita
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.285-300
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    • 2010
  • The two-dimensional deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic thermoelastic half-space with voids with variable modulus of elasticity and thermal conductivity subjected to thermomechanical boundary conditions has been investigated. The formulation is applied to the coupled theory(CT) as well as generalized theories: Lord and Shulman theory with one relaxation time(LS), Green and Lindsay theory with two relaxation times(GL) Chandrasekharaiah and Tzou theory with dual phase lag(C-T) of thermoelasticity. The Laplace and Fourier transforms techniques are used to solve the problem. As an application, concentrated/uniformly distributed mechanical or thermal sources have been considered to illustrate the utility of the approach. The integral transforms have been inverted by using a numerical inversion technique to obtain the components of displacement, stress, changes in volume fraction field and temperature distribution in the physical domain. The effect of dependence of modulus of elasticity on the components of stress, changes in volume fraction field and temperature distribution are illustrated graphically for a specific model. Different special cases are also deduced.

Changes in Rheological Properties of O/W Emulsions according to the Type of Nonionic Surfactant and Emulsion Stabilizer (비이온 계면활성제, 유화안정제 종류에 따른 O/W 유화 제형의 유변학적 특성 변화)

  • Choi, Joong Seok;Jin, Byung Suk
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.415-420
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the effect of nonionic surfactant and emulsion stabilizer on O/W emulsions, various emulsion formulations with different types of nonionic surfactants and emulsion stabilizers were prepared and their rheological properties were compared. In this study, polysorbate 60 (Tween 60), PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil (HCO 60), octyldodeceth-16 (OD 16), and ceteareth-6 olivate (Olivem 800) were used as hydrophilic nonionic surfactants, whereas cetyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate, and stearic acid as emulsion stabilizers. Phase separation occurred only in the emulsion formulation with octyldodeceth-16 and all other emulsion formulations maintained a stable phase. The viscosity, hardness, and creaminess of emulsion formulation using a mixture of ceteareth-6 olivate and cetyl alcohol were the highest, and the emulsified droplet size was also the largest. These results are due to the formation of a network structure texture with the development of a large amount of liquid crystal in the O/W emulsion. In this formulation, the value of elastic modulus was large and the thixotropic behavior, in which the viscosity varies with the history of external force, was observed.

Improved Stability against Moisture of Amlodipine Maleate Tablets using Microcrystalline Cellulose and Pregelatinized Starch (미세결정셀룰로오스와 호화전분을 이용한 암로디핀말레이트 정제의 수분에 대한 안정성 개선)

  • Park, Ho-Seock;Hwang, Woo-Sin;Bang, Kyu-Ho;Park, Jeong-Sook;Cho, Cheong-Weon;Hwang, Sung-Joo
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the study was to formulate the stable amlodipine maleate tablet by selecting and combining of suitable ingredients. Amlodipine tablets were designed by using different manufacturing methods or formulations. Dissolution rate at 30 min of newly formulated tablets was over 98% in 0.1 M HCl medium. After 4 months storage under accelerated condition, the changes of appearance, loss on drying, content and total impurity were investigated. For long-term stability tests, two formulations of K017 (direct compressed tablets consisting of microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinized starch) and K018 (wet granulated tablets by OpadryAMB) were stored under $25^{\circ}C$, 60% RH for 24 months. Under the accelerated condition, moisture content in K017 formulation was increased as 5.96% for 4 months, while other formulations with anhydrous monobasic phosphoric potassium or by wet granulation showed higher increase in moisture content compared to K017. In addition, K017 formulation showed a low decrease in contents and total relative substance as 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. Similar stability of amlodipine in K017 was obtained under the long-term stability test. These results indicate that the K017 combined with microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinized starch as ingredients is very stable formulation to protect active substance from moisture contact and sustain stability. Therefore, suitable combination of ingredients such as microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinized starch could attribute to enhance the stability of moisture-labile drug such as amlodipine maleate.

Formulation of Industrial Policy for Nurturing the Bio-medical Sector: A Case Study on the Construction the Bio-medical Complexes of Korea (첨단 의료산업분야 정책형성과정 연구 -첨단의료복합단지 조성정책을 중심으로-)

  • Jeong, Yong-Il;Kim, Sang-Tae
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.839-860
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    • 2013
  • Drawing on a case of the construction of high-tech medical complexes, this study demonstrates the process of policy formuation. Beause the construction of high-tech medical complexes involves various analytic elements, and changes of political, economic and social environment, Kingdon's Policy Stream Framework is employed for analysis. The analysis ranges from the embarkment of the Presidential Committee on Healthcare Industry Innovation (PCHII) in August, 2005, to the enactment of High-tech Medical Complex Special Act in March, 2008. The analysis illuminates that policy formulation from agenda setting to enactment in the area of biomedical industry involves multiple factors and policy streams. An enactment of policy agenda particularly depends on the roles of multiple stakeholders as welll as policy leaders.

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Free Vibration Analysis of a Stepped Cantilever Beam with a Mass and a Spring at the End (끝단에 스프링과 질량을 가진 단진보의 자유진동해석)

  • Yu, Chun-Seung;Hong, Dong-Pyo;Chung, Tae-Jin;Chung, Kil-To
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.2812-2818
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    • 1996
  • A cantilever beam with a mass and a spring at the end can be use to model a miniature flexible arm. It is necessary to know the natural frequencies and mode shapes to discuss its free vibration, especially when modal analysis is employed. A beam is clamped-free. In this paper we look at the lateral vibration of beams that have step changes in the properties of their cross sections. The frequency equation is derived by Bernoulli-Euler formulation and is sloved by the separation of variable. The parameters of the beam, 'mass and spring stiffness' are defined as nondimensionalized parameters for wide application of the results. According to the change of eigenvalues and mode shape are presented for this beam. The results presented are the eigenvalues and the natural frequencies for the first three modes of vibration. Results show that the parameters have a significant effect on the natural frequency.

Research on Thymopentin Loaded Oral N-Trimethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles

  • Yuan, Xiao-Jia;Zhang, Zhi-Rong;Song, Qing-Guo;He, Qin
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.795-799
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    • 2006
  • Peptides, although high efficacy and specificity in their physiological function, usually have low therapeutical activities due to their poor bioavailability when administrated orally. Nanoparticles have been regarded as a useful vector for targeted drug delivery system because they can protect drug from being degraded quickly and pass the gastrointestinal barriers. Here we described a novel oral N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles formulation containing thymopentin (Tp5-TMC-NP). N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was synthesized and then used to prepare Tp5-TMC-NP by ionotropic gelation. A three-factor, five-level CCD (Central Composite Design) design was used in the optimization procedure, with HPLC as the analyzing method. The resulting Tp5-TMC-NP had a regular spherical surface and a narrow particle size range with a mean diameter of 110.6 nm. The average entrapment efficiency was 78.8%. The lyophilized Tp5-TMC-NP formulation was stable in $4^{\circ}C\;or\;-20^{\circ}C$ after storage of 3 months without obvious changes in morphology, particle size, pH and entrapment ratio. The results of the flow cytometer determination showed that the ratio of $CD4^+/CD8^+$ of Wistar female rat given Tp5-TMC-NP (ig) was 2.59 time that of the group given Tp5 (ig).

A Research Trend on High Density Polyethylene Electrical Strength (고밀도 폴리에틸렌의 전계 세기의 영향에 관한 연구 동향)

  • Yoon, Hee-Kwang;Kim, Chan-Ho;Her, In-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Soo;Hwang, Jong-Sun;Choi, Yong-Sung;Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1982-1983
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    • 2007
  • In this work, the $TiO_2$ pigment influence in HDPE dielectric strength was analyzed. Chemical and structural characterizations were made to identify changes during the processing and your influence in the electrical properties. Formulations containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 of titanium dioxide were processed by extrusion and injection molding with stabilization-antioxidants, ultraviolet stabilizers and plasticizers. The electrical strength tests were analyzed by the statistical distribution of Weibull, and the maximum likelihood method. The high concentrations present lower values to electrical strength. The ${\beta}$ parameter could be using to insulator particles dispersion. The TiO2 concentration variation shows that these incorporations implicate strength values increase has a maximum (5,35MV/cm). High pigment concentration induces a little falls in property values. Observing the ${\beta}$ parameter, minimum experiment electric field (Ebmin) and electric strength value, found that the best electric perform formulation was the formulation with 2.5% TiO2 weight.

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Pigment Influence in High Density Polyethylene Electrical Strength (고밀도 폴리에틸렌에 있어서 전계의 세기의 영향)

  • Yun, Ju-Ho;Choi, Yong-Sung;Moon, Jong-Dae;Lee, Kyung-Sup
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.331-332
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    • 2007
  • In this work, the TiO2 pigment influence in HDPE dielectric strength was analyzed. Chemical and structural characterizations were made to identify changes during the processing and your influence in the electrical properties, formulations containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 of titanium dioxide were processed by extrusion and injection molding with stabilization-antioxidants, ultraviolet stabilizers and plasticizers. The electrical strength tests were analyzed by the statistical distribution of Weibull, and the maximum likelihood method. The high concentrations present lower values to electrical strength. The parameter could be using to insulator panicles dispersion. The TiO2 concentration variation shows that these incorporations implicate strength values increase has a maximum (5,35MV/cm). High pigment concentration induces a little falls in property values. Observing the parameter, minimum experiment electric field (Ebmin) and electric strength value, found that the best electric perform formulation was the formulation with 2.5% TiO2 weight.

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Preparation of Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery System Using Guar Derivatives and Dialysis Method

  • Na, Kun;Kim, Yu-Eun;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 1999
  • To develop a new form of controlled release dosage for administering for indomethacin (IND), two formulations of IND-loaded nanoparticles were designed based on polysaccharide (guar) derivatives. Nanoparticles prepared by the dialysis method were characterized with respect to morphology, size distribution, drug content, and in vitro drug release. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that guar acetate (GA) nanoparticles were spherical in shape and had a smooth surface. The particle size distributions of formulation I (40mg of GA) and formulation II (80mg of GA) were shown to be $250.78\pm185.13nm$ and $718\pm145.90nm$ in distilled water ($20$^{\circ}C$), respectively. The drug loading efficiencies of nanoparticles were approximately 26% and 31% for formulations I and II, respectively. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the IND was perfectly distributed within GA nanoparticles. We also found, from the X-ray diffractometry analysis, that a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of the drug occurred in the nanoparticles. No changes between the original IND and the released IND from GA nanoparticles were detected by FT-IR. Using guar acetate, it is possible to design nanoparticles which allow the controlled release of IND over an extended period of time.

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