• Title, Summary, Keyword: Formulation changes

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DESIGNING AUTOMOTIVE GEAR OILS FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM

  • Hong, Hyun-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • pp.134-154
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    • 2000
  • New engine design changes and ever increasing requirements make the design of gear oils challenging. Proper understanding of fundamental lubrication theory and formulation knowledge is necessary to develop new gear oils. This paper provides an overview on fundamentals of lubrication theory and functions of each additive. Also, key technical issues facing gear oils are discussed.

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A Study on the Changes in Regulations Regarding Approval, Notification and Review of Herbal Medicinal Preparations and Crude Drug Preparations - From 1948 to 2012 - (한약・생약제제 품목허가신고심사 규정 변화에 관한 고찰 - 건국이후부터 2012년까지 -)

  • Eom, Seok-Ki
    • The Journal of Korean Medical History
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.11-37
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to analyze and identify the problems of the changes in regulations that are relevant to approval, notification, and review of herbal medicinal preparations and crude drug preparations. Methods : I collected the regulations of approval, notification, and review of medicinal products mostly from official gazettes, analyzed enactment and amendments regarding herbal medicinal preparations and crude drug preparations, and studied it from the view point of Korean medicine field. Results : Regulations in regards to approval, notification, and review of herbal medicinal preparations and crude drug preparations were first established in 1978. Herbal drugs started to be categorized as crude drug preparations in 1981 and the regulatory outlines were completed in 1999. From 2008 to 2012, the regulatory standards that let crude drug preparations be new drugs from natural products were established. Through those procedures, the followings became crude drug preparations: 1) wholly new prescriptions that are not recorded in Korean Medical Classics, 2) prescriptions that are recorded in Korean Medical classics but prepared with new standard, composition and efficacy, 3) prescriptions that are recorded in Korean Medical classics but prepared with new formulation, and 4) herbal drugs. In case of herbal medicinal preparations, however, only regulations that are related to 1) drugs prepared with new compositions that are not recorded in Korean Medical Classics, 2) drugs with same prescription and same formulation, and 3) drugs with new formulation were arranged. Conclusions : Actual circumstances on crude drug-oriented regulations regarding approval, notification and review and future forms of prescription and drug administration in Korean Medical Institutions can be expected due to expansion in range of herbal medicinal preparations and shrink in that of on-site preparations. Reasonable improvement in efficient usage of modernized herbal medicinal preparations in Korean medical institutions and prospective cooperation from related pharmaceutical industry are needed.

Analysis of herbal formulation about a series of Chijasi-tang in Dongeuibogam (동의보감(東醫寶鑑)에 수록된 치자시탕(梔子豉湯) 가미방(加味方) 분석(分析))

  • JeGal, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Young-Woo;Byun, Sung-Hui
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we selected some herbal formulation about a series of Chijasi-tang in Dongeuibogam by using web-based open program;Prescription Lineage Graph (http://164.125.206.43/PrescriptionLineageGraph.aspx). And we compared and analyzed the changes of efficacy, major target symptoms of each herbal formulation according to compositional variation of each herbal formulation. Chijasi-tang, first appeared in Sanghanlun, consists of Capejasmine and Fermented soybean, and it is mainly used to treat insomnia due to vexation, heartburn and yellow greasy tongue fur. Capejasmine can clear away irritable feverish sensation in chest by flowing downward the heat, and Fermented soybean can disperse stagnated heat throughout the chest by expelling stagnated heat from the exterior In the case of the heat stagnation caused by relapsing of disease due to overstain, Chisijisil-tang can be used. And if symptom appear more on the upper or exterior than a case of Chisijisil-tang, Seosisi-tang could be more suitable, if half exterior and half interior, Omae-tang could be for it. In addition, if symptom caused by relapsing due to improper diet, Chisijihwang-tang could be proper formulation. In the case of the heat stagnation body inside and jaundice, if it is caused by alcohol, Chijadaehwang-tang could be used for the purpose of urgent purgation, Galchul-tang would be suitable for helping the function of the spleen and the stomach and for treatment of damp-heat of the spleen and the stomach. And if it is caused by pandemic infection, Jangdal-hwan would be good formulation for it. Samhwangseokgo-tang and Yangdokchija-tang could be appropriate formulation for the raging of noxious heat and pathogenic fire caused by febrile disease with toxic yang. Daehwangeum-ja is for severe constipation due to heat-dryness with stagnated fever, Haebaek-tang is appropriate for severe diarrhea due to heat type change of Soeum. According to the result of our investigation, although there are various target causes and symptoms of each herbal formulations, whatever pathogenetic cause is, the stagnated heat in interior side is the basis of symptoms. Therefore, the purpose of including Chijasi-tang in composition of each herbal formulation is treatment of the stagnated heat. For such reason, on the fundamental or ancillary basis of Chijasi-tang plus some herbs for each therapeutic purpose.

Optimal Forest Management Planning for Carbon Sequestration and Timber Production Using Multiobjective Linear Programming (탄소저장(炭素貯藏) 및 목재생산효과(木材生産效果) 중심(中心)의 산림경영계획(山林經營計劃)을 위한 다목적(多目的) 선형계획법(線型計劃法)의 응용(應用))

  • Park, Eun Sik;Chung, Joo Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2000
  • In this study, the multiobjective linear programming (MOLP) formulation was built to solve for the optimal forest management planning considering carbon sequestration and timber production simultaneously. The formulation was applied to a case study problem to investigate the trends of the optimal forest harvest schedules as the function of preference of forest management for carbon sequestration and timber production. The study site was Mt. Kari area in Hongchun. The formulation includes several site-specific constraints for non-declining yields, upper and lower bounds of cut volume and area for timber, ending inventory conditions, etc.. According to the changes of weight combinations for timber production and carbon sequestration, the joint production possibilities curve was proposed as the option for management choice.

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Effects of Flower Thinning Formulation on Activities of Digestive Enzymes and Acetylcholine Esterase in Honey bee Apis mellifera

  • Hemayet Jahan, S.M.;Shim, Jae-Kyoung;Son, Tae-Gwon;Jo, Jaedoo;Choi, Cheul;Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.63-66
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    • 2014
  • The effects of a newly developed flower thinning formulation (FTF) on the vitality of the honey bee Apis mellifera were examined by measuring the activities of various digestive enzymes in adult worker bees. First, direct spraying of the FTF solution did not cause any behavioral changes or lethal effects for the honey bees based on 24 h observation. Second, oral ingestion of a sugar solution containing the FTF did not produce any significant change in the activities of amylase, proteinases, lipase, or acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in the worker bees 6 h or 24 h after treatment. Meanwhile, a commercial formulation containing sulfur compounds showed slightly reduced activities for several digestive enzymes and AChE, although no behavioral disturbance. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that the FTF is not toxic for honey bees, in terms of contact and ingestion. Therefore, this newly developed FTF can be used for flower thinning without any detrimental effects on pollinating insects.

Single Oral Dose Toxicity Evaluation of Samul-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula, in Crl:CD (SD) Rats

  • Yoo, Sae-Rom;Jeong, Soo-Jin;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.28-33
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    • 2014
  • Background: Samul-tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT) is a traditional herbal formula, which has been widely used to treat various diseases such as menstrual irregularity, bleeding and leucorrhea. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SMT, its toxicity information has not yet been fully elucidated. Methods: Five Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of each sex were given a single dose (5000 mg/kg) of SMT by gavage; control rats received the vehicle only. After the single administration, mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes and gross findings were monitored for 15 days in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) principles. Results: In a single oral dose toxicity study, there was no adverse effect on mortality, clinical sign, body weight change or gross finding in any treatment group. Conclusions: The results indicate that SMT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 5000 mg/kg in rats and its median lethal dose ($LD_{50}$) was considered to be over 5000 mg/kg/day body weight for both genders.

Galloping analysis of stranded electricity conductors in skew winds

  • Macdonald, J.H.G.;Griffiths, P.J.;Curry, B.P.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.303-321
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    • 2008
  • When first commissioned, the 1.6 km span 275kV Severn Crossing Conductor experienced large amplitude vibrations in certain wind conditions, but without ice or rain, leading to flashover between the conductor phases. Wind tunnel tests undertaken at the time identified a major factor was the lift generated in the critical Reynolds number range in skew winds. Despite this insight, and although a practical solution was found by wrapping the cable to change the aerodynamic profile, there remained some uncertainty as to the detailed excitation mechanism. Recent work to address the problem of dry inclined cable galloping on cable-stayed bridges has led to a generalised quasi-steady galloping formulation, including effects of the 3D geometry and changes in the static force coefficients in the critical Reynolds number range. This generalised formulation has been applied to the case of the Severn Crossing Conductor, using data of the static drag and lift coefficients on a section of the stranded cable, from the original wind tunnel tests. Time history analysis has then been used to calculate the amplitudes of steady state vibrations for comparison with the full scale observations. Good agreement has been obtained between the analysis and the site observations, giving increased confidence in the applicability of the generalised galloping formulation and providing insight into the mechanism of galloping of yawed and stranded cables. Application to other cable geometries is also discussed.

Usefulness of SUPAC-SS in Dealing with Postapproval Changes to Semisold Dosage Forms (반고형 제제의 제품허가 후 변경사항을 다루는 SUPAC-SS)

  • Cho, Mi-Hyun;Suk, Kui-Duk;Sah, Hong-Kee
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.207-224
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to explore the principles of SUPAC-SS and its regulatory application in handling postapproval changes to nonsterile semisolid dosage forms. The types of postapproval changes that SUPAC-SS described were modifications in formulation (components and composition), batch size, manufacturing equipment & process, and the site of manufacturing. SUPAC-SS defined the levels of postapproval changes and what chemistry, manufacturing, and control tests should be conducted for each change level. The guidance also specified several occasions the manufacturers should perform in vitro release test (Franz cell diffusion test) and/or in vivo bioequivalence test. Finally, SUPAC-SS classified appropriate filing forms to be used in supporting postapproval changes. It was crystal clear that SUPAC-SS helped maintain the safety and quality of approved semisolid dosage forms when they were subject to certain postapproval changes. The availability of SUPAC-SS made contributions to reducing regulatory burdens of the industry, as well as expediting the postapproval process of regulatory agencies. This study also shed light on the background of relevant pharmaceutical sciences that the SUPAC-SS guidance adopted. Finally, the KFDA and the industry were strongly urged to implant a similar guidance in handling postapproval changes to semisolid dosage forms available in the Korean marketplace.

Biological Control of Some Serious Weeds in Dakahlia District. II. Mycoherbicial Production and Physiological Host Responses

  • Abdel-Fattah, Gamal M.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 2002
  • Four pathogenic fungal isolates belonging to different genera including Alternaria, Fusarium and Curvularia were isolated from selected diseased weeds growing in the fields in Dakahalia district. The inoculum of these pathogenic fungi specific to weeds were cultured, standardized and formulated as alginate pellets containing mycelium plus culture filtrate. These mycoherbicides were evaluated for disease severity(DS). Maximum DS was obtained with the alginate pellets of mycelium filtrate Fusarium solani. Physiological changes of the treated weed were determined 5 aiid 10 days after treatments. As compared to the healthy weeds, all mycoherbicide formulations significantly decreased the amount of photosynthetic pigments and subsequently soluble and insoluble sugars in the infected weeds. The mycoherbicide formulation of F. solani had the greatest effect on lowering to the abovementioned amount in the leaves of Chenopodium murale. Generally, treatment of weed leaves with the specific mycoherbicide led to a highly significant increase in total phenol content when compared to the healthy control weed. C. murale infected with the mycoherbicide formulation of F. solani had higher levels of phenolic compounds than those other treated weeds particularly after 10 days of inoculation.

The influence of fluid inertia and heat dissipation in fluid films (유체막에서 관성과 열 소산의 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Pil
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.224-234
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    • 1997
  • It was demonstrated earlier that for laminar, isothermal flow of the lubricant in long journal bearings, inertia has negligible effect on the load carrying capacity and influences only the stability characteristics of the bearing. The question in the present paper is: 'will these conclusions of the isothermal theory remain valid in the presence of significant dissipation, or will lubricant inertia and dissipation interact non-linearly to bring about qualitative changes in bearing performance\ulcorner' The results obtained here assert that the effect of lubricant inertia on load carrying capacity remains negligible, irrespective of the rate of dissipation. The stability of the bearing is, however, affected by lubricant inertia. These results, although obtained here for long bearings with Sommerfeld and Gumbel boundary conditions, are believed to be applicable to practical bearing operations and affirm that bearing load may be calculated from classical, i. e., non-inertial theory.