• Title, Summary, Keyword: Forage Evaluation

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FORAGE BREEDING IN TAIWAN - Review -

  • Cheng, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 1991
  • Collection, evaluation and preservation of tropical forage grasses, napier grass breeding, tissue culture of pangola grass and alfalfa selection were conducted in Taiwan. The results showed that some species such as pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) with good performance and wide adaptability were selected and released. Forage yield and quality of napier grass have been improved and have good results in animal performance. Embryogenic callus cultures from young inflorescences and stem segments of pangola grass could provide an alternative method for rapid propagation and improvement. Three better varieties of alfalfa were selected. They maintain satisfactory stands for two or three years on well-drained sand loam and loam soil, and used only as annual crop in flat area and acid soil. However, more studies in forage breeding for acid soil arc required to maximise the forage quality and animal production. Thus, animal fed with forages of high quality and a few grains supplement will be the future achivement in livestock industry.

Forage Quality of Several Grasses Grown ay a High Altitude Pasture (고산지대 초지에서 생산된 화본과목초의 사료가치)

  • 김동암;한건준
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.18-26
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    • 1994
  • Forage quality evaluation with several grasses grown at a high altitude pasture situated at 1,000m above sea level was made to determine what is the feed value of these grasses and whether these grasses have any differences in forage quality compared with the grdsses grown at lowland pastures. In this experiment, Common, Venture, and Palaton reed canarygrass (Phahris arundinucea L.) and Climax timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were used and harvested at two different dates, 5 July and 30 September, 1989. Cmde protein (CP) concentrations in the grasses grown in September were higher than in July. Among the grasses grown, Palaton and Common reed canarygrass were highest in CP concentration in July and September, respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations in the grasses harvested in July were higher than in September. Palaton reed canruygrass was lowest in ADF and NDF concentrations at the both harvest dates. Relative feed value (RFV) in the grases harvested in July was ranged from 92 to 105 and that in September was from 110 to 117. Palation reed canarygrass had the highest RFV of 105 and 117 in July and September, respectively, therefore, the forage quality of this grass was ranked as Grade 2 based on the AFGC Hay Quality Standards. Overall forage quality of the grasses grown at a high altitude pasture seemed to be higher than the forage quality at lowland pastures. Based on the RFV assigned by the AFGC, forages with RFV 92 to 117 in this experiment could only work well in rations for low producing dairy cows.

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Applications of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy(NIRS) in Forage Evaluation (조사료 가치 평가를 위한 근적외선 분광법(NIRS)의 활용)

  • 박형수;이종경;이효원
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2004
  • Farmers need timely information on the nutritional status of their animals and the nutritive value of pastures and supplementary feeds if they are to apply successfully this existing nutritional information. Near infrared reflectance(NIR) spectroscopy has been used over the last forty years to analyse accurately protein, fiber, and other organic components in animal foods. NIR spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive, and non-polluting technology. When properly calibrated, NIR spectroscopy is used successfully with both concentrate and forage feeds. NIR methods predict in vitro digestibility accurately and precisely, and can predict in vivo digestibility at least as well as conventional "wet chemistry" methods such as in vivo digestion or the pepsin-cellulase method, and much more rapidly. NIR technology has been applied to the routine monitoring (through analysis of feces samples) of the nutritional status of cattle and other grazing animals. This report reviews the use of near infrared reflectance(NIR) spectroscopy to monitor the nutritive value of animal feeds and the nutritional status of grazing animals.

Evaluation of Methods for Determination of Bulk Density of Eight Kinds of Forage under Air-dry and Wet Conditions

  • Sekine, J.;Kamel, Hossam E.M.;El-Seed, Abdel Nasir M.A. Fadel;Hishinuma, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1126-1130
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    • 2003
  • The conditions of measurement for the determination of bulk density were evaluated to assess the bulkiness of 8 kinds of forage. The bulkiness of the forages was determined with 4 different sizes of forage samples with 7 different pressure application under air-dry and wet conditions. The dry bulk density (DBD) curvilinearly regressed with the pressure applied. The particle size of the samples and kinds of forage used in the present study did not affect changes in values of DBD determined under pressures over $20g/cm^2$ up to $200g/cm^2$. The values of the wet bulk density (WBD) increased as an increment of particle size, but were not always regressed on the particle size of the 8 kinds of forage. The DBD determined on 8 mm particles showed a higher correlation coefficient with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents. The DBD may be a useful tool for the assessment of NDF in forage, when it is determined under condition of a pressure of $100g/cm^2$ or over with a particle size of 8 mm. The WBD may not be utilized for the direct measurement of the physical characteristics of forage, but may be required a thorough consideration on water solubility of forages. Further studies are needed to clarify the DBD contribution to the prediction of forage intake by ruminants.

Evaluation of Forage Production and Feed Value of Sasa borealis in the Jeju Area (제주지역 조릿대의 사초생산성 및 사료가치평가)

  • Chung, Sang Uk;Seong, Hye Jin;Yun, Yeong Sik;Lee, Ga Eul;Oh, Young Kyoon;Baek, Youl Chang;Lee, Seul;Moon, Sang Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.135-139
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the forage production and feed value of Sasa borealis (S. borealis) in Jeju Island in order to improve the utilization of Sasa borealis and to help mitigate the problem of reduced plant species diversity caused by S. borealis in Hanlla Mountain. To investigate the forage production, three quadrat structures were installed in the S. borealis natural community in the middle part of Hanlla Mountain. From May to October 2017, S. borealis in quadrats was cut at a fixed time of each month, and then forage production and regenerated acidity per kg/ha were evaluated. For the evaluation of feed value, compositional analysis was performed on the monthly samples. In vitro digestion experiments were carried out using cannula mounted Hanwoo. In vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility(IVNDFD) and in vitro acid detergent fiber digestibility(IVADFD) were measured after the experiment. Forage production of S. borealis showed relatively good regeneration ability in May and June, but the regeneration ability decreased as the cutting was repeated. In order to use S. borealis as a forage, it is considered efficient to feed black goats with good fiber decomposition or horses good palatability to S. borealis and relatively good digestibility.

Nutritional Evaluation of Two Promising Varieties of Forage Sorghum in Sheep Fed as Silage

  • Mahanta, S.K.;Pachauri, V.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1715-1720
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    • 2005
  • Two promising varieties of forage sorghum viz. HD-15 and J. Sel-10 were identified for their higher forage yield (350-400 quintals per hectare) compared to traditional/existing variety, HC-136 at Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi. Silage of these three forage sorghum varieties viz., HD-15, J.Sel-10 and HC-136 were prepared in three concrete silos for their nutritional evaluation in sheep. Twelve adult Muzaffarnagari Ewes, divided into three equal groups of 4 each, were offered a particular variety of sorghum silage ad libitum over a period of 30 days followed by a 6 day metabolism trial and a collection of rumen liquor and blood samples. The HD-15 variety of forage sorghum silage contained higher crude protein (CP) than both the J.Sel-10 and HC-136. Average daily dry matter (DM) intake (% of live weight) differed significantly (p<0.05) in sheep that were fed the different varieties of silage, with the maximum amount in HD-15 (2.55) followed by J.Sel-10 (2.49) and HC-136 (1.84). The average apparent digestibility of all the nutrients was low in the sheep that were fed the HC-136 variety of sorghum silage when compared to both HD-15 and J.Sel-10. However, digestibility of organic matter (p<0.05) and crude protein (p<0.01) was significantly low in the HC-136 variety. The average daily nitrogen retention was-0.19, 2.15 and 0.42 g in HC-136, HD-15 and J.Sel-10, respectively which differed significantly (p<0.01). The average digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient (TDN) contents (%) of the silage varieties were higher in HD-15 (3.14 and 55.3) than HC-136 (0.25 and 58.6) and J.Sel-10 (1.58 and 55.3) varieties. On comparing to the maintenance requirements (ICAR, 1985) for dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients, both the improved varieties (HD-15 and J.Sel-10) almost met the requirements except crude protein, which met only 73.3% of the requirement by J.Sel-10, while the HC-136 variety was unable to meet the requirements. The average rumen pH and total volatile fatty acids concentrations were comparable among the groups. However, concentrations of nitrogen metabolites were higher in the animals fed the HD-15 variety of silage. Varieties of sorghum silage also did not have any influence on the concentration of the blood metabolites. It was concluded that the HD-15 variety of sorghum silage was nutritionally superior to both J.Sel-10 and HC-136 silage.

The Evaluation of a General Purpose Bale System Performance and Its Bale Quality

  • Chang, Dongil;Chung, Sun-Ok;Cho, Byoung-Kwan;Park, Dongseok;Sung, Namseok;Kim, Jungchul;Lee, Inhyun;Park, Jutaek
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.223-227
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The objectives of this study were to develop a general purpose baler system that is appropriate for the domestic forage cultivation environment and operated by the medium size tractor for production of bale silage made of green forage crops, and to test its performance. Methods: In a first experiment, the time of formation per one bale and densities of bales that are produced from bale system, were measured. In a second experiment, power requirement was measured by a power measurement system manufactured during bale system work. Results: The power measurement system was constructed with strain-gage sensors to measure torque of a PTO axle and proximity sensor to measure rotating speed of a PTO axle. Thus, the power requirement was calculated by PTO torque and PTO rotating speed. For evaluation of bale quality, the samples of bales were analyzed for contents of moisture, ADF, NDF and TDN. Conclusions: If the results of this study will be utilized, the coefficient of utilization of agricultural machinery will be increased by the operation of a medium size tractor that is a major disseminated tractor in farm, and it will contribute tremendously to make a forage production base for livestock farms.

Characterising Forages for Ruminant Feeding

  • Dynes, R.A.;Henry, D.A.;Masters, D.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2003
  • Forages are the most important feed resource for ruminants worldwide, whether fed as pastures, forage crops or conserved hay, silage or haylage. There is large variability in the quality of forages so measurement and prediction of feeding value and nutritive value are essential for high levels of production. Within a commercial animal production system, methods of prediction must be inexpensive and rapid. At least 50% of the variation in feeding value of forages is due to variation in voluntary feed intake. Identification of the factors that constrain voluntary feed intake allows these differences to be managed and exploited in forage selection. Constraints to intake have been predicted using combinations of metabolic and physical factors within the animal while simple measurements such as the energy required to shear the plant material are related to constraints to intake with some plant material. Animals respond to both pre- and post-ingestive feedback signals from forages. Pre-ingestive signals may play a role in intake with signals including taste, odour and texture together with learned aversions to nutrients or toxins (post-ingestive feedback signals). The challenge to forage evaluation is identification of the factors which are most important contributors to these feedback signals. Empirical models incorporating chemical composition are also widely used. The models tend to be useful within the ranges of the datasets used in their development but none can claim to have universal application. Mechanistic models are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated and incorporate both feed characteristics and use of biochemical pathways within the animal. Improvement in utilisation through the deliberate selection of pasture plants for high feeding value appears to have potential and has been poorly exploited. Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy is a simple method that offers significant potential for the preliminary screening of plants with genetic differences in feeding value. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy will only be as reliable as the calibration sets from which the equations are generated.

Evaluation of the nutritional value of locally produced forage in Korea using chemical analysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation

  • Ki, Kwang Seok;Park, Su Bum;Lim, Dong Hyun;Seo, Seongwon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.355-362
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The use of locally produced forage (LPF) in cattle production has economic and environmental advantages over imported forage. The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional value of LPF commonly used in Korea. Differences in ruminal fermentation characteristics were also examined for the LPF species commonly produced from two major production regions: Chungcheong and Jeolla. Methods: Ten LPF (five from each of the two regions) and six of the most widely used imported forages originating from North America were obtained at least three times throughout a year. Each forage species was pooled and analyzed for nutrient content using detailed chemical analysis. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined by in vitro anaerobic incubations using strained rumen fluid for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. At each incubation time, total gas, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were measured. By fitting an exponential model, gas production kinetics were obtained. Results: Significant differences were found in the non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) content among the forage species and the regions (p<0.01). No nutrient, other than NFC, showed significant differences among the regions. Crude protein, NFC, and acid detergent lignin significantly differed by forage species. The amount of acid detergent insoluble protein tended to differ among the forages. The forages produced in Chungcheong had a higher amount of NFC than that in Jeolla (p<0.05). There were differences in ruminal fermentation of LPF between the two regions and interactions between regions and forage species were also significant (p<0.05). The pH following a 48-h ruminal fermentation was lower in the forages from Chungcheong than from Jeolla (p<0.01), and total VFA concentration was higher in Chungcheong than in Jeolla (p = 0.05). This implies that fermentation was more active with the forages from Chungcheong than from Jeolla. Analysis of gas production profiles showed the rate of fermentation differed among forage species (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the nutritional values of some LPF (i.e., corn silage and Italian ryegrass) are comparable to those of imported forages widely used in Korea. This study also indicated that the nutritional value of LPF differs by origin, as well as by forage species. Detailed analyses of nutrient composition and digestion kinetics of LPF should be routinely employed to evaluate the correct nutritional value of LPF and to increase their use in the field.