• Title/Summary/Keyword: Footprint analysis

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Comparison of Land Farming and Chemical Oxidation based on Environmental Footprint Analysis (환경적 footprint 분석을 통한 토양경작법과 화학적산화법의 비교)

  • Kim, Yun-Soo;Lim, Hyung-Suk;Park, Jae-Woo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2015
  • In this study, land farming and chemical oxidation of a diesel-contaminated site is compared to evaluate the environmental impact during soil remediation using the Spreadsheet for Environmental Footprint Analysis by U.S. EPA. Each remediation process is divided into four phases, consisting of soil excavation, backfill and transportation (Phase 0), construction of remediation facility (Phase 1), remediation operation (Phase 2), and restoration of site and waste disposal (Phase 3). Environmental footprints, such as material use, energy consumption, air emission, water use and waste generation, are analyzed to find the way to minimize the environmental impact. In material use and waste generation, land farming has more environmental effect than chemical oxidation due to the concrete and backfill material used to construct land farming facility in Phase 1. Also, in energy use, land farming use about six times more energy than chemical oxidation because of cement production and fuel use of heavy machinery, such as backhoe and truck. However, carbon dioxide, commonly considered as important factor of environmental impact due to global warming effect, is emitted more in chemical oxidation because of hydrogen peroxide production. Water use of chemical oxidation is also 2.1 times higher than land farming.

LAS-Derived Determination of Surface-Layer Sensible Heat Flux over a Heterogeneous Urban Area (섬광계를 이용한 비균질 도시 지표에서의 현열속 산정)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.193-203
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    • 2015
  • A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was deployed with an optical path length of 2.1 km to estimate turbulent sensible heat flux (${\mathcal{Q}}_H$) over a highly heterogeneous urban area. Scintillation measurements were conducted during cold season in November and December 2013, and the daytime data of 14 days were used in the analysis after quality control processes. The LAS-derived ${\mathcal{Q}}_H$ show reasonable temporal variation ranging $20{\sim}160W\;m^{-2}$ in unstable atmospheric conditions, and well compare with the measured net radiation. The LAS footprint analysis suggests that ${\mathcal{Q}}_H$ can be relatively high when the newly built-up urban area has high source contribution of the turbulent flux in the study area ('northwesterly winds'). Sensitivity tests show that the LAS-derived ${\mathcal{Q}}_H$ are highly sensitive to non-dimensional similarity function for temperature structure function parameter, but relatively less sensitive to surface aerodynamic parameters and meteorological variables (temperature and wind speed). A lower Bowen ratio also has a significant influence on the flux estimation. Overall uncertainty of the estimated daytime ${\mathcal{Q}}_H$ is expected within about 20% at an upper limit for the analysis data. It is also found that stable atmospheric conditions can be poorly determined when the scintillometry technique is applied over the highly heterogeneous urban area.

Influence of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on MEF2C and VEGF Expression of Neonatal Rat Skeletal Muscle During Suspension Unloading (신경근전기자극이 체중 부하를 제거한 신생 흰쥐 골격근 조직의 MEF2C 및 VEGF 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Koo, Hyun-Mo;Lee, Sun-Min
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to identify the effect of suspension unloading (SU) and electrical stimulation upon the development of neonatal muscular system. For this study, the neonatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, an experimental group I, and an experimental group II. The SU for experimental group I and II was applied from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 30. The electrical stimulation for soleus muscle of experimental group IIwas applied from PD 16 to PD 30 using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), which gave isometric contraction with 10 pps for 30 minutes twice a day. In order to observe the effect of SU and ES, this study observed myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunoreactivity in the soleus muscles at PD 15 and PD 30. In addition, the motor behavior test was performed through footprint analysis at PD 30. The following is the result. At PD 15, the soleus muscles of experimental group Iand II had significantly lower MEF2C, VEGF immunoreactivity than the control group. It proved that microgravity conditions restricted the development of the skeletal muscle cells at PD 15. At PD 30, soleus muscles of the control group and experimental group II had significantly higher MEF2C, VEGF, immunoreactivity than experimental group I. It proved that the NMES facilitated the development of the skeletal muscle cells. At PD 30, it showed that SU caused the decrease in stride length of parameter of gait analysis and an increase in toe-out angle, and that the NMES decreased these variations. These results suggest that weight bearing during neonatal developmental period is essential for muscular development. They also reveal that NMES can encourage the development of muscular systems by fully supplementing the effect of weight bearing, which is an essential factor in the neonatal developmental process.

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Design of INM Input Generation Module for Aircraft Noise Analysis with Flight Procedures (비행 절차에 따른 항공기 소음 분석용 INM 입력 자료 생성 모듈 설계)

  • Choi, ChulHee;Eun, YeonJu;Jeon, DaeKeun;Jun, HyangSig
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • 2012.10a
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    • pp.178-182
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    • 2012
  • PEAT(Procedure/airspace Efficiency Assessment Tool) evaluates the efficiency of the flight procedures designed by Procedure and Airspace Design Program, such as fuel consumption fight time, flyability, noise footprint and etc. For noise footprint analysis among the efficiency metrics, the input generation module for INM(Integrated Noise Model) was designed in this research. The INM input files shall contain the information about aircraft types, noise model, airport and runway configuration, number of flights, flight routes, and also should be satisfied with the exact file formats for input data, since INM is not originally executable with file inputs. Therefore, it has been designed to convert the input data given in XML file to DBF. In this paper, the design result of the module which has functionalities to generate appropriate input file for INM, and to convert and save the analysis results from INM, is presented.

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Machinability investigation and sustainability assessment in FDHT with coated ceramic tool

  • Panda, Asutosh;Das, Sudhansu Ranjan;Dhupal, Debabrata
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.681-698
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    • 2020
  • The paper addresses contribution to the modeling and optimization of major machinability parameters (cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear) in finish dry hard turning (FDHT) for machinability evaluation of hardened AISI grade die steel D3 with PVD-TiN coated (Al2O3-TiCN) mixed ceramic tool insert. The turning trials are performed based on Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array design of experiments for the development of regression model as well as adequate model prediction by considering tool approach angle, nose radius, cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as major machining parameters. The models or correlations are developed by employing multiple regression analysis (MRA). In addition, statistical technique (response surface methodology) followed by computational approaches (genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization) have been employed for multiple response optimization. Thereafter, the effectiveness of proposed three (RSM, GA, PSO) optimization techniques are evaluated by confirmation test and subsequently the best optimization results have been used for estimation of energy consumption which includes savings of carbon footprint towards green machining and for tool life estimation followed by cost analysis to justify the economic feasibility of PVD-TiN coated Al2O3+TiCN mixed ceramic tool in FDHT operation. Finally, estimation of energy savings, economic analysis, and sustainability assessment are performed by employing carbon footprint analysis, Gilbert approach, and Pugh matrix, respectively. Novelty aspects, the present work: (i) contributes to practical industrial application of finish hard turning for the shaft and die makers to select the optimum cutting conditions in a range of hardness of 45-60 HRC, (ii) demonstrates the replacement of expensive, time-consuming conventional cylindrical grinding process and proposes the alternative of costlier CBN tool by utilizing ceramic tool in hard turning processes considering technological, economical and ecological aspects, which are helpful and efficient from industrial point of view, (iii) provides environment friendliness, cleaner production for machining of hardened steels, (iv) helps to improve the desirable machinability characteristics, and (v) serves as a knowledge for the development of a common language for sustainable manufacturing in both research field and industrial practice.

Carbon Footprint Analysis of Mineral Paper using LCA Method (전과정 평가기법을 활용한 미네랄 페이퍼의 탄소발자국 연구)

  • Kim, Byoung Jik;Kang, Seong Min;Lee, Jeongwoo;Sa, Jae Hwan;Kim, Ik;Jeon, Eui Chan
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2013
  • In recent years, with the rising interest to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the demand for using environmentally friendly product with low greenhouse gas emission is increasing in the printing industry as well. In this study, the carbon footprint of environmentally friendly product mineral paper that uses less plastic and wood than normal printing paper materials was analyzed by utilizing the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique. An analysis utilizing the LCA technique was done per the Korea carbon footprint certification guidelines and, for scope of study, it included the premanufacturing stage and manufacturing stage except for the use and disposal stages. As a result of the study, the emission coefficient of the mineral paper was calculated to be $0.81kg\;CO_2eq/kg$ and the emission from electricity usage of the entire greenhouse gas emission was calculated to be 45.85% ($0.37kg\;CO_2eq/kg$). In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission, required are the efforts to reduce the environmental loads by using energies that have relatively lower environmental loads, such as improvement in electricity usage efficiency and renewable energy, by increasing product completion rates during the manufacturing process of mineral paper.

An Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Yong-in City (용인시 생태발자국 지수의 분석과 고찰 - 음식, 건조환경, 산림, 에너지 부문을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Ji Young;Kim, Jin-Oh
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the change of environmental capacity in Yong-in City, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea through calculation of ecological footprint indices and analysis of their changes, and to suggest implications for urban development and planning. In this study, we analyzed ecological footprints of 1993, 2003, and 2013 to understand the patterns of land use changes and development in Yong-in City. We also compared the GIS land cover maps and ecological footprint indices to figure out land cover changes associated with resource consumption in Yong-in City. As a result, we found the following three lessons. First, the ecological footprint indices of Yong-in City are 3.20(gha) in 1993, 6.50(gha) in 2003, and 11.15(gha) in 2013. This implies that the ecological footprint of Yong-in City is much larger than 1.80(gha), the globally required ecological footprint per capita and 3.56(gha), the average ecological footprint of South Korea. Second, the forest ecological footprint of Yong-in City was calculated as the largest, followed by the ecological footprints of energy, food, and built environment. In particular, the forest ecological footprint was the most rapidly increased from 0.002(gha) in 1993 to 7.32(gha) in 2013, followed by energy ecological footprint from 0.87(gha) to 2.38(gha). This implies that the provision and consumption of timber are seriously unbalanced, and energy consumption is unsustainable because of the rapid increase of residential and commercial land development in the city. Third, our analysis of the rapid increase of forest ecological footprint indicates that the disturbed forest areas are concentrated in the increased built environment areas. We also observed that the increase of energy ecological footprint indices was caused largely by the increase of the commercial and road areas. This implies that Yong-in City should minimize forest disturbance and expand green areas for future in the city. In addition, this may provide a reasonable ground that the city should reduce the use of fossil fuels and facilitate the use of renewable energy.