• Title, Summary, Keyword: Footprint

Search Result 363, Processing Time 0.13 seconds

A Study on Utilization Plan and Assessment of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Asan City - Focused on the Ecological Footprint Survey - (아산시 생태환경용량 평가를 통한 도시계획 활용방안 연구 - 생태발자국을 중심으로 -)

  • Joo, YongJoon;Sagong, Hee;Lee, SangYoon
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.523-532
    • /
    • 2017
  • Environmental problems in urban spaces tend to result from excessive use of resources faster than the ecosystem can recover itself. In order to address this problem, city or municipal governments tend to devise plans and policies to lead development within their ecological carrying capacity. This study computes ecological capacity of Asan city, Province Chung Nam, South Korea through applying the concept of ecological footprint. This study finds ecological footprint and deficit of Asan city in 2015 were 5.12 and -4.99, respectively. From 2001 to 2015, Asan city experienced not only an 81% increase of ecological footprint, but also a 190% increase of ecological deficit. Such results suggest that Asan city has experienced a steady increase of resource consumption due to population increase and urban growth, indicating that loss of ecological spaces such as green space, farmland, wetland and so on restoring the ecosystem has been accelerated. Therefore, in order to promote sustainable development, Asan city should not only protect green space, farmland, wetland, and so on but also create urban growth plans and policies taking into account its environmental capacity of the city. This study provides suggestions for Asan city to lead urban growth within its environmental capacity by applying ecological deficit.

Carbon Footprint and Mitigation of Vegetables Produced at Open Fields and Film House using Life Cycle Assessment

  • Lee, Deog Bae;Jung, Sun Chul;So, Kyu Ho;Kim, Gun Yeob;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Sonn, Yeon Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.47 no.6
    • /
    • pp.457-463
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to find out major factors to mitigate carbon emission using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). System boundary of LCA was confined from sowing to packaging during vegetable production. Input amount of agri-materials was calculated on 2007 Income reference of white radish, chinese cabbage and chive produced at open field and film house published by Rural Development Administration. Domestic data and Ecoinvent data were used for emission factors of each agri-material based on the 1996 IPCC guideline. Carbon footprint of white radish was 0.19 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at open fields, 0.133 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at film house, that of chinese cabbage was 0.22 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at open fields, 0.19 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at film house, and that of chive was 0.66 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at open fields and 1.04 kg $CO_2kg^{-1}$ at film house. The high carbon footprint of chive was related to lower vegetable production and higher fuel usage as compared to white radish and Chinese cabbage. The mean proportion of carbon emission was 35.7% during the manufacturing byproduct fertilizer; white radish at open fields was 50.6%, white radish at film house 13.1%, Chinese cabbage at outdoor 38.4%, Chinese cabbage at film house 34.0%, chive at outdoor 50.6%, and chive at film house 36.0%. Carbon emission, on average, for the step of manufacturing and combustion accounted for 16.1% of the total emission; white radish at open fields was 4.3%, white radish at film house 15.6%, Chinese cabbage at open fields 6.9%, Chinese cabbage at film house 19.0%, chive at open fields 12.5%, and chive at film house 29.1%. On the while, mean proportion of carbon footprint for the step of $N_2O$ emission was 29.2%; white radish at open fields was 39.2%, white radish at film house 41.9%, Chinese cabbage at open fields 34.4%, Chinese cabbage at film house 23.1%, chive at open fields 28.8%, and chive at film house 17.1%. Fertilizer was the primary factor and fuel was the secondary factor for carbon emission among the vegetables of this study. It was suggested to use Heug-To-Ram web-service system, http://soil.rda.go.kr, for the scientific fertilization based on soil testing, and for increase of energy efficiency to produce low carbon vegetable.

Trends and Interpretation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Carbon Footprinting of Fruit Products: Focused on Kiwifruits in Gyeongnam Region (과수의 탄소발자국 표지를 위한 LCA 동향 및 해석: 경남지역 참다래를 중심으로)

  • Deurer, Markus;Clothier, Brent;Huh, Keun-Young;Jun, Gee-Ill;Kim, In-Hea;Kim, Dae-Il
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.389-406
    • /
    • 2011
  • As part of a feasibility study for introducing carbon labeling of fruit products in Korea, we explore the use of carbon footprints for Korean kiwifruit from Gyeongnam region as a case study. In Korea, the Korean Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) is responsible for the carbon footprint labeling certification, and has two types of certification programs: one program focuses on climate change response (carbon footprint labeling analysis) and the other on low-carbon products (reduction of carbon footprints analysis). Currently agricultural products have not yet been included in the program. Carbon labeling could soon be a prerequisite for the international trading of agricultural products. In general the carbon footprints of various agricultural products from New Zealand followed the methodology described in the ISO standards and conformed to the PAS 2050. The carbon footprint assessment focuses on a supply chain, and considers the foreground and the background systems. The basic scheme consists of four phases, which are the 'goal', 'scope', 'inventory analysis', and 'interpretation' phases. In the case of the carbon footprint of New Zealand kiwifruit the study tried to understand each phase's contribution to total GHG emissions. According to the results, shipping, orchard, and coolstore operation are the main life cycle stages that contribute to the carbon footprint of the kiwifruit supply chain stretching from the orchard in New Zealand to the consumer in the UK. The carbon emission of long-distance transportation such as shipping can be a hot-spot of GHG emissions, but can be balanced out by minimizing the carbon footprint of other life cycle phases. For this reason it is important that orchard and coolstore operations reduce the GHG-intensive inputs such as fuel or electricity to minimize GHG emissions and consequently facilitate the industry to compete in international markets. The carbon footprint labeling guided by international standards should be introduced for fruit products in Korea as soon as possible. The already established LCA methodology of NZ kiwifruit can be applied for fruit products as a case study.

Development of 'Carbon Footprint' Concept and Its Utilization Prospects in the Agricultural and Forestry Sector ('탄소발자국' 개념의 발전 과정과 농림 부문에서의 활용 전망)

  • Choi, Sung-Won;Kim, Hakyoung;Kim, Joon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.358-383
    • /
    • 2015
  • The concept of 'carbon footprint' has been developed as a means of quantifying the specific emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) that cause global warming. Although there are still neither clear definitions of the term nor rules for units or the scope of its estimation, it is broadly accepted that the carbon footprint is the total amount of GHGs, expressed as $CO_2$ equivalents, emitted into the atmosphere directly or indirectly at all processes of the production by an individual or organization. According to the ISO/TS 14067, the carbon footprint of a product is calculated by multiplying the units of activity of processes that emit GHGs by emission factor of the processes, and by summing them up. Based on this, 'carbon labelling' system has been implemented in various ways over the world to provide consumers the opportunities of comparison and choice, and to encourage voluntary activities of producers to reduce GHG emissions. In the agricultural sector, as a judgment basis to help purchaser with ethical consumption, 'low-carbon agricultural and livestock products certification' system is expected to have more utilization value. In this process, the 'cradle to gate' approach (which excludes stages for usage and disposal) is mainly used to set the boundaries of the life cycle assessment for agricultural products. The estimation of carbon footprint for the entire agricultural and forestry sector should take both removals and emissions into account in the "National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report". The carbon accumulation in the biomass of perennial trees in cropland should be considered also to reduce the total GHG emissions. In order to accomplish this, tower-based flux measurements can be used, which provide a direct quantification of $CO_2$ exchange during the entire life cycle. Carbon footprint information can be combined with other indicators to develop more holistic assessment indicators for sustainable agricultural and forestry ecosystems.

Development of Water Footprint Inventory Using Input-Output Analysis (산업연관분석을 활용한 물발자국 인벤토리 개발)

  • Kim, Young Deuk;Lee, Sang Hyun;Ono, Yuya;Lee, Sung Hee
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.46 no.4
    • /
    • pp.401-412
    • /
    • 2013
  • Water footprint of a product and service is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured in the life cycle or over the full supply chain. Since water footprint assessment helps us to understand how human activities and products relate to water scarcity and pollution, it can contribute to seek a sustainable way of water use in the consumption perspective. For the introduction of WFP scheme, it is indispensable to construct water inventory/accounting for the assessment, but there is no database in Korea to cover all industry sectors. Therefore, the aim of the study is to develop water footprint inventory within a nation at 403 industrial sectors using Input-Output Analysis. Water uses in the agricultural sector account for 79% of total water, and industrial sector have higher indirect water at most sectors, which is accounting for 82%. Most of the crop water is consumptive and direct water except rice. The greatest water use in the agricultural sectors is in rice paddy followed by aquaculture and fruit production, but the greatest water use intensity was not in the rice. The greatest water use intensity was 103,263 $m^3$/million KRW for other inedible crop production, which was attributed to the low economic value of the product with great water consumption in the cultivation. The next was timber tract followed by iron ores, raw timber, aquaculture, water supply and miscellaneous cereals like corn and other edible crops in terms of total water use intensity. In holistic view, water management considering indirect water in the industrial sector, i.e. supply chain management in the whole life cycle, is important to increase water use efficiency, since more than 56% of total water was indirect water by humanity. It is expected that the water use intensity data can be used for a water inventory to estimate water footprint of a product for the introduction of water footprint scheme in Korea.