• Title, Summary, Keyword: Footprint

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Estimation of Carbon Footprint for Production of Main Crops and Contribution Analysis of Inorganic Chemical Fertilizers (주요 농작물 생산과정에서의 탄소배출량 산정 및 무기화학비료의 기여도 분석)

  • Jung, Soon-Chul;Jeong, Jae-Woo;Huh, Jin-Ho;Lee, Deog-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1279-1285
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    • 2011
  • Korea is currently underway research to estimate carbon footprint in agriculture centered on the RDA (Rural Development Administration). This study was estimated carbon footprint for major 47 crops. In addition, contribution of inorganic chemical fertilizers, main elements for production of crops were analyzed. The carbon footprint of $5.78E+00kg\;CO_2\;eq.\;kg^{-1}$ for citrus fruit in greenhouse was highest, grape in greenhouse, sweet pepper in greenhouse, ginseng, green pepper in greenhouse were followed by $4.61E+00kg\;CO_2\;eq.\;kg^{-1}$, $4.34E+00kg\;CO_2\;eq.\;kg^{-1}$, $4.23E+00kg\;CO_2\;eq.\;kg^{-1}$, $4.04E+00kg\;CO_2\;eq.\;kg^{-1}$ respectively. Next, production phase contribution of inorganic chemical fertilizer to carbon footprint of crop 1 kg were analyzed mean value 1.88%, 9.06% for single fertilizers and complex fertilizers respectively. And use phase accounted for mean value 14.24%. Therefore, to reduce the fertilization of inorganic chemical fertilizer will be reduced $CO_2$ from crop production, also greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural sector will be reduced.

A Study about Water Footprint Evaluation of Industrial Sectors (국내 산업들의 물 발자국 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Junbeum;Kang, Hun;Park, Kihak
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.400-406
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    • 2013
  • Water footprint means the direct and indirect water resource amount used for the life cycle of different goods, services and industries. In this study, the direct and indirect water resource consumption in industrial sectors were calculated by using water footprint evaluation method. As a result, agriculture and marine product industry takes part of 93% of whole water resource amount, showing the greatest amount of basic unit of water coefficient (637 $m^3/won$) following by petroleum and cool products industry of about 13 $m^3/won$. In the agriculture and marine product industry, the direct water consumption was only 25 billion $m^3$ compared to the indirect water, which is 130 billion $m^3$. The next highest industry was chemical product industry, which consists of 2 billion $m^3$ of the direct water and 4.5 billion $m^3$ of the indirect water consumption. In case of industries which have high direct water, it would be more effective to reduce amount of water related to the industry than to reduce water in actual process. This water footprint of each industry and evaluation method will be useful tool and method for development of national water management policy and regulation.

Analysis on the Water Footprint of Crystalline Silicon PV System (결정질 실리콘 태양광시스템의 물 발자국 산정에 대한 연구)

  • Na, Won-Cheol;Kim, Younghwan;Kim, Kyung Nam;Lee, Kwan-Young
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.449-456
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    • 2014
  • There has been increasing concerns for the problems of water security in countries, caused by the frequent occurrence of localized drought due to the climate change and uncertainty of water balance. The importance of fresh water is emphasized as considerable amount of usable fresh water is utilized for power generation sector producing electricity. PV power system, the source of renewable energy, consumes water for the every steps of life cycle: manufacturing, installation, and operation. However, it uses relatively less water than the traditional energy sources such as thermal power and nuclear power sources. In this study, to find out the use of water for the entire process of PV power system from extracting raw materials to operating the system, the footprint of water in the whole process is measured to be analyzed. Measuring the result, the PV water footprint of value chain was $0.989m^3/MWh$ and the water footprint appeared higher specially in poly-Si and solar cell process. The following two reasons explain it: poly-Si process is energy-intensive process and it consumes lots of cooling water. In solar cell process, deionized water is used considerably for washing a high-efficiency crystalline silicon. It is identified that PV system is the source using less water than traditional ones, which has a critical value in saving water. In discussing the future energy policy, it is vital to introduce the concept of water footprint as a supplementary value of renewable energy.

A Study about Regional Water Footprint of Rice Production in Agriculture Industry (쌀 농업에 대한 지역별 물 발자국 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Junbeum;Kang, Hun;Shin, Sang Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.827-834
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    • 2013
  • The water footprint of product and service is the total volume of freshwater consumed, directly and indirectly, in the life cycle of a product and service. Up to date, water consumption data for industries and products were not well quantified and developed. Especially it is important to construct for agriculture industry which consumes lots of water. In this study, by using Cropwat 8.0 model, we tried to evaluate regionalized water consumption related with rice production in agriculture industry in eight regions (Gangwon, Gyeongi, Gyeongbuk, Gyeongnam, Jeonnam, Jeonbuk, Chungnam, Chungbuk). As a result, Gyeongbuk region has the lowest water consumption in rice production, which is $1,356.68m^3/ton$, on the other hand, Jeonnam region has the highest water consumption ($1,669.54m^3/ton$). By using the average indirect water consumption ($1,487.87m^3/ton$) of eight regions and direct water consumption, the total water footprint for the rice amount of rice bowl size (130 g), which is 193.6 L was calculated. Based on this research approach, we should develop water footprint database of all agriculture products and expand to other industrial sectors.

Intra- and Inter-rater Reliability of BioRescue (BioRescue의 측정자내와 측정자간 신뢰도)

  • Kim, Jin-hong;Choi, Bo-ram
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.348-352
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    • 2018
  • BioRescue ($RMIng{\acute{e}}nierie$, Marseille, France) is able to assess dynamic and static balance when a test subject stands or sits over the platform. Although previous studies have examined the reliability of other balance measurement methods, little research has been conducted on the reliability of equipment such as BioRescue. This study examined the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of BioRescue during balance assessment. Thirty-four healthy adults participated as subjects and two physical therapists participated as examiners to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability. BioRescue was used to conduct measurements during footprint (area and pressure), Romberg, and limit of stability tests. The footprint area and limit of stability tests yielded intra- and inter-rater reliability ICC values above 0.60 in all directions. However, the footprint pressure and Romberg tests yielded values below 0.60 in all directions. BioRescue showed good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in measurements during footprint area and limit of stability tests. However, because the values of limits of stability show the difference between experienced and unskilled, skill is required for the accuracy of the equipment.

Minimal Ablation of the Tibial Stump Using Bony Landmarks Improved Stability and Synovial Coverage Following Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

  • Kodama, Yuya;Furumatsu, Takayuki;Hino, Tomohito;Kamatsuki, Yusuke;Ozaki, Toshifumi
    • Knee surgery & related research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.348-355
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effects of using anatomical bony landmarks (Parsons' knob and the medial intercondylar ridge) and minimal ablation of the tibial footprint to improve knee anterior instability and synovial graft coverage after double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective comparison of outcomes between patients who underwent reconstruction with minimal ablation of the tibial footprint, using an anatomical tibial bony landmark technique, and those who underwent reconstruction with wide ablation of the tibial footprint. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using second-look arthroscopy, radiological assessment of the tunnel position, postoperative anterior knee joint laxity, and clinical outcomes. Results: Use of the anatomical reference and minimal ablation of the tibial footprint resulted in a more anterior positioning of the tibial tunnel, with greater synovial coverage of the graft postoperatively (p=0.01), and improved anterior stability of the knee on second-look arthroscopy. Both groups had comparable clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Use of anatomical tibial bony landmarks that resulted in a more anteromedial tibial tunnel position improved anterior knee laxity, and minimal ablation improved synovial coverage of the graft; however, it did not significantly improve subjective and functional short-term outcomes.

Rotating Arm Internally Can Change the Arthroscopic Diagnosis of a Partial-thickness Tear of the Subscapularis

  • Kim, Hyungsuk;Song, Hyun Seok;Kang, Seung Gu;Han, Sung Bin
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.135-138
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    • 2019
  • Background: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the footprint of the subscapularis tendon using the traditional posterior portal and $30^{\circ}$ arthroscope by simple internal rotation of the arm during surgery, and (2) to classify the pattern of a subscapularis partial-thickness tear. Methods: This study analyzed a total of 231 patients with a partial-thickness subscapularis tear from 550 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic operation who had a visualization of the subscapularis tendon footprint by internal rotation of the arm. First, the patients were classified into four categories according to the tear pattern: (1) stable lamination, (2) unstable lamination, (3) avulsion, and (4) laminated avulsion. Randomized arthroscopic videos were reviewed blindly by two independent orthopedic surgeons. The pattern of the tear of the subscapularis at the neutral position and after internal rotating the arm were assessed and compared with the treatment decision (level IV case series). Results: Stable lamination, unstable lamination, avulsion, and laminated avulsion were observed in 9.1% (n=21), 20.8% (n=48), 41.1% (n=95), and 29.0% (n=67) of cases, respectively. In 145 out of 231 cases (62.8%), the decision was changed after inspecting the footprint after internal rotation of the arm, and the treatment method was changed in 116 (50.2%) cases. Conclusions: In a subscapularis tendon partial-thickness tear, inspecting the footprint of the subscapularis tendon is essential to diagnosing and deciding on the appropriate treatment. In addition, simply internal rotating the arm during surgery when using the traditional posterior portal and $30^{\circ}$ arthroscope can be a valuable method.

Method of Introduce for International Standards for Water Footprint Calculations (물발자국의 국제표준화와 국내 도입 방안)

  • Park, Sung Je;Lee, Young Kune;Ryu, Si Saeng
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.267-267
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    • 2015
  • 가상수의 흐름을 보다 가시적으로 파악하기 위하여 대두된 개념이 물발자국(water footprint)이다. 이는 흔히 사용되고 있는 생태발자국(ecological footprint)이나 탄소발자국(carbon footprint)에 착안하여 도입된 개념으로 한 국가의 물발자국은 직 간접적으로 물건이나 재화를 생산하는데 국민이 소비하는 물의 총량으로 정의된다. 물발자국을 내적/외적으로 단순히 구분하여 산정하는 방식이 진화하여 1단위의 생산에서 유통 및 서비스까지 확대하여 그 전 과정을 모두 포함하는 물발자국 산정방식이 도입된 것은 최근의 일이다. 직접적인 물사용과 간접적인 물사용을 구분하여 물발자국을 산정하고, 그 위에 물의 성질에 따라 green water, blue water, 그리고 grey water로 각각 개념을 상세화하여 물발자국을 산정하는 방안이 도입되었다. 2009년 물발자국 산정의 표준화를 위한 스위스의 제안이 ISO에 제출되었고, 각 국가들에 의한 투표가 진행되어 2010년 물발자국 국제표준안이 채택되었다. 본 연구는 이러한 국제기구에 의한 일련의 국제표준화 작업을 대상으로 진행되었다. 2014년 ISO/TC 207 국제총회가 개최되어 환경경영시스템(SC1), 환경감사(SC2), 환경 라벨링(SC3), 환경성과평가(SC4), 전과정평가(SC5), 온실가스관리(SC7)의 6개 분과위원회(Sub-Committees)가 구성되어 세부논의가 진행되었으며, 이러한 과정을 분석함으로서 물발자국 국제표준(ISO 14046)과 향후 우리나라의 대응방안을 고찰하였다. 물발자국 국제표준(ISO 14046) 제정을 통해 물발자국의 필요성 및 중요성에 대한 국가 간 합의는 도출되었으나, 적용시기 및 세부적인 방법론 등에 대한 이견이 여전히 존재하고 있다. ISO 14046의 실질적 적용에 필요한 세부사항과 관련된 기술보고서 작업초안(WD 14073)은 작업반(SC5/WG8)에서 진행되고 있다. 그러나 물발자국 국제표준이 국가 간 무역장벽이나 특정국의 진입을 막는 수단으로 사용될 수 있는 점 등 실질적으로 국제표준의 도입에 따른 문제점 역시 존재한다. 본 연구에서 제시된 국제표준의 도입 방안을 통하여 가상수무역의 국제적 선점효과를 기대함과 동시에 수자원의 유효한 활용을 기대할 수 있을 것이다.

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Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Complex Fertilizers Production System by Using Life Cycle Assessment (전과정평가를 활용한 복합비료 생산 시스템의 온실가스 배출량 평가)

  • Jung, Soon-Chul;Park, Jeong-A;Huh, Jin-Ho;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2011
  • Currently among the several methods to estimate an environmental impact of products, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique is mostly used. The Ministry of Environment has been performed the carbon footprint labelling to give the carbon record of product by using this method. But the calculation of carbon footprint in primary agricultural product which is raw material of the processed food cannot be made because there is lack of methodology and LCI DB at agriculture sector. Therefore, LCA carried out to estimate carbon footprint, and established LCI DB for complex fertilizers (21-17-17 1 kg, 17-21-17 1 kg, 15-15-15 1 kg, Unspecified 1 kg) in the production system. The result of LCI DB analysis focussed on the GHG, and it was observed that the values of carbon footprint were $2.42E+00kg\;CO_2-eq.kg^{-1}$ for 21-17-17, $2.10E+00kg\;CO_2-eq.kg^{-1}$ for 17-21-17, $2.23E+00kg\;CO_2-eq.kg^{-1}$ for 15-15-15 and $3.56E+00kg\;CO_2-eq.kg^{-1}$ for Unspecified. For the analysis of LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) on complex fertilizers in the production system, the carbon footprint from pre-manufacturing phase is contributed to 98.96%, 98.81%, 98.88% and 99.30% on each complex fertilizer with 21-17-17, 17-21-17, 15-15-15, and Unspecified, respectively. These results will be used in basic data for estimation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions.