• Title, Summary, Keyword: Footprint

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Life Cycle Assessment of the Domestic Dairy Cow System (국내 낙농우(젖소)로부터의 우유생산에 대한 전과정평가)

  • Park, Yoo Sung;Lee, Kun Mo;Yang, Seung Hak
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2015
  • Recently the dairy cow industry have faced environmental issues such as eutrophication, global warming, etc. An LCA was used to quantify the environmental impact of a dairy cow system and to identify key issues contributing to the impact. The system boundary crop cultivation for feeding dairy cow, feed production, rearing and manure management (cradle-to-gate). The functional unit was 1 kg of milk (fat protein corrected milk, FPCM) produced. Rearing and cultivation of feed crops stages in system boundary to the environmental impact of the domestic dairy cow system were dominant issues. Techniques such as suppression of enteric fermentation, improvement of the energy efficiency of farm equipment and apparatuses, management of leachate generated during the crop cultivation, and development of controling the loss of fertilizer during crop production would be necessary for the improvement of the environmental key issues of the dairy cow system.

The Study of MP-MAS Utilization to Support Decision-Making for Climate-Smart Agriculture in Rice Farming (벼농사의 기후스마트농업을 위한 의사결정지원시스템 MP-MAS 활용 연구)

  • Kim, Hakyoung;Kim, Joon;Choi, Sung-Won;Indrawati, Yohana Maria
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.378-388
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    • 2016
  • International societies are currently working together to achieve the Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) initiative which aims the triple wins: (1) sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; (2) adapting and building resilience to climate change; and (3) mitigating greenhouse gases emissions. In terms of its scope and context, CSA follows the '3Nong (三農)' vision cast about 200 years ago by Dasan Jeong Yak-Yong who emphasized the triad of governance, management and monitoring towards comfortable, profitable and noble agriculture. Yet, the CSA provides the practical aims that facilitate the development of holistic indicators for quantitative evaluation and monitoring, on which decision-making support system is based. In this study, we introduce an agent-based model, i.e. Mathematical Programming Multi-Agent Systems (MP-MAS), as a tool for supporting the decision-making toward CSA. We have established the initial version of MP-MAS adapted for domestic use and present the preliminary results from an application to the rice farming case in Haenam, Korea. MP-MAS can support both farmers and policy-makers to consider diverse management options from multiple perspectives. When the modules for system resilience and carbon footprint are added, MP-MAS will serve as a robust tool that fulfills not only CSA but also Dasan's '3Nong' vision of sustainable agricultural-societal systems.

The Sociological Antecedents of Brand Attachment: A comparison of Broadcasting and Passive Consumption on Social Networking Sites (상표 애착의 사회적 선행변수에 대한 연구)

  • Shin, Jong-Kuk;Park, Min-Sook;Ross, Corey Allen
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the authors examine the ways in which social media ultimately affects the attachment of individuals to their favorite brands. Through an analysis of data using multiple linear regression, this study finds that SNS (social networking site) users that post status updates for a wide audience have no bearing on the individual's use of socialization agents. Those who consume social news passively are, however, likely to depend on socialization agents for determining their final purchase decisions. Socialization agents, both personal and non-personal, also play a role in the formation of brand attachment among individuals who depend on these social sources. Based on these results, marketers are encouraged to establish an online footprint of a social nature to formulate brand awareness and to provide a means for users of social media to improve their brand attachments to their favored brands. As this research was conducted exclusively in the predominantly collective culture of South Korea, further studies could attempt to analyze social networking use and socialization agent use via a cross-culture study, particularly one including an individualistic culture.

Determination of Physical Footprints of Buildings with Consideration Terrain Surface LiDAR Data (지표면 라이다 데이터를 고려한 건물 외곽선 결정)

  • Yoo, Eun Jin;Lee, Dong-Cheon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.503-514
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    • 2016
  • Delineation of accurate object boundaries is crucial to provide reliable spatial information products such as digital topographic maps, building models, and spatial database. In LiDAR(Light Detection and Ranging) data, real boundaries of the buildings exist somewhere between outer-most points on the roofs and the closest points to the buildings among points on the ground. In most cases, areas of the building footprints represented by LiDAR points are smaller than actual size of the buildings because LiDAR points are located inside of the physical boundaries. Therefore, building boundaries determined by points on the roofs do not coincide with the actual footprints. This paper aims to estimate accurate boundaries that are close to the physical boundaries using airborne LiDAR data. The accurate boundaries are determined from the non-gridded original LiDAR data using initial boundaries extracted from the gridded data. The similar method implemented in this paper is also found in demarcation of the maritime boundary between two territories. The proposed method consists of determining initial boundaries with segmented LiDAR data, estimating accurate boundaries, and accuracy evaluation. In addition, extremely low density data was also utilized for verifying robustness of the method. Both simulation and real LiDAR data were used to demonstrate feasibility of the method. The results show that the proposed method is effective even though further refinement and improvement process could be required.

Computational study of orientation effects on thermal performance of natural convection cooled lightweight high performance hollow hybrid fin heat sinks (자연대류 냉각되는 경량고성능 할로우 하이브리드 휜 히트싱크의 열성능에 대한 방향 영향의 전산연구)

  • Effendi, Nico Setiawan;Kim, Kyoung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.786-790
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    • 2016
  • This paper discusses numerically explored orientation effects on the thermal performance of hollow hybrid fin heat sinks (HHFHSs) under natural convection. A HHFHS consists of an array of hollow pin fins concatenated with plate fins and having perforations near the fin bases. Orientation effects on the footprint-based and mass-based thermal performance of the HHFHS were numerically studied for orientation angles ranging from $0^{\circ}$ to $180^{\circ}$. The performance of the HHFHS was compared with that of a pin fin heat sink (PFHS) having similar physical parameters. The results show that the thermal resistance of the HHFHS did not vary considerably from $0^{\circ}$ to $45^{\circ}$. The thermal resistance increased from $45^{\circ}$ to $90^{\circ}$, reached its maximum at $90^{\circ}$, and decreased consistently from $90^{\circ}$ to $180^{\circ}$. Dissimilar behaviors of the thermal resistance of the HHFHS vs. the PFHS resulted mainly from the effect of heat pumping induced by the internal flows of the hollow fins. Despite various orientations, the mass-based thermal resistance of the HHFHS was found to be nearly 30% smaller than that of the PFHS. This result shows the feasibility of the HHFHS for the lightweight thermal management of electronics under natural convection.

A Study for establishment of soil moisture station in mountain terrain (1): the representative analysis of soil moisture for construction of Cosmic-ray verification system (산악 지형에서의 토양수분 관측소 구축을 위한 연구(1): Cosmic-ray 검증시스템 구축을 위한 토양수분량 대표성 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Kiyoung;Jung, Sungwon;Lee, Yeongil
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2019
  • The major purpose of this study is to construct an in-situ soil moisture verification network employing Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) sensors for Cosmic-ray soil moisture observation system operation as well as long-term field-scale soil moisture monitoring. The test bed of Cosmic-ray and FDR verification network system was established at the Sulma Catchment, in connection with the existing instrumentations for integrated data provision of various hydrologic variables. This test bed includes one Cosmic-ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) and ten FDR stations with four different measurement depths (10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm) at each station, and has been operating since July 2018. Furthermore, to assess the reliability of the in-situ verification network, the volumetric water content data measured by FDR sensors were compared to those calculated through the core sampling method. The evaluation results of FDR sensors- measured soil moisture against sampling method during the study period indicated a reasonable agreement, with average values of $bias=-0.03m^3/m^3$ and RMSE $0.03m^3/m^3$, revealing that this FDR network is adequate to provide long-term reliable field-scale soil moisture monitoring at Sulmacheon basin. In addition, soil moisture time series observed at all FDR stations during the study period generally respond well to the rainfall events; and at some locations, the characteristics of rainfall water intercepted by canopy were also identified. The Temporal Stability Analysis (TSA) was performed for all FDR stations located within the CRNP footprint at each measurement depth to determine the representative locations for field-average soil moisture at different soil profiles of the verification network. The TSA results showed that superior performances were obtained at FDR 5 for 10 cm depth, FDR 8 for 20 cm depth, FDR2 for 30 cm depth, and FDR1 for 40 cm depth, respectively; demonstrating that those aforementioned stations can be regarded as temporal stable locations to represent field mean soil moisture measurements at their corresponding measurement depths. Although the limit on study duration has been presented, the analysis results of this study can provide useful knowledge on soil moisture variability and stability at the test bed, as well as supporting the utilization of the Cosmic-ray observation system for long-term field-scale soil moisture monitoring.

Femoral Tunnel Obliquity between the Transtibial and Anteromedial Portal Technique in Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (전방십자인대 단일 다발 재건술에서 경경골 술기 및 전내측 삽입구를 이용한 대퇴골 터널의 기울기)

  • Lee, Ju-Hong;Park, Jong-Hyuk;Bae, Hyeon-Kyeong;Kim, Jong-Gil;Wang, Sung-Il
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: To compare the obliquity of femoral tunnels prepared with transtibial (TT) versus anteromedial portal technique (AM) using x-ray in single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Among one-hundred thirty two patients who were undergoing ACL reconstruction from January 2007 to December 2009, thirty patients using TT and twenty patients using AM, those who had single-bundle ACL reconstruction, were evaluated with plain radiographs including anteroposterior, intercondylar notch and lateral view to compare the obliquity of bone tunnels. Results: The mean coronal obliquity of femoral tunnel for TT was $71^{\circ}$ (range; $65^{\circ}{\sim}77^{\circ}$), while for AM was $51^{\circ}$ (range; $39^{\circ}{\sim}60^{\circ}$) and the mean sagittal obliquity of femoral tunnel for TT was $22.7^{\circ}{\pm}7.8$, while for AM was $30.2^{\circ}{\pm}6.9$, their differences between them were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, there were no differences between two techniques on the tibial tunnel obliquity in coronal and sagittal plane. Conclusion: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using AM portal technique allows more horizontally oriented and divergent femoral tunnel compared to that of transtibial technique. This seems to enable the graft placement into the femoral footprint and preserve the posterior cortical wall.

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A Study on the Estimation of Ecological Footprint in Gyeongsangbuk-do for Comparison of Environmental Capacity of Each Local Government (자치단체별 환경용량 비교를 위한 경상북도지역 생태발자국 추정연구)

  • Kang, Kee-Rae;Kim, Hee-Chae;Kim, Dong-Pil;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Shin, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.769-778
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    • 2014
  • The rapid urbanization and increase in population due to industrialization have led to the extension of cities and the reduction in naturality as a necessity. Now, it is the biggest threat to virtuous circle of ecosystem. With the expansion of common recognition that this ecological crisis would be accompanied by the crisis of mankind, many countries all around the world are conducting researches to indicate the optimum consumption level of individual as an index in addition to cross-national environmental indicators such as ESI, EPI and SDI, by measuring environmental consumption of state, local government or individual, and comparing each region. Based on this background, this research was carried out to estimate the environmental capacity of 23 local government in Gyeongsangbuk-do. The result of EF estimation showed that EF value necessary for life per head in Gyeongsangbuk-do was 0.9534, and it showed an ecological deficit of 25.3 percent when analyzing it in consideration of the ecological capacity. Also, among the local governments in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Youngduk-gun displayed the highest EF, and Ulleung-gun displayed the lowest EF. But when analyzing the ecological deficit in consideration of the ecological capacity of each region, Gumi-city showed the greatest ecological deficit, and Youngyang-gun showed the biggest ecological capacity. The environmental capacity estimated in this study is to digitize the ecological capacity and ecological deficit of each local government in Gyeongsangbuk-do. The estimated optimum environmental capacity of each local government suggests the scale of environmental preservation and proper development and furthermore, could be used as fundamental data for persuading members of each local government when selecting a location of development facility or preservation area.

Carbon Uptake and Emissions of Apple Orchards as a Production-type Greenspace (생산형 녹지 중 사과나무 과수원의 탄소흡수 및 배출)

  • Jo, Hyun-Kil;Park, Sung-Min;Kim, Jin-Young;Park, Hye-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.64-72
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    • 2014
  • This study quantified the storage and annual uptake of carbon by apple trees in orchards as a production-type greenspace, and computed the annual carbon emissions from apple cultivation. Tree individuals in the study orchards were sampled to include the range of stem diameter sizes. The study measured biomass for each part including the roots of sample trees through a direct harvesting method to compute total carbon storage per tree. Annual carbon uptake per tree was quantified by analyzing the radial growth rates of stem samples at ground level. Annual carbon emissions from management practices such as pruning, mowing, irrigation, fertilization, and use of pesticides and fungicides were estimated based on maintenance data, interviews with managers, and actual measurements. Regression models were developed using stem diameter at ground level (D) as an independent variable to easily estimate storage and annual uptake of the carbon. Storage and annual uptake of carbon per tree increased as D sizes got larger. Apple trees with D sizes of 10 and 15 cm stored 9.1 and 21.0 kg of carbon and annually sequestered 1.0 and 1.6 kg, respectively. Storage and annual uptake of carbon per unit area in study orchards were 3.81 t/ha and 0.42 t/ha/yr, respectively, and annual carbon emissions were 1.30 t/ha/yr. Thus, the carbon emissions were about 3 times greater than the annual carbon uptake. The study identified management practices to reduce the carbon footprint of production-type greenspace, including efficient uses of water, pesticides, fungicides, and fertilizers. It breaks new ground by including measured biomass of roots and a detailed inventory of carbon emissions.

Relationship Between Insertion Torque, and Pullout Strength Depending on the Size of the Pilot Hole and Biodegradable Suture Anchor in Osteoporotic Humeral Head (골다공증이 있는 상완골 골두의 파일럿 홀 (Pilot Hole)과 흡수성 나사못의 크기에 따른 토크 (Torque)와 뽑힘 강도 (Pullout Strength) 간의 관계)

  • Chun, Yong-Min;Lee, Young-Han;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Park, Yoo-Jung;Kim, Sung-Jae
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The object of this study was to investigate the difference in torque and pullout strength between the standard anchor insertion (5.0 mm) with a small awl (3.7 mm) and larger anchor insertion (6.5 mm), with a standard awl (5.0 mm) in osteoporotic humeral head. Materials and Methods: The embalmed 24 paired cadaveric shoulders were assigned to either Group A or B. After measuring the bone mineral density (BMD) of the ROI (region of interest) in the humeral head, 5.0 mm suture anchors were inserted using a 3.7 mm awl in Group A1, and the same 5.0 mm anchors were inserted using a 5.0 mm awl in Group A2. The 5.0 mm anchors were inserted using a 5.0 mm awl in Group B1, and 6.5 mm anchors were inserted using a 5.0 mm awl in Group B2. We measured the torques at the time of the anchor insertion and pullout strengths. Results: There was no significant difference in the BMD between the groups. The torque of A1 (20.6 $cN{\cdot}m$) was significantly higher than that of A2 (13.2 $cN{\cdot}m$), and the torque of B2 (20.8 $cN{\cdot}m$) was significantly higher than that of B1(12.1 $cN{\cdot}m$). However, the difference in the increased torque between group A and B was not significant. The pullout strength of A1 (204.2 N) was significantly higher than that of A2 (152.9 N), and the pullout strength of B2 (210.9 N) was significantly higher than that of B1 (149.5 N). However, the difference in the increased pullout strength between Group A and B was not significant. Conclusion: In severe osteoporosis, the use of a larger suture anchor with a standard awl increased the torque and pullout strength significantly, in comparison to the use of the same sized suture anchor and awl. If there is an inadequate interval between the anchors on the greater tuberosity, the use of a 3.7 mm awl and 5.0 mm anchor will be beneficial compared to that of a 5.0 mm awl and 6.5 mm anchor, considering that an increase in the pullout strength does not depend on the awl size.