• Title, Summary, Keyword: Footprint

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Biomechanical Test for Repair Technique of Full-thickness Rotator Cuff Tear

  • Lim, Chae-Ouk;Park, Kyoung-Jin
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2016
  • The arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is now considered a mainstream technique with highly satisfactory clinical results. However, concerns remain regarding healing failures for large and massive tears and high revision rate. In recent decades, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. The focus of biomechanical test in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. Recent studies have shown that a transosseous tunnel technique provides improved contact area and pressure between rotator cuff tendon and insertion footprint, and the technique of using double rows of suture anchors to recreate the native footprint attachment has been recently described. The transosseous equivalent suture bridge technique has the highest contact pressure and fixation force. In this review, the biomechanical tests about repair techniques of rotator cuff tear will be reviewed and discussed.

Study on aerodynamic shape optimization of tall buildings using architectural modifications in order to reduce wake region

  • Daemei, Abdollah Baghaei;Eghbali, Seyed Rahman
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2019
  • One of the most important factors in tall buildings design in urban spaces is wind. The present study aims to investigate the aerodynamic behavior in the square and triangular footprint forms through aerodynamic modifications including rounded corners, chamfered corners and recessed corners in order to reduce the length of tall buildings wake region. The method used was similar to wind tunnel numerical simulation conducted on 16 building models through Autodesk Flow Design 2014 software. The findings revealed that in order to design tall 50 story buildings with a height of about 150 meters, the model in triangular footprint with aerodynamic modification of chamfered corner facing wind direction came out to have the best aerodynamic behavior comparing the other models. In comparison to the related reference model (i.e., the triangular footprint with sharp corners and no aerodynamic modification), it could reduce the length of the wake region about 50% in general. Also, the model with square footprint and aerodynamic modification of chamfered corner with the corner facing the wind could present favorable aerodynamic behavior comparing the other models of the same cluster. In comparison to the related reference model (i.e., the square footprint with sharp corners and no aerodynamic modification), it could decrease the wake region up to 30% lengthwise.

An Extension of Product Data Model for Calculating Product-level Carbon Footprint (제품수준 탄소배출이력 계산을 위한 제품자료모델 확장)

  • Do, Nam-Chui
    • Korean Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.268-276
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    • 2011
  • The product-level carbon footprint (PCF) is a comprehensive and widely accepted metric for sustainable product development. However, since a full PCF study in general is time and cost intensive, it is not feasible for the product development team to synchronize the activity to the main product development process. In addition, the current dedicated life cycle assessment (LCA) tools for calculating PCF, separated from the main product data management systems, have limitations to provide timely PCF information for design decision makings and collaborations between design and environment engineers. This paper examines the possibility of the extension of the current product data model that can support the PCF calculation with PDM (Product Data Management) databases. The product data model can represent not only the content of products but also context or system information of the products. The product data model can be implemented as a PDM database that can satisfy the needs for handy and timely PCF calculations from the consistent product data for dynamic design decision makings and engineering collaborations.

Building Modeling System on Satellite Image using Footprint and Shadow (Footprint 와 그림자를 이용한 위성영상의 건물 모델링 시스템)

  • Oh, Seon-Ho;Jang, Jae-Seok;Jang, Kyung-Ho;Jung, Soon-Ki
    • 한국HCI학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.807-812
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    • 2008
  • 최근 고해상도 위성영상이 널리 보급됨에 따라 공간 영상 정보를 활용한 사업이나 다양한 응용 분야에서도 지형 또는 지물의 기하 정보의 필요성이 커지고 있다. 특히 공간 영상 정보 시스템에서는 지형 또는 지물에 대한 사실적인 정보를 제공하여 이를 이용한 도시 개발 계획의 수립이나 도로망의 개선 등 다양한 분야로 활용되고 있다. 본 논문은 단일 위성영상에서 건물의 footprint, rooftop 과 그림자 정보를 이용하여 건물을 효과적으로 모델링하기 위한 반 자동화 시스템을 제안한다. 위성영상으로부터 건물의 기하 정보의 추출 및 복원 시 고려할 것은 사용자의 조작을 최소화하면서도 보다 정확하고 빠르게 모델링 및 편집이 가능하여야 한다는 것이다. 이를 위해서 위성영상과 영상의 메타 정보의 활용과 효율적인 조작이 이루어 질 수 있는 인터페이스가 필요하다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 사용자의 입력에 의해 건물의 정보(rooftop, footprint)를 추출하고, 건물의 정보와 메타정보로부터 관심 건물영역에 대한 그림자 정보를 추출한 다음, 높이 정보를 자동적으로 추출해 냄으로써 최소한의 사용자 입력으로 건물을 효과적으로 모델링 할 수 있다.

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Analysis of Paddy Rice Water Footprint under Climate Change Using AquaCrop (AquaCrop을 이용한 기후변화에 따른 미래 논벼 물발자국 변화 분석)

  • Oh, Bu-Yeong;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2017
  • Climate change causes changes in rainfall patterns, temperature and drought frequency. Climate change impact influences on water management and crop production. It is critical issue in agricultural industry. Rice is a staple cereal crop in South Korea and Korea uses a ponding system for its paddy fields which requires a significant amount of water. In addition, water supply has inter-relationship with crop production which indicates water productivity. Therefore, it is important to assess overall impacts of climate change on water resource and crop production. A water footprint concept is an indicator which shows relationship between water use and crop yield. In addition, it generally composed of three components depending on water resources: green, blue, grey water. This study analyzed the change trend of water footprint of paddy rice under the climate change. The downscaled climate data from HadGEM3-RA based on RCP 8.5 scenario was applied as future periods (2020s, 2050s, 2080s), and historical climate data was set to base line (1990s). Depending on agro-climatic zones, Suwon and Jeonju were selected for study area. A yield of paddy rice was simulated by using FAO-AquaCrop 5.0, which is a water-driven crop model. Model was calibrated by adjusting parameters and was validated by Mann-Whitney U test statistically. The means of water footprint were projected increase by 55 % (2020s), 51 % (2050s) and 48 % (2080s), respectively, from the baseline value of $767m^2/ton$ in Suwon. In case of Jeonju, total water footprint was projected to increase by 46 % (2020s), 45 % (2050s), 12 % (2080s), respectively, from the baseline value of $765m^2/ton$. The results are expected to be useful for paddy water management and operation of water supply system and apply in establishing long-term policies for agricultural water resources.

Citation Relationship Trend Analysis of Virtual Water and Water Footprint Studies in Korea (국내 가상수 및 물발자국 산정 연구의 인용관계 동향 분석)

  • Park, Sungje;Lee, Minhyeon;Ju, Yena;Park, Kyeyoung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.21 no.spc
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2019
  • South Korea is a nation highly reliant on virtual water imports, which raises concerns of water crisis and food crisis at the national level. Virtual water and water footprint studies that consider the environment, social, and economic issues have been consistently addressed. However, there is a lack of Korean research, so the calculation method and comparison analysis are greatly dependent on foreign research results. The calculation results for Korean domestic agricultural products have been released in earnest since 2014. Thus, there has been an increase in comparison studies using domestic virtual water and water footprint results. This study identified the Korean agricultural and livestock water footprint research direction to determine the citation relationship trends. Domestic and foreign research results were analyzed from Korean water footprint related literature from the past 10 years. Therefore, a citation relationship diagram was formed from the literature analysis results. Virtual water and water footprint related research performance are provided in the appendix so researchers can utilize the various information related to this field in the future. In addition, national strategy policy making is expected to be presented for effective water resources management.

Application and Determination of Defended Footprint Using a Simulation Model for Ballastic Missile Trajectory (탄도미사일 궤적 시뮬레이션 모델을 이용한 방어영역 산출 및 응용)

  • Hong, Dongwg;Yim, Dongsoon;Choi, Bongwhan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.551-561
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    • 2018
  • Footprint is defined as ground area that is projected from the outer edges of the battle space protected by a defence system. This concept can be effectively used for making decisions on site selection of anti missile systems to defend against enemy's ballistic missiles. In this paper, simulations of ballistic missile trajectories based on various launch conditions are performed first and then the footprint is derived with engagement zone set as a boundary condition. Results of the simulation with various relative positions between the defense system and defended asset are also presented. The proposed method, in which the trajectories are generated based on launch point of the ballistic missile, has an advantage of approximating the defended area close to reality. Two applications are introduced in the present paper to describe how the derivation of defended area could be utilized in deployment decision of defense systems.

The Assessment of the Sustain ability on Human Activities through Ecologically Productive Land Calculated by the Ecological Footprint of Cheju Island (생산 가능한 토지면적산정기법을 이용한 지속성 평가에 대한 연구: 제주도 지역을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Yong-Bum;Hyun, Youn-Joo;Chung, Yong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 1997
  • The object of this study is the introduction and the application of Ecological Footprint(EF) for sustainability of regional people activities. It is a tool for the evaluation of specific projects through various lifestyles or consumption to area of broad policy and budgets. But in Korea there is no assessment for consumption level of human activities by EF. Therefore this study try to analyse ecologically productive land for human activities of Cheju-island in order to assess the sustainability in Cheju and compares with another industrized countries. We analyze the human activities level of Cheju-island then the EF is about 0.9(ha/cap). This value is not more than another countries like Canada and United States. EF assists in choosing technologies, policies and Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) which can perform a certain task with the smallest ecological footprint. It will help society to avoid collapse and move towards sustainability and ecological efficiency.

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Comparison of Land Farming and Chemical Oxidation based on Environmental Footprint Analysis (환경적 footprint 분석을 통한 토양경작법과 화학적산화법의 비교)

  • Kim, Yun-Soo;Lim, Hyung-Suk;Park, Jae-Woo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2015
  • In this study, land farming and chemical oxidation of a diesel-contaminated site is compared to evaluate the environmental impact during soil remediation using the Spreadsheet for Environmental Footprint Analysis by U.S. EPA. Each remediation process is divided into four phases, consisting of soil excavation, backfill and transportation (Phase 0), construction of remediation facility (Phase 1), remediation operation (Phase 2), and restoration of site and waste disposal (Phase 3). Environmental footprints, such as material use, energy consumption, air emission, water use and waste generation, are analyzed to find the way to minimize the environmental impact. In material use and waste generation, land farming has more environmental effect than chemical oxidation due to the concrete and backfill material used to construct land farming facility in Phase 1. Also, in energy use, land farming use about six times more energy than chemical oxidation because of cement production and fuel use of heavy machinery, such as backhoe and truck. However, carbon dioxide, commonly considered as important factor of environmental impact due to global warming effect, is emitted more in chemical oxidation because of hydrogen peroxide production. Water use of chemical oxidation is also 2.1 times higher than land farming.

Secured Authentication through Integration of Gait and Footprint for Human Identification

  • Murukesh, C.;Thanushkodi, K.;Padmanabhan, Preethi;Feroze, Naina Mohamed D.
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.2118-2125
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    • 2014
  • Gait Recognition is a new technique to identify the people by the way they walk. Human gait is a spatio-temporal phenomenon that typifies the motion characteristics of an individual. The proposed method makes a simple but efficient attempt to gait recognition. For each video file, spatial silhouettes of a walker are extracted by an improved background subtraction procedure using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Here GMM is used as a parametric probability density function represented as a weighted sum of Gaussian component densities. Then, the relevant features are extracted from the silhouette tracked from the given video file using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA) classifier is used in the classification of dimensional reduced image derived by the PCA method for gait recognition. Although gait images can be easily acquired, the gait recognition is affected by clothes, shoes, carrying status and specific physical condition of an individual. To overcome this problem, it is combined with footprint as a multimodal biometric system. The minutiae is extracted from the footprint and then fused with silhouette image using the Discrete Stationary Wavelet Transform (DSWT). The experimental result shows that the efficiency of proposed fusion algorithm works well and attains better result while comparing with other fusion schemes.