• Title, Summary, Keyword: Footprint

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Estimation of Water Footprint for Upland Crop Production in Korea (한국의 밭작물 생산에서의 물발자국 산정)

  • Yoo, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2014
  • Water footprint is defined as the total volume of direct and indirect water used to produce a good and service by consumer or producer, and measured at the point of production based on virtual water concept. The green and blue water footprint refers to the volume of the rainwater and the irrigation water consumed, respectively. Crop water footprint is expected to be used as the basic data for agricultural water resources policies at production, consumption and trade aspect. Thus, it is necessary to estimate suitable green and blue water footprint for South Korea. The objective of this paper is to quantify the green and blue water footprint and usage of upland crops during the period 2001-2010. To estimate the water footprint, 43 upland crop production quantity and harvested area data were collected for 10 years and FAO Penman-Monteith equation was adopted for calculating crop water requirement. As the results, the water footprint of cereals, vegetables, fruits and oil crops accounted for 1,994, 165, 605, and 4,226 $m^3/ton$, respectively. The usage of water footprint for crop production has been estimated at 3,499 (green water) and 216 (blue water) $Mm^3/yr$ on average showing a tendency to decrease. Fruits and vegetables have the largest share in the green water usage, consuming about 1,200 and 1,060 $Mm^3/yr$ which are about 65 % of gross usage. The results of this study are expected to be understood by the agricultural water footprint as well as by the total water footprint from both a production and consumption perspective in Korea.

Development of Insole Pattern Depending on the Footprint Shape of Elder Women (노년여성의 족저 형태에 따른 인솔 패턴 개발 연구)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Kwon, Yeong-A
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.122-125
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    • 2008
  • Even though many researchers studied the foot shape and dimension, those applications lacked. The purpose of this study was to develop insole pattern of elderly women according to footprint. Discrepancy in the classification criteria among of foot parameters complicates attempts for elderly women classification of foot sole. To develop a footprint-based classification technique for the classification of foot sole types by allowing simultaneous use of several parameters. Foot sole data from static standing footprints were recorded from 48 elderly women. The factors of footprint shape were determined. Cluster analysis was applied to obtain individual foot sole classifications. The classification model of foot insole is proposed for a classification of footprint in elderly women. An application of ANOVA, Duncan's analysis, frequency analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis have been made to footprint data. In order to make clear foot sole characteristics, the factors of footprint shape have been discussed. The results are as follows. The factors of footprint shape have been classified into four types: foot length, sole slope, outside sole slope, and foot width. The types of foot sole shape have been classified into four types: longed, shortened, outside sloped, and toes sloped.

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Estimation of Water Footprint for Livestock Products in Korea (한국의 축산물 물발자국 산정)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong;Yoo, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Young Deuk;Shin, Ankook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2015
  • Since the consumption of the livestock products increased for the past 10 years in Korea, the water use for live animals has become more important in terms of water savings. Therefore, the index connecting water use and livestock products consumption should be required for sustainable water management, and water footprint concept could be suggested as the index. The aim of this study is to estimate the water footprint for livestock products; beef cattle, swine, and broiler chicken. The water footprint for livestock products is divided into direct and indirect water. The direct water includes the drinking and servicing water, and the indirect water includes the water for the cultivation of feed crops. The water footprint of beef cattle was calculated to $17,023.1m^3/ton$, and direct water was $91.2m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $16,931.9m^3/ton$. The water footprint of swine was calculated to $4,235.8m^3/ton$, and direct water was $129.7m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $4,106.0m^3/ton$. The water footprint of broiler chicken was calculated to $2,427.7m^3/ton$, and direct water was $7.6m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $2,420.1m^3/ton$. Also, we compared the water footprint to water demand of water vision 2020 which is the main report for national water management. The water vision 2020 reported only direct water for live animal, but the water footprint includes the direct and indirect water. Therefore, the water footprint could be applied to various fields relating water and food.

Evaluation and Comparison Study of Carbon Footprint of High School Students: Focused on Commute to School in Big, Middle, Small Size City (국내 고등학생들의 탄소발자국 산정과 비교에 관한 연구: 대.중.소도시 통학패턴을 중심으로)

  • Yeo, In-Ho;Kim, Jun-Beum;Kang, Suk-Kyo;Kim, Jin-Beum
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2012
  • The goal of this study, as an effort to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is to calculate the carbon footprint of students based on the commute pattern of high school students in big (Seoul), middle (Suwon) and small (Icheon) size city. By conducting a survey, the commute pattern and method of students as well as students' carbon footprint were evaluated. As a result, the carbon footprint of the high school student in Icheon ($1.698kgCO_2$) had 2~3 times higher than student's carbon footprint in Seoul ($0.623kgCO_2$) and Suwon ($0.699kgCO_2$). One of the reasons for the different carbon footprint result between big and small city was whether the public pedestrian facilities and a bicycle path or not. Based on our research results, we pointed out the problems and suggested some ways to reduce carbon footprint of students.

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Extraction of Basic Insect Footprint Segments Using ART2 of Automatic Threshold Setting (자동 임계값 설정 ART2를 이용한 곤충 발자국의 인식 대상 영역 추출)

  • Shin, Bok-Suk;Cha, Eui-Young;Woo, Young-Woon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.1604-1611
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    • 2007
  • In a process of insect footprint recognition, basic footprint segments should be extracted from a whole insect footprint image in order to find out appropriate features for classification. In this paper, we used a clustering method as a preprocessing stage for extraction of basic insect footprint segments. In general, sizes and strides of footprints may be different according to type and sire of an insect for recognition. Therefore we proposed an improved ART2 algorithm for extraction or basic insect footprint segments regardless of size and stride or footprint pattern. In the proposed ART2 algorithm, threshold value for clustering is determined automatically using contour shape of the graph created by accumulating distances between all the spots of footprint pattern. In the experimental results applying the proposed method to two kinds of insect footprint patterns, we could see that all the clustering results were accomplished correctly.

Analysis and Application of Water Footprint to Improve Water Resource Management System - With a Focus on Seoul City - (서울시 물환경관리체계 개선을 위한 물발자국 도입 및 활용방안에 관한 연구 - 서울시 자치구 물환경관리 정책 및 제도, 관리체계 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Chun, Dong Jun;Kim, Jin-Oh
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.222-232
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    • 2016
  • Water Footprint is utilized to analyze direct and indirect water consumption for sustainable water resource management. This study aims to understand potential applicability of water footprint concept by analyzing the status of water consumption and related water policies in Seoul. We analyzed a direct gray water footprint and the blue water footprint in Seoul affected by the social and economic characteristics of the consumers in the city. In particular, in order to analyze the blue water footprint represented by both surface and underground water for the provision and consumption of products, we calculated the actual water consumptions of surface and underground water for 25 districts in Seoul. Our analysis in consideration of population and households indicates that Jung-gu has the highest blue water footprint followed by Jongro-gu, Gangnam-gu, Yongsan-gu, and Seocho-gu. Gray water footprint was calculated by estimating the amount of water for purifying wastewater to meet the water quality standard (above BOD 3.5ppm) for each district. As a result, Jung-gu has the highest gray water footprint, followed by Jongro-gu, Gangnam-gu, Yongsan-gu, Seocho-gu, and Youngdeungpo-gu. Our study suggests the potential value of using water footprint concept to complement the current limitations of water use management focusing on water supply control. We expect that our analysis will provide an important basis for considering water use management which is economically and socially more resilient and sustainable.

Apple Water-Footprint Calculation and Water Risk Action (사과의 지역별 물발자국 비교와 물 리스크 대응 -충주와 거창 지역을 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Seog-Ha;Kim, Hong-Jae;Kim, Chesoong
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2013
  • According to 2012 OECD environmental report, Korea was ranked as the first country of water stress. Water footprint is a method to calculate water usage during the life cycle of a product from material procurement through production to disposal to recycle and to quantify the load to water resources. In water footprint calculation, water consumption unit is used. Agricultural water use is over 48% so it is urgent to mange that area Korea needs to spread the discussion about water footprint as quickly as possible, for the study to prevent social and environmental problems due to water shortage. This paper, through water footprint calculation and comparison in Chungju and Geochang areas, looks to counter measures for water risk, targeting domestically-produced apple.

Study of Garlic's Carbon Footprint though LCA (전과정평가를 통한 마늘의 탄소배출량 산정연구)

  • Yoon, Sung-Yee;Kim, Young-Ran;Kim, Tae-Ho;Park, Jin-Hyun;Ahn, Sung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to estimate carbon footprint and to establish of LCA of garlic production system. We have case study in cultivate garlic 1 kg calculate in carbon footprint. LCA carried out to estimate carbon footprint and to establish of LCI (life cycle inventory) database of garlic production system. The data is from Research of Farmer's income in 2010 (RDA, 2011), and used Pass (5.0.0) program. The value of fertilizer, amount of pesticide input were shown the environmental effect and direct emission. Carbon footprint in agriculture guarantees the choice right the consumer to choose the lower carbon goods. Its can make to strengthen of agriculture and food industry's reduction effort of $CO_2$. Nowadays consumer requests food's safety and environment friendly process. Carbon footprint also needs consumer's relief and incentives.

Trend and prediction of the Ecological Footprint in Korea (우리나라 생태발자국(EF) 추이와 예측)

  • Yeo, Min Ju;Kim, Yong Pyo
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.364-378
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    • 2014
  • Ecological Footprint (EF) in Korea has increased steeply over the past 50 years and, thus, the overshoot. It has been known that the main causes of the overshoot are population growth and the increase of the consumption intensity per person. In this study, the EF trend in Korea is analyzed for the past 50 years and it is found the major cause of the rapid increase of EF in Korea is the increase of the consumption intensity per person. Among the sectors of the consumption, Carbon Footprint (CF) from the energy consumption and Grazing Land Footprint and Fishing Grounds Footprint from the protein consumption are the major players for the increase. It is also found that if current trend of the EF per person would be maintained until 2060, EF in Korea would be expected to increase also continuously, despite of the decrease of the population from 2031. Therefore, the direction of the environmental management should be considered for inducing the change of the individual consumption patterns and the behavioral changes.