• Title, Summary, Keyword: Follicular Fluid

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Effects of Levels and Sources of Follicular Fluid on the In Vitro Maturation and Development of Porcine Oocytes

  • Huang, W.T.;Tang, P.C.;Wu, S.C.;Cheng, S.P.;Ju, J.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1360-1366
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    • 2001
  • The aims of this study were first to evaluate the effects of different levels (20, 40 and 100%) and sources (follicular size: large, >7 mm; medium, >5-7 mm; small, 3-5 mm) of porcine follicular fluid (pFF) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes, and the effects of fertilization treatments and different culture conditions on development of fertilized oocytes were also investigated. No differences in the maturation (63.6-76.6%) and cleavage (24.8-34.3%) rates were observed among the 20,40 and 100% pFF groups (p>0.05). The cleavage rates of oocytes cultured and fertilized in 40% and 100% pFF maturation media were significantly higher than those fertilized in m199-NBCS (51.0-61.2% vs. 12.8-31.8%. p<0.05), regardless of sources of the pFF. When oocytes were fertilized in m199-NBCS followed by culture in rabbit oviducts for 4 days, the cleavage rate in 40% pFF group was better than that in 100% pFF group (46.9% vs. 32.5%, p<0.05). Two oocytes recovered from the oviducts in the 40% pFF group developed to blastocysts after IVC. However, none developed to blastocysts when fertilized in the IVM medium after being transferred to rabbit oviducts. In conclusion, addition of pFF accompanied with gonadotropins (FSH, LH) in IVM medium enhanced maturation and cleavage rates of porcine oocytes. Direct addition of sperm suspension to IVM medium may be an alternative to simplify the fertilization procedures and to reduce the mechanical lesion during manipulation. Furthermore, rabbit oviducts provide a better environment for the in vitro fertilized oocyte developing to the morula and blastocyst stages.

Effects of a Co-culture with Granulosa Cells on In Vitro Fertilization and Development of Bovine Follicular Ooctyes (과립막세포가 우난포란의 체외수정과 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 박태균;이상진;박세필;고대환;윤산현;박흠대;정태영;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 1989
  • These experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of a co-culture with granulosa cells on in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of bovine follicular oocytes. The bovine ovaries were obtained at a slaughter house and the follicular oocytes were recovered by aspirating the follicular fluid from the visible follicles of diameter 2-6mm. Bovine oocytes were matured in vitro for 24-26 hr and then fertilized in vitro using epididymal spermatozoa capacitated by preincubation for 2-3hr in BO solution containing BSA(5mg/ml) and caffein(25mM). Eight hours after insemination, the oocytes were cultured in a co-culture system with granulosa cells. The rates of maturation of the follicular oocytes cultured in a co-culture system with granulosa cells were 83.1%, the rate of fertilization of the follicular oocytes culture in a co-culture in a co-culture system with granulosa cells were 76.9%, respectively. No significant difference are observed between control and treatment in maturation and fertilization rates. The rates of embryos developed to 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell and monula stages after co-cultured with granulosa cells were 65.8, 57.9, 39.5, 34.2 and 34.2%, respectively. The value for 16-and morula stages were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the embryos cultured in the basic medium.

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Oocytes Maturation by Follicular Culture in Porcine (돼지난포의 배양에 의한 난자의 성숙)

  • 박춘근;임종민;박영국;이준희;이상영;정희태;양부근;김정익
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 1997
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the follicular culture from which the oocytes originate on their subsequent in vitro maturation ability. Ovarian follicles were isolated and cultured according to size(1~2mm, 2~6mm and 6~8mm) for 42~44 h. The rates of germinal vesicle breakdown(GVBD) in each groups were 87%(65/75), 82%(80/97) and 89%(47/53), but the oocytes maturation were su, pp.essed at anaphase-I stage. In spite of the adding porcine follicular fluid and/or hormones in maturation medium, maturation ability of oocytes from follicle cultured for 21~22 h were inhibited. When oocytes from follicle cultured for 4 h at various temperature were incubated for 38~40 h, the rates of oocytes maturation from follicle cultured at 2$0^{\circ}C$(51%, 26/51) and 39$^{\circ}C$(54%, 26/48) were significant higher(P<0.05) than group cultured at 4$^{\circ}C$(33%, 19/58). On the other hand, the GVBD were stared 2 h after culture of follicle of oocytes. To summairze, oocytes maturation by follicular culture were inhibited at anaphase-I stage in porcine. When the follicle cultured for 4 h, maturation were completed to metaphase-II stage. However, rates of GVBD in oocytes from follicular culture were higher than oocytes cultured in medium.

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Studies on In Vitro Maturation of Pig Follicular Oocytes (돼지 난포란의 체외성숙에 관한 연구)

  • 김창근;정영채;이명식;윤종택;방명걸;정길생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 1990
  • Experiments were disigned to define and optimize efficiency of a system whereby pig follicular oocytes could be matured and fertil ized in vitro. The pig oocytes removed from 1- 2 mm and 3-7 mm follicles were cultured in vitro in the mKRB(-BSA) solution containing estrous sow serum (ESS), FCS or dialyzed pig follicular fluid for 24 to 48 hr at 37$^{\circ}C$. The oocytes matured in vitro were evaluated after epididymal spermatozoa-oocyte incubation for 24 hr for pronucleus formation. 50-60% of the oocytes reached metaphase II during 36 to 48 hr of culture. There was no differernce in oocyte matura¬tion between two groups of follicular size but meiosis was slightly faster in the 3-7 mm follicular oocytes. The oocytes matured in mKRB (-BSA) plus 5% ESS, 15% FCS or dialyzed follicular fraction showed slightly higher maturation rates than the control mKRB. in vitro fertilization, pronucleus formation, tended to be increased when mKRBi-BSA) plus 5% ESS or 15% FCS was used for oocyte maturation and in vivo -capacitated spermatozoa were inseminated, respectively. It is concluded that ESS, FCS and dialyzed pig follicular fluid may be effective factors for in vitro maturation and fertilization of pig follicular oocytes.

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Effect of Seminal Vesicle Fluid Components on Acrosome Reaction of Mouse Epididymal Sperm (저정낭액이 생쥐 부정소 정자의 첨체반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Gye, Myung-Chan;Kim, Sung-Rye;Kim, Moon-Kyoo
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 1997
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effect of seminal vesicle fluid (SVF) on the acrosome reaction (AR) occurred spontaneously or induced by $Ca^{2+}$ ionophore A23187, follicular fluid, and progesterone in mouse epididymal sperm. SVF was divided into high (MW>10 kD) and low (MW<10 kD) fractions by ultrafiltration. The low MW fraction of SVF decreased the rate of spontaneous AR, however the high MW fraction did not. It suggested that the low MW fraction of SVF might have contained decapacitation factor(s) responsible for prolonging of time need for capacitation. When sperm preincubated for 60 min in the presence of SVF, the rate of AR induced by A23187 was decreased, but prolongation of preincubation time for 120 min significantly potentiated the AR by A23187. It suggested that addition of SVF into sperm preincubation medium imposed the epididymal sperm a condition similar to ejaculation. AR induced by human follicular fluid or progesterone was also inhibited by SVF. It suggested that substance in SVF might have affected AR of mouse sperm by inhibiting the interaction between AR inducing ligands and sperm surface receptors involved in acrosomal exocytosis.

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Studies on the Suitability and Efficiency of Human Follicular Fluid as Protein Supplement in Assisted Reproductive Technology(ART);I. Effect of Human Follicular Fluid on Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Follicular Oocytes In Vitro (생식보조시술시 단백질원으로서 인간난포액의 적합성 및 효율성에 관한 연구;I. 인간난포액이 생쥐난포란의 체외성숙에 미치는 효과)

  • Chi, H.J.;Kim, D.H.;Kim, J.Y.;Koo, J.J.;Chang, S.S.;Chung, K.S.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1996
  • For evaluating the suitability of human follicular fluid(HFF) as protein supplement in ART, this preliminary study was performed to examine the maturation promoting activity of HFF on mouse follicular oocytes in vitro. Mouse follicular oocytes were collected from ovaries of 21-28 day old ICR mice by puncturing the antral follicles with fine needle at 48 hours after PMSG injection. The oocytes were rinsed and cultured in modified Whittingham's $T_6$ medium containing purines or dbcAMP to maintain meiotic arrest, and different concentrations of HFF were added into the culture medium to examine the effect of HFF on releasing the oocytes from the suppressive influence of the meiotic inhibitors. As a control for HFF, the maturation promoting activity of human fetal cord serum(HFCS) was investigated and compared with the activity of HFF. While HFF was separated, by molecular weight(M.W), into high M.W. fraction(M.W>30,000) and low M.W. fraction(M.W<30,000) and the effects of the fractions on meiotic resumption were investigated in the presence of the meiotic inhibitors. Also hormone analysis was performed to compare the content of hormones in HFF with that in HFCS. Same concentrations of HFF and HFCS induced similar germinal vesicle break down(GVBD) rates of the oocytes meiotic arrested by purines(4mM hypoxanthine+0.75mM adenosine), but the extrusion rate of 1st polar body(PB) of the oocytes cultured in HFF(65.0%, P<0.05) was significantly higher than that(51.6%) in HFCS. While, in the presence of 200 M dbcAMP, the maturation promoting activity of HFF (GVBD: 70.5%, $p<10^{-6}$; 1st PB extrusion: 67.1%, $p<10^{-3}$) was significantly greater than that of HFCS(GVBD: 35.2%; 1st PB extrusion: 41.1%). The oocytes cultured in the fraction of HFF containing high M.W. components showed higher meiotic maturation rates than the oocytes cultured in the low M.W. fraction of HFF. Gonadotropins and $E_2$ were known to improve the completion of maturation changes, and the levels of these hormones were higher in HFF than in HFCS. Therefore, HFF was more effective than HFCS to use for promoting meiotic resumption of mouse oocytes in vitro.

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Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

  • Guo, Xian;Pei, Jie;Ding, Xuezhi;Chu, Min;Bao, Pengjia;Wu, Xiaoyun;Liang, Chunnian;Yan, Ping
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1239-1246
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    • 2016
  • The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF) of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1) was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development.

Studies on the detrimental factors affecting in vitro maturation and fertilization of bovine follicular oocytes (소 난포란(卵胞卵)의 체외성숙(體外成熟) 및 체외수정(體外受精)에 영향(影響)을 미치는 요인(要因)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Man-hee;Kim, Sang-keun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 1991
  • These studies were carried out to investigate the effects of the size of follicles, semen types, capacitation methods, and additions of hormones, estrous cow serum(ECS), fetal calf serum(FCS), bovine follicular fluid(BFF) and matured cumulus cell(MCC) to the medium on in vitro maturation and fertilization of bovine follicular oocytes. The ovaries were obtained from slaughtered Korean native cows. The follicular oocytes surrounded with cumulus cells were recovered by aspirating follicular fluid from the visible follicles of diameter 3~5mm. The follicular oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 medium containing hormones, FCS, ECS, BFF and MCC for 24~48hrs. in an incubator with 5% $CO_2$ in air at $38.5^{\circ}C$ and then matured oocytes were again cultured for 18~20 hrs. with motile capacitated spermatozoas the TCF (Tyrode calcium free) solution containing $100{\mu}g/ml$ of heparin. The results obtained in these experiments were summarized as follows: 1. The oocytes classified as "A,B,C,D and Degenerative" depending morphological integrity and those 61.4%, 12.1%, 19.2%, 4.2% and 3.0% of the total oocytes recovered, respectively. The maturation and fertilization rate of the A, B, C class follicular oocytes, cultured in the TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS were 89.1%, 78.0%, 52.6% and 78.1%, 66.1, 33.3%, respectively. 2. The average number of the follicular oocytes recovered from follicles size, 1~2mm, 3~5mm and above 5mm in diameter were 67, 98 and 63, respectively. The maturation and fertilization rate of the follicular oocytes, cultured in the TCM-199 medium were 56.7%, 82.5%, 46.0% and 44.8%, 71.4%, 28.6%, respectively. 3. The fertilization and cleavage rate of the follicular oocytes, inseminated with spermatozoas of epididymal cauda, neat and frozen semen were 63.3%, 73.3%, 70.0% and 32.7%, 37.8% 38.3%, respectively. 4. The fertilization and cleavage rate of follicular oocytes, fertilized with capacitated spermatozoas by heparin, BFF and HIS methods were 70.0%, 53.8%, 34.2% and 38.3%, 23.1%. 17.1%, respectively. And the fertilization and cleavage rate were higher method of heparin. 5. The maturation and fertilization rate of follicular oocytes, cultured in the TCM-199 medium supplemented with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and FSH, HCG, 17, $\beta$-estradiol were 76.0~82.3% and 26.2~70.0%, and those values were higher the supplementation than non-supplementation. 6. The maturation and fertilization rate of the follicular oocytes cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 5~20% ECS and FCS were 74.0~80.6%, 26.2~30.0% and 71.7~76.9%, 51.9~58.0%, and the values were higher the supplement of ECS than FCS. 7. The maturation rate (68.0~64.6%) and fertilization rate(59.6~60.4%) of follicular oocytes cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and 20~30% BFF were higher than those of follicular oocytes cultured TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and 10% and 50% BFF. 8. The maturation rate(76.5%) and fertilization rate (61.7%) of follicular oocytes cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and $1{\times}10^6/ml$ MCC were higher than those of follicular oocytes cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and $1{\times}10^{{4}{\sim}{5}}/ml$ and $1{\times}10^8/ml$ cumulus cells.

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Two cases of oval outflow and cyst formation in medulla of ovaries in gonadotropin-treated Sprague-Dawley rats (성선자극 Hormone을 주사한 Sprague-Dawley Rat 난소의 수질내의 난자유출 1증예 와 대 낭종형성 1증예)

  • Kwak, Soo-Dong;Kim, Chong-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.72-76
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    • 1997
  • Histological investigation of the number of follicles following gonadotropin treatments for superovulation was carried out in mature Sprague-Dwaley(SD) rats. Routinely serial sections of paraffin-embedded ovaries were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with light microscope. During the study unusual cases of microscopic alterations were observed in the medulla of ovaries in two rats. Case one: An ovum and its follicular fluid outflowed in medulla of ovary. The follicular fluid was densly proteinuous. Corona raiata consisted of 2-6 layers thick cells in the periphery of the ovum. While the cortical side of the follicular wall was intact with normal granulosa cell layer the meullary side of it was ruptured. Case two: A large cyst was present in medulla of ovary hilus. The cyst occupied the entire medulla displacing the ovarian archetecture and enclosed by connective tissue and smooth muscle wall.

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Effect of Serine Protease Inhibitor on Follicular Development in the Rat Ovary (백서에서 Serine Protease 억제제가 난포성숙에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Yoon, Byung-Koo;Lee, Jin-Yong
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 1993
  • Plasminogen activator (PA)-plasmin system in follicular fluid is involved in the process leading to follicular rupture at ovulation. It is well known that PA is closely associated with cellular differentiation and tissue remodeling on evidences from the study of normal and malignant tissues. This study was designed to ascertain a potential role of PA in the ovarian folliculogenesis. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, followed by injection of serine protease inhibitor (SPI; mixture of 1 mol/L benzamidine and 1 mol/L amino-caproic acid) into the unilateral ovarian bursa. In the control study, mechanical effect of bursal injection and contralateral ovarian effect SPI were ruled out. Total antral follicular areas relative to total ovarian cross-sectional areas was siginificantly lower in SPI-injected ovary than in saline-injected ovary. SPI injection decreased the relative antral follicular area by 33 % respectively. Electron microscopic finding of granulosa cell in the atretic follicle showed the presence of pyknotic nucleus, blurring of neucleolemma, degeneration of mitochondria and dilation of endoplasmic reticulum. After induction of ovulation with hCG, the number of oocytes released was significantly decreased in SPI-injected oviduct than in saline-injected oviduct. From above results, author discussed that PA may play a role not only in ovulation but also in some processes of folliculogenesis.

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