• Title, Summary, Keyword: Fodder Trees

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Nutritive Evaluation of Some Fodder Tree Species during the Dry Season in Central Sudan

  • Fadel Elseed, A.M.A.;Amin, A.E.;Khadiga,;Abdel Ati, A.;Sekine, J.;Hishinuma, M.;Hamana, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.844-850
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    • 2002
  • The potential nutritive value was studied on leaves of seven fodder trees in Central Sudan during dry season at two distinct periods, the early dry and the late. The chemical composition, mineral concentration, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), in situ OM or nitrogen degradability and estimated metabolizable energy showed a wide variation among fodder tree species and between different periods of the dry season. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 285 to 197 g/kg DM at early dry season, with a significant reduction in late dry season. Ziziphus spina-christi and Balanites aegyptiaca showed the least reduction in CP content. The NDF, ADF and lignin were about 200, 160 and 19 g/kg DM, respectively at the early period, and significantly increased at the late period of the dry season, except for lignin of Z. spina-christi. For mineral concentration, all fodder tree leaves were rich in calcium but poor in phosphorus. In situ OM degradability significantly decreased at the late period of dry season, but values remained as high as over 600 g/kg OM. At both periods, Z. spina-christi showed the highest value, while the lowest was recorded in Acacia seyal. The IVOMD showed a similar trend to those of in situ OM degradability, except for A. seyal. The nitrogen degradability was highest in B. aegyptiaca and lowest in Z. spina-christi at both periods. A significant and positive correlation had existed between CP and IVOMD or in situ OM degradability (r=0.68, p<0.05; r=0.77, p<0.05, respectively). Also, a significant but negative correlation was found between condensed tannins and nitrogen degradability (r=-0.87, p<0.01). Results demonstrated that Z. spina-christi potentially has a good nutritive value as dry season feed or supplement, while A. seyal tends to be less promising. A. nubica and B. aegyptiaca may be a useful source for degradable protein, even though it may have a limited supply of energy to animals. A. tortilis, A. mellifera and A. ehrenbergiana may have potential value for a supplementation of energy or protein, if they were harvested in the early dry season or in wet season as preserved feed. It is highly recommended to supplement with an appropriate amount of phosphorus when these fodder trees were used.

Growth and Reproductive Performance of Small Ruminants under Integrated Livestock-Oil Palm Production System

  • Haji Baba, A.S.;Azillah, A.;Mukherjee, T.K.;Abdullah, R.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 1998
  • The effects of supplementation with mixed fodder or concentrate were investigated on the performance of a) growth of male lambs and kids grazing extensively under oil palm trees and b) reproduction of ewes and goats stall-fed with native herbage. Supplemented kids and lambs had higher average daily weight gain than controls but the effect was only significant for those which received concentrate (p < 0.05). Final body weight was only significantly different from controls for lambs supplemented with concentrate (p < 0.05). The ages at puberty, first mating, first conception and first kidding of supplemented goats were about 110 days earlier than those for controls (p < 0.05 or better). Supplemented goats had first mating and conceived at lower body weights (p < 0.01) than those in control groups. Different feeding regimes had no effects (p > 0.05) on the reproductive performance of ewes apart from highest body weight of first lambing in animals supplemented with concentrate (p < 0.05). Native herbage available under oil palm trees of 5 years old was sufficient for growth and reproduction of sheep and goats. Concentrate was better than mixed fodder as supplement for enhancing the reproductive performance of goats but both appeared to have limited effects on the performance of reproduction in ewes and growth in male kids.

Microbial Evaluation of Fodder Tree Leaves as Ruminant Feed

  • Odenyo, A.A.;Osuji, P.O.;Negassa, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.708-714
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    • 1999
  • Fermentation of legume fodder tree leaves by rumen microorganisms was evaluated. The substrates were sun-dried, ground leaves. Gas and volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production were estimated. Using gas production as an index of fermentation at 12 h, the leaves tested ranked as follows; Chamaecytisus palmensis>Gliricidia sepium>Sebania sesban>Tephrosia bracteolate>Leucaena pallida>Vernonia amygdalina>Acacia sieberiana>Sesbania goetzei>Acacia angustissima. Using VFA production, the ranking was a follows; G. sepium>S. sesban>S. goetzei>L. pallida>C. palmensis/V. amygdalina>T. bracteolate> A. sieberiana>A. angustissima. Absolute gas or VFA production rates, were also used to rank the leaves. Extracts (70% acetone) of A. angustissima inhibited the growth of Ruminococcus albus 8, R. flavefaciens FD-1, Prevotella ruminicola D3ID and Streptococcus bovis JBI while the trowth of Selenomonas ruminantium D was depressed when 0.6 ml exracts were added. C. palmensis water extracts enhanced cellulose hydrolysis by R. flavefaciens FD-1. All extracts reduced celluloysis by R. albus 8. R. flavefaciens FD-1 hydrolyzed more (p<0.001) cellulose than R. albus 8.

Local Knowledge on Trees Utilization and Their Existing Threats in Rashad District of Nuba Mountains, Sudan

  • Adam, Yahia Omar
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.342-350
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    • 2014
  • Rural people of Sudan are endowed with a deep knowledge concerning the utilization of different tree species. However research on the local knowledge related to tree species utilization still lacks adequate attention. The study objectives were to identify the existing local knowledge related to the utilization of the tree species and the existing threats to the availability of the trees. A total of 300 respondents were selected randomly from Rashad district in Nuba Mountains in 2011. Semi-structured interview, direct observation, group discussion, preference ranking and direct matrix ranking were used to collect the data. The study results revealed that people of Nuba Mountains utilize different tree species for food, medicinal purposes, fodder, firewood, construction and cultural ceremonies. The study results also indicated that the availability of trees is negatively influenced by firewood collection, agricultural expansion, drought, overgrazing and charcoal production. The study concluded that local knowledge has crucial role in tree species utilization in Nuba Mountains. Further researches to document and substantiate the local knowledge on useful tree species are highly recommended.

Farmers Preference and Perception towards Cropland Agroforestry in Bangladesh

  • Chakraborty, M.;Haider, M.Z.;Rahaman, M.M.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.241-254
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    • 2015
  • This study attempts to examine farmers' preference and perception towards cropland agroforestry (CAF) and its economic benefits in Bangladesh. It surveys 84 farmers of two sub-districts named Manirampur and Bagherpara under Jessore district of Bangladesh to address the study objectives with the help of a questionnaire during the period of June to July 2013. We follow a multistage random sampling procedure for selecting respondents of the survey. A total of 27 plant species under 19 families are identified in the surveyed crop fields, among which 11 are tree species and 1 is shrub from 8 families and 15 species are agricultural crops from 11 families. According to the survey findings, most of the farmers prefer multipurpose tree species like Swietenia macrophylla (67 percent), Phoenix sylvestris (48 percent), Mangifera indica (48 percent) and Cocos nucifera (43 percent). We also find that Curcuma longa (92 percent), Oryza spp. (56 percent), Solanum melongena (43 percent) and Amorphophallus campanulatus (33 percent) are the available agriculture crops which are grown in association with trees in the study area. The surveyed farmers report that they practice CAF to get fuel wood, fodder, juice, fruit and food for family consumption and revenue earnings. About 76 percent of the surveyed farmers endorse the existence of a positive interaction between trees and agriculture crops, while the rest 24 percent endorse the existence of a negative interaction between trees and agriculture crops. This study finds that CAF farmers on an average earn US$ 1,410 per farm per year and the yearly average revenue difference between CAF and non-cropland agroforestry (NCAF) farmers is US$ 214. Overall, CAF needs to develop through scientific intervention in the study area to conserve the biodiversity and to enhance farmers' sustainable livelihood.

Evaluation of Provenance Variation in Condensed Tannin Content of Fresh Leaves of Calliandra calothyrsus

  • Premaratne, S.;Perera, H.G.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.891-894
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    • 1999
  • A field experiment was conducted with Calliandra calothyrsus of fifteen provenances to evaluate the variation in the condensed tannin content of fresh leaves. Plants were raised in a nursery for three months and planted in the field. Experimental design was line planting of double hedgerows (3 m long plot, 1/2 meter interval, 45 plants in each plot) with 5 replicates. Plants were lopped every 5 months and samples (10 different plants within a plot; 4 newly flushed leaves, 4 partially expanded leaves and 4 mature full expanded leaves from each of 10 trees in a plot) were collected and were put on ice before transfer to the laboratory. Proanthocyanidine was extracted in aqueous acetone, and total extractable proanthcyanidine (TEPA) and total proanthocyanidine (TOPA) were measured. In addition, proximate analyses were made of different provenances. Crude protein contents varied from 19.74% to 16.45%; in vitro organic matter digestibility ranged from 36.09% to 23.32%. TEPA content ranged from 11.22 to 16.01 (measured as absorbance at $550nm,\;g^{-1}$ DM) and TOPA from 24.57 to 31.72 (measured as absorbance at $550nm,\;g^{-1}$ DM) TEPA and TOPA had a positive correlation, whereas crude protein content of Calliandra was negatively correlated with TEPA and TOPA. Provenances, such as Georgesville (Belize), local, Coban (Guatemala), Patulul (Guatemala), Bombana (Mexico) can be selected on the basis of nutritive value of fodder.

PERFORMANCE OF SMALL SCALE LIVESTOCK/CROP DEMONSTRATION-CUM-TRAINING FARMS IN SRI LANKA

  • de Jong, R.;Kuruppu, L.G.;Jayawardena, Q.W.;Ibrahim, M.N.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.571-582
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    • 1994
  • Three livestock/crop demonstration-cum-training farms have been established on plots of half, one and two acres, typical of the "Kandyan Forest Garden System" Vegetables, bananas, pepper, coffee, coconut and fruit trees are widely spaced, for intercropping with grass, and have been surrounded with live fences that also provide fodder for livestock to increase the family income. Each unit is operated by a selected employee and his family under a monthly incentive scheme based upon the gross margin. On these farms the technical parameters in dairying are better than elsewhere in the Mid-Country. Economic performance over 1985-1992 showed that dairying contributed most to the total gross margin of the half, one and two acre units, i.e. 31, 63 and 69%, respectively. Next came crops (29%, 37% and 19%), poultry (22%, 0% and 9%), and goats (18%, 0% and 3%). In the three farms the cash income per Sri Lankan Rupee spent was 1.5, 4.6 and 2.1, respectively. The overall ratio was 3.2 for dairying, 1.1 for poultry, 4.5 for goats and 9.9 for crops. Actual family labour in the three farms was 548, 548 and 639 days, compared to the 270, 330 and 440 days anticipated in the initial feasibility study. The average incentive payments, which were 20% (half acre), 61% (one acre) and 133% (two acres) of the parastatal salary of the employee, were only insufficient for the extra labour applied in the half acre unit. Dairying and goats proved to be attractive cash earners with a domestic fuel were important benefits. Poultry did little to improve farm income.

Chemical Composition and Its Relationship to In vitro Gas Production of Several Tannin Containing Trees and Shrub Leaves

  • Kamalak, Adem;Canbolat, Onder;Gurbuz, Yavuz;Ozay, Osman;Ozkose, Emin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this experiment was to determine the chemical composition of six commonly utilized fodder trees and shrub species in Turkey, namely Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Carpinus betilus, Juniperus communis, Quercus libari L and Pistica lentiscus and its relationship with gas production and estimated parameters when incubated with rumen fluid in vitro. There were significant (p<0.001) differences between leaves in terms of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), total condensed tannin (TCT), bound condensed tannin (BCT) and soluble condensed tannin (SCT). Crude protein contents ranged from 5.74% (Juniperus communis) to 12.59% (Glycrrhiza glabra L). Acid detergent fiber contents ranged from 25.14% (Glycrrhiza glabra L) to 39.23% (Juniperus communis). Total condensed tannin (TCT) contents of leaves ranged from 4.34% (Quercus libari L) to 20.34% (Juniperus communis). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total condensed tannin contents of leaves were negatively correlated with gas productions and some estimated parameters. Potential gas productions (A) of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Quercus libari L and Pistica lentiscus were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those of Carpinus betilus and Juniperus communis whereas gas production rate (${\mu}_{24}$) of Pistica lentiscus was significantly (p<0.001) higher than the others. Time (h) to produce 50% of total gas pool size ($T_{50}$) of Juniperus communis was significantly (p<0.001) lower than that of Carpinus betilus whereas time (h) to produce 90% of total gas pool size ($T_{90}$) of Juniperus communis was significantly lower than the others except for Pistica lentiscus. The metabolizable energy (ME) contents of leaves ranged from 8.86 to 10.39 MJ $kg^{-1}$ DM. The results obtained in this study suggested that browse species had a significant effect on chemical composition, gas production and estimated parameters of leaves. Leaves from Glycrrhiza glabra L with a considerable amount of CP had a high rank value in terms of ME. Therefore leaves from Glycrrhiza glabra L may have a high potential value for small ruminant animals in terms of rumen and whole digestibility. Leaves from other species studied require protein supplementation when they are the only feed consumed by ruminant animals.

Nutrition of Range Goats in a Shrubland of Western India

  • Bhatta, Raghavendra;Shinde, A.K.;Sankhyan, S.K.;Verma, D.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1719-1724
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    • 2002
  • An investigation was made to evaluate the native range of western India in terms of nutrient supply during different physiological stages in goats. One hundred female and 5 male Kutchi adult goats were grazed on a 35 ha plot of native range. They were maintained on sole grazing. Four experiments, one in a defined physiological stage was carried out. Stage I, when maximum number of females were bred; stage II, when bucks were used for breeding purpose; stage III, 3-months old (weaner) kids were allowed to graze on ranges and stage IV, when the goats were in early stage of lactation. During oestrous period, diet contained 15.2% crude protein (CP), 54.0% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 31.5% acid detergent fibre (ADF) and 12.6% acid detergent lignin (ADL). Digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DM), CP, NDF and ADF was 0.586,0.531, 0.431 and 0.239, respectively. DM, digestible crude protein (DCP) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes were $82.7,\;6.71g\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$ and $0.99MJ\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$. Diet of buck was constituted by $230g\;kg^{-1}$ DM of grasses and forb and $770g\;kg^{-1}$ DM of tree foliage. CP, NDF, ADF and ADL contents of the diet were 13.6, 57.8, 43.5 and 20.0%, respectively. DM, DCP and ME intakes were $57.9,\;4.13g\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$ and $0.82MJ\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$. Digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF and ADF were 0.496, 0.432 and 0.346, respectively. Diet of kids was constituted by Prosopis cineraria ($900g\;kg^{-1}DM$) and Zizyphus nummularia ($100g\;kg^{-1}DM$) leaves. Digestibility of CP, NDF and ADF were 0.456, 0.415 and 0.201, respectively. DM, DCP and ME intakes were $85.8,\;6.44g\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$ and $1.22MJ\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$. Lactation phase of goat fell between October-December and tree foliage formed the major portion of the diet. Diet of lactating goat contained only 6.8% CP and 16.5% ADL. Digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and ADF was 0.567, 0.221, 0.307 and 0.233, respectively. DM, DCP and ME intakes were $108.2,\;1.62g\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$ and $1.50MJ\;kg^{-1}\;W^{0.75}$, respectively. Present study establishes that goats on semiarid range with sufficient number of fodder trees were able to meet the nutrient requirement of ewes during oestrous and bucks during breeding season. However, during lactation and active growth phase, only DM requirement is met. Thus, it is recommended to supplement concentrate mixture to goats grazing on range during lactation and growth phase.

Agroforestry Strategies Reflecting Residents' Attitudes in a Semi-arid Region - Focusing on Elsentasarhai Region in Mongolia - (주민의식을 반영한 반건조지역의 산림농업 전략 - 몽골 엘센타사라이 지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Jo, Hyun-Kil;Park, Hye-Mi;Kim, Jin-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2014
  • This study explored agroforestry strategies to achieve ecological and economic effects simultaneously for Elsentasarhai region in Mongolia under desertification, based on attitude survey with a questionnaire, field survey on planting sites, and literature review. The agrosilvopastoral approach was suggested as a type of agroforestry practices which combined tree planting for combatting desertification and wind damage to crops, agricultural crop production for income improvement, and livestock raising, a major industry in the study region. Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila native to desert regions were selected for tree planting, and Hippophae rhamnoides, potato, and fodder appropriate for the short growing season were chosen for income crop production, reflecting residents' attitudes and growth environments. As a strategy of land allocation to satisfy multiple effects of the agrosilvopastoral approach, the alley cropping technique was recommended which arranged alternately strips of trees as windbreaks and income crops in multiple rows. The study also explored desirable planting techniques to improve conditions of income crop production and tree growth against drought and strong winds in the alley cropping. Study results will be useful as fundamental information to implement sustainable agroforestry in Mongolia and other semi-arid regions where knowledge concerned is lacking.