• Title, Summary, Keyword: Floor Space Allowance

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Effects of Different Floor Space and Type on Performance, Behaviour and Carcass Quality of Finishing Pig (돈방바닥 면적과 형태가 비육돈의 생산과 행동 및 도체품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Doo Hwan;Ha, Duck Min;Song, Jun Ik;Jeon, Jung Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to determine the effect of different floor space and type of finishing building on performance, behaviour and carcass quality of finishing pig. Three hundred and thirty six finishing pigs were alloted into two space allowance ($1.0m^2$and $2.5m^2$/pig) and two floor type (concrete slat and bedded with sawdust) of finishing building. There was no significant difference between the different space allowance in the body gain, feed intake and feed per gain. And also floor type of finishing building was not affected by the performance of finishing pig. Space allowance per pig affected the maintenance behaviour, but there was no significant difference between the floor type of finishing building in the spent time on lying, sitting and standing. Floor type was affected by the occurrence of standing behaviour, the finishing pigs in the bedded with sawdust showed less occurrence of standing. Carcass traits did not show any significant difference due to the difference of space allowance and floor type of finishing building. There was no significant difference in the chemical compositions of pork loin between the space allowance and floor type of finishing building.

Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system

  • Jang, J.C.;Jin, X.H.;Hong, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1796-1802
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of ninety crossbred pigs [$(Yorkshire{\times}Landrace){\times}Duroc$, $30.25{\pm}1.13kg$] were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs/pen, $0.96m^2/pig$; 0.80: five pigs/pen, $0.80m^2/pig$; 0.69: six pigs/pen, $0.69m^2/pig$) in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I, and finishing phase II). Results: There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI, p<0.01), and body weight (BW, p<0.01) with decreasing space allowance in late finishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (p<0.03). Consequently, overall ADG, ADFI, and final BW linearly declined in response to decreased space allowance (p<0.01). The pH of pork had no significant difference in 1 hour after slaughter, whereas there was a linear decrease in 24 h after slaughter with decreasing space allowance. Floor area allowance did not affect pork colors, but shear force linearly increased as floor space decreased (p<0.01). There was a linear increase in serum cortisol concentration on 14 week (p<0.05) with decreased space allocation. Serum IgG was linearly ameliorated as space allowance increased on 10 week (p<0.05) and 14 week (p<0.01). Conclusion: Data from current study indicated that stress derived from reduced space allowance deteriorates the immune system as well as growth performance of pigs, resulting in poor pork quality. Recommended adequate space allowance in a grow-to-finish production system is more than $0.80m^2/pig$ for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis

  • Lee, Joon H.;Choi, Hong L.;Heo, Yong J.;Chung, Yoon P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.739-746
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    • 2016
  • A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was $24.7^{\circ}C$ and 74% in summer and $2.4^{\circ}C$ and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to $3.67m^2/head$) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to $6.40m^2/head$ (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (> $1.12m^2/head$ leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to $1.27m^2/head$. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to $1.47m^2/head$) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation ($R^2=0.523$). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was hard to identify because of the low $R^2$ value. However, the farms that provided a relatively large floor space (1.27 to $1.54m^2/head$) during the winter period showed d-SW was significantly and negatively affected by FSA.

The Effects of Components of Grazing System on Welfare of Fattening Pigs

  • Tozawa, Akitsu;Tanaka, Shigefumi;Sato, Shusuke
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.428-435
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to clarify the most effective component of grazing for improving welfare of fattening pigs. This study compared welfare indicators of 20 fattening pigs aged 100 to 124 days (the prior period) and 138 to 164 days (the latter period) in an indoor housing system (IS), an outdoor pasturing system (OP), a concrete floor paddock system (CF), a concrete floor paddock system with fresh grass (FG), or a soil floor paddock system (SF). The last three treatments include important components of a grazing system: extra space, grass feed, and soil floor. Behavior, wounds on the body, and performances, measured as average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio, were observed. CF pigs behaved similarly to IS pigs. FG pigs showed higher levels of foraging, chewing and activity. SF pigs engaged in higher levels of foraging, exploring, activity, and rooting, and showed a similar amount of playing behavior as OP pigs. ADG was the same in all treatments at the prior period, and increased in the order FG, IS, CF, SF, and OP at the latter. The behaviors and performance of SF pigs resembled those of OP which seemed to indicate a consistently higher standard of welfare than the other treatments. In conclusion, the existence of a soil floor is the most important component of a pasture for improving the welfare of pigs.

Effects of Environmental Factors on Growth Performances and Behavioural Patterns of Weanling Pigs (環境條件이 仔豚의 成長과 行動에 미치는 影響)

  • 김두환;김철욱;송영민;진상근
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 1995
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of non-climatic environmental factors on growth performances and behavioural patterns of weanling pigs. Three hundred and sixty weanling pigs were contained and carried out with three levels of spaces per pig(0.18, 0.23 and 0.30$m^2$) and three different numbers of pigs per pen(15, 20 and 25 pigs) up to 30kg body weight. Designed by using a 3 $\times$ 3 factorial arrangement(three levels of spaces $\times$ three different numbers of pigs). This experiment investigated the effects of main factors and the relationship between each factors. The result of this experiment were summarized as follows ; 1. The reduction of floor space caused the reduction of feed/gain in the weanling pigs. Pigs responded with the increased feed intake(p<0.01) and with no change in body weight gain. 2. There were no significant differences in the body weight gain and feed/gain in weanling pigs by changing group sizes, but group size affected the feed intake significantly(p<0.01). 3. Space allowance affected the behavioural patterns significantly(p<0.01) of weanling pigs. The reduction of floor space caused the increment of aggressive behaviour and weanling pigs responded with the decreased resting, non aggressive social and play behaviour. 4. There were no significant differences in the resting, eating, aggressive and non aggressive social behaviour in weanling pigs by changing group sizes, but the large group size caused the reduction of play behaviour in the weanling pigs(p<0.01). 5. Therefore we concluded that weanling pigs require 0.23$m^2$ per pig and 20~25 pigs per pen for the better environment condition.

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Effects of Environmental Factors on Performances and Behavioural Patterns of Growing Pigs (環境條件이 育成豚의 增體와 行動에 미치는 影響)

  • 김두환;김철욱;송영민;진상근
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of non-climatic environmental factors on performances and behavioural patterns of growing pigs. Two hundred and seventy growing pigs were confined and administered with three levels of spaces per pig(0.33, 0.44 and 0.66$m^2$) and three different numbers of pigs per pen(12, 15 and 18 pigs) from 30kg to 60kg body weight. This study was designed by using 3 $\times$ 3 factorial arrangement(three levels of spaces $\times$ three different numbers of pigs) and investigated the effects of main factors and the relationship between each factors. The result of this study were summarized as follows; 1. The 0.44$m^2$ of floor space per pig improved(p<0.01) the weight gain and the feed/gain during the growing phase. 2. The 15 pigs per pen showed the faster gain and improved feed/gain than the 12 or 18 pigs per pen during the growing phase(p<0.05). 3. The reduction of floor space of growing pigs caused the reduction of resting, non-aggressive social behaviour but eating, aggressive behaviour was increased(p<0.01). 4. Group size affected the behavioural patterns significantly(p<0.01) of growing pigs. The aggressive and eating behaviour increased but resting behaviour decreased by crowding in the growing pigs. 5. Therefore we concluded that growing pigs need 0.44$m^2$ per pig and 15 pigs per pen for the better raising condition.

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The Effect of Stocking Density on the Behaviour of Broiler Chickens

  • Thomas, David G.;Son, Jang-Ho;Ravindran, Velmurugu;Thomas, Donald V.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2011
  • A 35-day trial was conducted to examine the influence of floor density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. Day-old male broilers (n=756) were randomly assigned to one of four stocking densities (6 replicates of n=13, 25, 38 and 50) in 24 identical 2.6 $m^2$ pens. These stocking densities were coded very low (VL), low (L), medium (M) and high (H) and contained a floor space allowance per bird of 2,000 $cm^2$, 1,000 $cm^2$, 667 $cm^2$ and 500 $cm^2$, respectively. Scan sampling of all groups was carried out at 15-min intervals during two 1-h periods (10.00 h~11.00 h and 14.00 h~15.00 h) for five days each week. The numbers of birds engaged in different behavioural activities were recorded. It was found that the most common behaviour in all densities was lying. There was no clear effect of density during wks 1~4 of the trial, but in wk 5 birds in the L, M and H groups showed lower levels (P=0.07) of lying behaviour when compared to birds in the VL group suggesting that an increase in animal density results in decreased opportunities for undisturbed rest. This observation is supported by standing and walking behaviour, which was lower (P<0.05) in the VL group in wk 5. Foraging behaviour measured in the study by the numbers of birds pecking the ground declined as the trial progressed, but scratching increased in 2 wk then decreased. Birds in the VL group showed higher (P<0.05) level of pecking the ground behaviour compared to birds in the L, M and H groups, but scratching behaviour higher (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) in VL of 1 wk and 2 wk respectively. However, a peak in aggressive behaviour was observed in wk 2 and birds in the VL group showed less (P<0.05) agonistic behaviour than birds in the H and M groups. Other behaviours (dustbathing, preening, eating or drinking) were not influenced (P>0.05) by stocking density.